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Mineral Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities Jim Owen, Jr. North Willamette  Research and Extension Center
Key to Nutrient Deficiencies <ul><li>Base of plant  – mobile   (N, P, K, Mg) </li></ul><ul><li>Whole (mid) plant  – partia...
Mobile Nutrient – at base -N
Immobile Nutrient – at top
Partially Mobile – entire plant
Mobile (at base) – N, P, K, Mg <ul><li>Chlorosis is main early symptom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uniform chlorosis  </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Uniform chlorosis then necrosis on older leaves  </li></ul><ul><li>Stunting </li></ul><ul><li>Early flowering </li...
N Deficiency Symptoms <ul><li>Uniform chlorosis of older leaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Necrosis of older leaves. </li></ul><ul...
Nitrogen deficiency  uniform chlorosis of lower leaves -N Azalea
Nitrogen deficiency  stunting 0 5 10 20 40 60 grams of N applied in poly-coated urea Maple
Uniform Chlorosis Followed by Necrosis Nitrogen Deficiency Tobacco here #2
N Deficiency Early Flowering, Severe Stunting
Nitrogen Deficiency Red Pigmentation on  Older Leaves Blueberry Marigold
Phosphorus Deficiency <ul><ul><li>Deeper green foliage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy stunting (compact form). </li></u...
P Deficiency: deep green Chamaecyparis Impatiens
Phosphate vs.Compactness P 2 O 5  as a % of N in post-plant fertilizer P 2 O 5  = 50% of N 15% 7.5% 0% (e.g. 20-10-20) (13...
Phosphate vs.Compactness -P +P Thuja
Phosphorus Deficiency longer but fewer roots
lower leaf chlorosis Phosphorus Deficiency
lower leaf necrosis Phosphorus Deficiency
Nitrogen Toxicity <ul><li>Wilting </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf desiccation  </li></ul><ul><li>Root tip burn </li></ul><ul><li>Re...
Ammonium Toxicity <ul><li>Leaf desiccation </li></ul><ul><li>Bud necrosis </li></ul><ul><li>Root burn </li></ul><ul><li>Pl...
Ammonium Toxicity Increasing Urea Rate (0 to 60 g)
Older plant – pot mum Ammonium Toxicity lower leaf chlorosis & necrosis root tip death
Magnesium - Mobile   (symptoms originate at the base) <ul><li>Interveinal chlorosis on older leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Necr...
Magnesium - Mobile   chlorosis (Maple) (Viburnum) (Chamaecyparis   )
Mg Deficiency Interveinal Chlorosis  Older Leaves Dogwood Chrysanthemum
Necrosis grape leaves Magnesium - Mobile
Red Older Foliage Blueberry Magnesium - Mobile
Potassium – Mobile   (symptom originates on old leaves)   <ul><li>Chlorosis might occur briefly at tip and margin of old l...
Potassium – Mobile   Necrosis (Ginko) (Viburnum) (Maple)
Necrotic Spotting poinsettia pepper K Deficiency
Sulfur - Partially Mobile   (symptoms originate throughout entire plant) <ul><li>Uniform chlorosis on entire plant  </li><...
Sulfur - Partially Mobile   (symptoms originate throughout entire plant) <ul><li>Necrosis </li></ul>
Chlorosis and Necrosis of Young Leaves Chlorosis of Stem and Leaves,  Flowers Faded and Necrotic nemesia Sulfur - Partiall...
<ul><li>Chlorosis   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fe or Mn </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Necrosis and Distortion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ca...
Immobile Nutrient – at top Chlorosis   Interveinal, uniform, or marginal on young leaves Mn Fe <ul><li>Chlorosis </li></ul...
Immobile Nutrient – Fe vs Mn (Rose)
Immobile Nutrient – Fe vs Mn Maple
Immobile Nutrient – Fe vs Mn tan flecking tobacco
Immobile Nutrient – Ca vs B Necrosis and Distortion Ca B <ul><li>Distortion, necrosis, chlorosis </li></ul><ul><li>Incompl...
Immobile Nutrient – Calcium Viburnum Azalea Ca caused chlorosis
Immobile Nutrient – Calcium Ca caused meristem distortion and necrosis
Immobile Nutrient – Boron B caused meristem distortion
Immobile Nutrient – Boron B induced Crinkling of young leaves due to patches of cells not developing in the leaf blade.
Immobile Nutrient – Boron Roots shorter, fewer, thicker, and highly branched.
