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Circulatory
assessment
Heart rate
Age Awake rate Mean Sleeping rate
Newborn to
3 months
85 to 205 140 80-160
3 months to
2 years
100-190 130 75-160
2 years to
10 years
60-140 80 60-90
> 10 years 60-100 75 50-90
Central pulses Peripheral pulses
 Femoral
 Brachial ( in
infant)
 Apical ( newborn)
 Carotid ( in older
children)
 Axillary
 Radial
 Dorsalis pedis
 Posterior tibial
Capillary refill time
Normal Prolonged
 <= 2 seconds > 2 seconds
 Causes:
 Low CO
 Dehydration
 shock
 Hypothermia.
Skin colour
Pallor:
Mottling
Cyanosi
s
 Decreased blood supply to skin .
1. Cold stress, shock, anemia, decreased
pigmentation)
Patchy discoloration of skin
Normal /hypovolemia, hypoxia, shock.
Acrocyanosis ( hands and feet) , common in
newborn
Central cyanosis ( low o2 in environment,
pneumonia, asthma, CHD. Hypoventilation.
Pe peripheral cyanosis: hands and feet beyond
newborn period. ( CHF, shock, peripheral
vascular disease.)
Pallor Mottled skin
cyanosis
AGE HEART
RATE(beats/min)
RESPIRATORY
RATE
(Breaths/min)
BLOOD
PRESSURE
(mm of Hg)
Newborn 120 - 160 30 - 60
Infant 80 - 150 25 - 55
Toddler 70 - 120 20 -30
Pre-School 65 -110 20-25
School 60 - 100 14-22
Adolecent 55 - 95 12-18
Systolic
bp
Diastoli
c bp
60-80 25-40
72-104 37-56
86-106 42-63
89-112 46-72
97-115 57-76
110-
131
64-83
Blood pressure
Urine output

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