Octoberpest 06 mineral nutrient defeciencies

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  • 11% sand = 172 L; WUE = 731 ml ml g -1 0.85 to 4.75 mm = 152 L (20 L, 12%) 0.25 to 0.85 mm = 141 L (31 L, 18%); WUE = 599 ml g -1 (132 ml WUE of 599 vs 731 ml g (18%)
  • Octoberpest 06 mineral nutrient defeciencies

    1. 1. Mineral Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities Jim Owen, Jr. North Willamette Research and Extension Center
    2. 2. Key to Nutrient Deficiencies <ul><li>Base of plant – mobile (N, P, K, Mg) </li></ul><ul><li>Whole (mid) plant – partially mobile (S, Mo) </li></ul><ul><li>Top of plant – immobile (Ca, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chlorosis (Mn, Fe) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interveinal chlorosis with tan flecks (Mn) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interveinal chlorosis – yellow - necrosis (Fe) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Necrosis & distortion (Ca, B) </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Mobile Nutrient – at base -N
    4. 4. Immobile Nutrient – at top
    5. 5. Partially Mobile – entire plant
    6. 6. Mobile (at base) – N, P, K, Mg <ul><li>Chlorosis is main early symptom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uniform chlorosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>N or P </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interveinal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chlorosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mg </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid necrosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>K </li></ul></ul></ul>Maple
    7. 7. <ul><li>Uniform chlorosis then necrosis on older leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Stunting </li></ul><ul><li>Early flowering </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf abscission </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorosis then necrosis – old leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Severe stunting </li></ul><ul><li>Deep green foliage </li></ul><ul><li>Possible purpling </li></ul><ul><li>Roots longer & fewer </li></ul>Nitrogen vs. Phosphorus N P Uniform Chlorosis – lower leaves
    8. 8. N Deficiency Symptoms <ul><li>Uniform chlorosis of older leaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Necrosis of older leaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Abscission of older leaves if possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Red pigment - old leaves - some species </li></ul><ul><li>Earlier flowering with marginal N deficiency (later flowering if severe). </li></ul>
    9. 9. Nitrogen deficiency uniform chlorosis of lower leaves -N Azalea
    10. 10. Nitrogen deficiency stunting 0 5 10 20 40 60 grams of N applied in poly-coated urea Maple
    11. 11. Uniform Chlorosis Followed by Necrosis Nitrogen Deficiency Tobacco here #2
    12. 12. N Deficiency Early Flowering, Severe Stunting
    13. 13. Nitrogen Deficiency Red Pigmentation on Older Leaves Blueberry Marigold
    14. 14. Phosphorus Deficiency <ul><ul><li>Deeper green foliage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy stunting (compact form). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purple (or red) pigmentation in several species. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer & longer roots, more root mass at first, less when deficiency intense. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower leaf chlorosis  necrosis </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. P Deficiency: deep green Chamaecyparis Impatiens
    16. 16. Phosphate vs.Compactness P 2 O 5 as a % of N in post-plant fertilizer P 2 O 5 = 50% of N 15% 7.5% 0% (e.g. 20-10-20) (13-2-13)
    17. 17. Phosphate vs.Compactness -P +P Thuja
    18. 18. Phosphorus Deficiency longer but fewer roots
    19. 19. lower leaf chlorosis Phosphorus Deficiency
    20. 20. lower leaf necrosis Phosphorus Deficiency
    21. 21. Nitrogen Toxicity <ul><li>Wilting </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf desiccation </li></ul><ul><li>Root tip burn </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced uptake of K, Ca, Mg </li></ul>
    22. 22. Ammonium Toxicity <ul><li>Leaf desiccation </li></ul><ul><li>Bud necrosis </li></ul><ul><li>Root burn </li></ul><ul><li>Plant death </li></ul>
    23. 23. Ammonium Toxicity Increasing Urea Rate (0 to 60 g)
    24. 24. Older plant – pot mum Ammonium Toxicity lower leaf chlorosis & necrosis root tip death
    25. 25. Magnesium - Mobile (symptoms originate at the base) <ul><li>Interveinal chlorosis on older leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Necrosis of older leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Possible red on older leaves </li></ul>