Nickel – Mouse ear Birch
Immobile Nutrient – Cu vs Zn Young and Recently Mature Leaves Affected   Cu <ul><li>Leaves roll and curl </li></ul><ul><li...
Immobile Nutrient – Copper Sudden death of young leaves. Azalea
Immobile Nutrient – Zinc Interveinal necrosis Beet
Immobile Nutrient – Zinc Beet Young Leaf Chlorosis Recently Mature Leaf Necrosis
Additional Toxicities
Salt / Sodium Toxicity necrosis Grape
Salt / Chloride Toxicity defoliation Grape
Fluoride Toxicity necrosis Grape
Thanks… <ul><li>Theo Aendekerk  </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Nelson </li></ul><ul><li>Jim Green </li></ul><ul><li>Harrell’s Fert...
North Willamette  Research and Extension Center http://oregonstate.edu/dept/NWREC/
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Octoberpest 06 mineral nutrient defeciencies

  1. 1. Mineral Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities Jim Owen, Jr. North Willamette Research and Extension Center
  2. 2. Key to Nutrient Deficiencies <ul><li>Base of plant – mobile (N, P, K, Mg) </li></ul><ul><li>Whole (mid) plant – partially mobile (S, Mo) </li></ul><ul><li>Top of plant – immobile (Ca, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chlorosis (Mn, Fe) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interveinal chlorosis with tan flecks (Mn) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interveinal chlorosis – yellow - necrosis (Fe) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Necrosis & distortion (Ca, B) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Mobile Nutrient – at base -N
  4. 4. Immobile Nutrient – at top
  5. 5. Partially Mobile – entire plant
  6. 6. Mobile (at base) – N, P, K, Mg <ul><li>Chlorosis is main early symptom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uniform chlorosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>N or P </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interveinal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chlorosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mg </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid necrosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>K </li></ul></ul></ul>Maple
  7. 7. <ul><li>Uniform chlorosis then necrosis on older leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Stunting </li></ul><ul><li>Early flowering </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf abscission </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorosis then necrosis – old leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Severe stunting </li></ul><ul><li>Deep green foliage </li></ul><ul><li>Possible purpling </li></ul><ul><li>Roots longer & fewer </li></ul>Nitrogen vs. Phosphorus N P Uniform Chlorosis – lower leaves
  8. 8. N Deficiency Symptoms <ul><li>Uniform chlorosis of older leaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Necrosis of older leaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Abscission of older leaves if possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Red pigment - old leaves - some species </li></ul><ul><li>Earlier flowering with marginal N deficiency (later flowering if severe). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Nitrogen deficiency uniform chlorosis of lower leaves -N Azalea
  10. 10. Nitrogen deficiency stunting 0 5 10 20 40 60 grams of N applied in poly-coated urea Maple
  11. 11. Uniform Chlorosis Followed by Necrosis Nitrogen Deficiency Tobacco here #2
  12. 12. N Deficiency Early Flowering, Severe Stunting
  13. 13. Nitrogen Deficiency Red Pigmentation on Older Leaves Blueberry Marigold
  14. 14. Phosphorus Deficiency <ul><ul><li>Deeper green foliage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy stunting (compact form). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purple (or red) pigmentation in several species. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer & longer roots, more root mass at first, less when deficiency intense. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower leaf chlorosis  necrosis </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. P Deficiency: deep green Chamaecyparis Impatiens
  16. 16. Phosphate vs.Compactness P 2 O 5 as a % of N in post-plant fertilizer P 2 O 5 = 50% of N 15% 7.5% 0% (e.g. 20-10-20) (13-2-13)
  17. 17. Phosphate vs.Compactness -P +P Thuja
  18. 18. Phosphorus Deficiency longer but fewer roots
  19. 19. lower leaf chlorosis Phosphorus Deficiency
  20. 20. lower leaf necrosis Phosphorus Deficiency
  21. 21. Nitrogen Toxicity <ul><li>Wilting </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf desiccation </li></ul><ul><li>Root tip burn </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced uptake of K, Ca, Mg </li></ul>
  22. 22. Ammonium Toxicity <ul><li>Leaf desiccation </li></ul><ul><li>Bud necrosis </li></ul><ul><li>Root burn </li></ul><ul><li>Plant death </li></ul>
  23. 23. Ammonium Toxicity Increasing Urea Rate (0 to 60 g)
  24. 24. Older plant – pot mum Ammonium Toxicity lower leaf chlorosis & necrosis root tip death
  25. 25. Magnesium - Mobile (symptoms originate at the base) <ul><li>Interveinal chlorosis on older leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Necrosis of older leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Possible red on older leaves </li></ul>
  26. 26. Magnesium - Mobile chlorosis (Maple) (Viburnum) (Chamaecyparis )
  27. 27. Mg Deficiency Interveinal Chlorosis Older Leaves Dogwood Chrysanthemum
  28. 28. Necrosis grape leaves Magnesium - Mobile
  29. 29. Red Older Foliage Blueberry Magnesium - Mobile
  30. 30. Potassium – Mobile (symptom originates on old leaves) <ul><li>Chlorosis might occur briefly at tip and margin of old leaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid necrosis of margins or spotting across old leaf blades. </li></ul><ul><li>Seedlings are often compact and deeper green prior to above symptoms. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Potassium – Mobile Necrosis (Ginko) (Viburnum) (Maple)
  32. 32. Necrotic Spotting poinsettia pepper K Deficiency
  33. 33. Sulfur - Partially Mobile (symptoms originate throughout entire plant) <ul><li>Uniform chlorosis on entire plant </li></ul>
  34. 34. Sulfur - Partially Mobile (symptoms originate throughout entire plant) <ul><li>Necrosis </li></ul>
  35. 35. Chlorosis and Necrosis of Young Leaves Chlorosis of Stem and Leaves, Flowers Faded and Necrotic nemesia Sulfur - Partially Mobile (symptoms originate throughout entire plant)
  36. 36. <ul><li>Chlorosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fe or Mn </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Necrosis and Distortion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ca or B </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Young and Recently Mature Leaves Affected </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cu or Zn </li></ul></ul>Immobile Nutrient – at top
  37. 37. Immobile Nutrient – at top Chlorosis Interveinal, uniform, or marginal on young leaves Mn Fe <ul><li>Chlorosis </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorosis clears to yellow to white </li></ul><ul><li>Necrosis </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorosis </li></ul><ul><li>Tan Flecking </li></ul>
  38. 38. Immobile Nutrient – Fe vs Mn (Rose)
  39. 39. Immobile Nutrient – Fe vs Mn Maple
  40. 40. Immobile Nutrient – Fe vs Mn tan flecking tobacco
  41. 41. Immobile Nutrient – Ca vs B Necrosis and Distortion Ca B <ul><li>Distortion, necrosis, chlorosis </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete flower formation </li></ul><ul><li>Roots short, densely branched, & thick </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distortion, necrosis,(chlorosis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incomplete flower formation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roots short, densely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>branched, & thick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--------- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short internodes – rosetting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thick leaves, corking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abortion, branching </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Immobile Nutrient – Calcium Viburnum Azalea Ca caused chlorosis
  43. 43. Immobile Nutrient – Calcium Ca caused meristem distortion and necrosis
  44. 44. Immobile Nutrient – Boron B caused meristem distortion
  45. 45. Immobile Nutrient – Boron B induced Crinkling of young leaves due to patches of cells not developing in the leaf blade.
  46. 46. Immobile Nutrient – Boron Roots shorter, fewer, thicker, and highly branched.
  47. 47. Nickel – Mouse ear Birch
  48. 48. Immobile Nutrient – Cu vs Zn Young and Recently Mature Leaves Affected Cu <ul><li>Leaves roll and curl </li></ul><ul><li>Variable chlorosis </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid necrosis of young fully expanded leaves </li></ul><ul><li> -------- </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller lighter colored flowers or none </li></ul>Zn <ul><li>Leaves may roll </li></ul><ul><li>Variable chlorosis </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid necrosis of young fully expanded leaves </li></ul><ul><li> -------- </li></ul><ul><li>Small leaves & short internodes </li></ul>
  49. 49. Immobile Nutrient – Copper Sudden death of young leaves. Azalea
  50. 50. Immobile Nutrient – Zinc Interveinal necrosis Beet
  51. 51. Immobile Nutrient – Zinc Beet Young Leaf Chlorosis Recently Mature Leaf Necrosis
  52. 52. Additional Toxicities
  53. 53. Salt / Sodium Toxicity necrosis Grape
  54. 54. Salt / Chloride Toxicity defoliation Grape
  55. 55. Fluoride Toxicity necrosis Grape
  56. 56. Thanks… <ul><li>Theo Aendekerk </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Nelson </li></ul><ul><li>Jim Green </li></ul><ul><li>Harrell’s Fertilizer, Inc. </li></ul>
  57. 57. North Willamette Research and Extension Center http://oregonstate.edu/dept/NWREC/
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