    26. 26. Magnesium - Mobile chlorosis (Maple) (Viburnum) (Chamaecyparis )
    27. 27. Mg Deficiency Interveinal Chlorosis Older Leaves Dogwood Chrysanthemum
    28. 28. Necrosis grape leaves Magnesium - Mobile
    29. 29. Red Older Foliage Blueberry Magnesium - Mobile
    30. 30. Potassium – Mobile (symptom originates on old leaves) <ul><li>Chlorosis might occur briefly at tip and margin of old leaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid necrosis of margins or spotting across old leaf blades. </li></ul><ul><li>Seedlings are often compact and deeper green prior to above symptoms. </li></ul>
    31. 31. Potassium – Mobile Necrosis (Ginko) (Viburnum) (Maple)
    32. 32. Necrotic Spotting poinsettia pepper K Deficiency
    33. 33. Sulfur - Partially Mobile (symptoms originate throughout entire plant) <ul><li>Uniform chlorosis on entire plant </li></ul>
    34. 34. Sulfur - Partially Mobile (symptoms originate throughout entire plant) <ul><li>Necrosis </li></ul>
    35. 35. Chlorosis and Necrosis of Young Leaves Chlorosis of Stem and Leaves, Flowers Faded and Necrotic nemesia Sulfur - Partially Mobile (symptoms originate throughout entire plant)
    36. 36. <ul><li>Chlorosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fe or Mn </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Necrosis and Distortion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ca or B </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Young and Recently Mature Leaves Affected </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cu or Zn </li></ul></ul>Immobile Nutrient – at top
    37. 37. Immobile Nutrient – at top Chlorosis Interveinal, uniform, or marginal on young leaves Mn Fe <ul><li>Chlorosis </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorosis clears to yellow to white </li></ul><ul><li>Necrosis </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorosis </li></ul><ul><li>Tan Flecking </li></ul>
    38. 38. Immobile Nutrient – Fe vs Mn (Rose)
    39. 39. Immobile Nutrient – Fe vs Mn Maple
    40. 40. Immobile Nutrient – Fe vs Mn tan flecking tobacco
    41. 41. Immobile Nutrient – Ca vs B Necrosis and Distortion Ca B <ul><li>Distortion, necrosis, chlorosis </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete flower formation </li></ul><ul><li>Roots short, densely branched, & thick </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distortion, necrosis,(chlorosis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incomplete flower formation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roots short, densely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>branched, & thick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--------- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short internodes – rosetting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thick leaves, corking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abortion, branching </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Immobile Nutrient – Calcium Viburnum Azalea Ca caused chlorosis
    43. 43. Immobile Nutrient – Calcium Ca caused meristem distortion and necrosis
    44. 44. Immobile Nutrient – Boron B caused meristem distortion
    45. 45. Immobile Nutrient – Boron B induced Crinkling of young leaves due to patches of cells not developing in the leaf blade.
    46. 46. Immobile Nutrient – Boron Roots shorter, fewer, thicker, and highly branched.
    47. 47. Nickel – Mouse ear Birch
    48. 48. Immobile Nutrient – Cu vs Zn Young and Recently Mature Leaves Affected Cu <ul><li>Leaves roll and curl </li></ul><ul><li>Variable chlorosis </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid necrosis of young fully expanded leaves </li></ul><ul><li> -------- </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller lighter colored flowers or none </li></ul>Zn <ul><li>Leaves may roll </li></ul><ul><li>Variable chlorosis </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid necrosis of young fully expanded leaves </li></ul><ul><li> -------- </li></ul><ul><li>Small leaves & short internodes </li></ul>
    49. 49. Immobile Nutrient – Copper Sudden death of young leaves. Azalea
    50. 50. Immobile Nutrient – Zinc Interveinal necrosis Beet
    51. 51. Immobile Nutrient – Zinc Beet Young Leaf Chlorosis Recently Mature Leaf Necrosis
    52. 52. Additional Toxicities
    53. 53. Salt / Sodium Toxicity necrosis Grape
    54. 54. Salt / Chloride Toxicity defoliation Grape
    55. 55. Fluoride Toxicity necrosis Grape
    56. 56. Thanks… <ul><li>Theo Aendekerk </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Nelson </li></ul><ul><li>Jim Green </li></ul><ul><li>Harrell’s Fertilizer, Inc. </li></ul>
    57. 57. North Willamette Research and Extension Center http://oregonstate.edu/dept/NWREC/

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