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Leonhard Dobusch
University of Innsbruck
RRC Workshop Linz
Institute of Strategic Management
Johannes Kepler University Linz (JKU)
September 28-30, 2022
OPENNESS AS AN ORGANIZING PRINCIPLE
Open Organizing Routines
Openness as an Organizing Principle
second coming of openness within the
supposedly already-open society
“
Tkacz, N. (2012, p. 400)
1997
2001
2002
2003
How smart companies are
opening up strategic initiatives
to involve front-line employees,
experts, suppliers, customers,
entrepreneurs, and even
competitors.
“
Quelle: David Lerner, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Internet_troll.jpg, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
Increasing Openness as a PROGRAM
Tensions such as
“compromising speed” or
“burdening wider audiences
with the pressures of
strategy” (Hautz et al., 2017) as
limitations or hurdles for
achieving greater openness
II
IOpenness as the opposite
of closure, representing two
endpoints of a continuum
from closed to open:
Inviting more actors, sharing
more information >> open++
open++ as a normative ideal
Open Organizing Routines
ROUTINES
(re)produce patterns of action and social
structures", including "patterns of social equality
and inequality"
“
(Feldman & Pentland, 2022)
>> openness imperatives demand changes to the way
organizations re-produce these patterns
OPENNESS AS THE "OTHER" WAY OF ORGANIZING
[S]trategy is traditionally exclusive. […] Opacity is
important to strategy […]. Open strategy challenges both
these orthodoxies[.]
“ (Whittington et al. 2011, p. 535)
Open strategy balances the tenets of traditional business
strategy with the promise of open innovation.
“ (Chesbrough and Appleyard
2007, p. 58)
>> 'openness' as an open (no pun intended) conceptual frame to
evaluate, adapt and/or complement established (clusters of) routines
as not “traditional“, “closed“, “exclusive“
NEGATIVE DEFINITION OF OPENNESS
…selective revealing
(Henkel et al. 2014)
…selective inclusion
…"openwashing"
(Heimstädt 2017)
Allows… Routines related to openness:
licensing, (re-)integrating …
soliciting, deliberating, …
auditing, window dressing, …
Normative Anchors for Organizing Openness:
Transparency and Inclusion
OPENNESS AS TRANSPARENCY
17
openness in terms of transparency, both in
the strategy formulation stage and, more
commonly, in the communication of strategies
once they are formulated.
“
(Whittington et al. 2011,
p. 532)
>> routines of informing, communicating and discussing strategically
relevant information
18
Inclusion refers to participation in an
organization’s ‘strategic conversation’[.]
“ (Whittington et al. 2011,
p. 536)
>> routines of collecting, deliberating, and condensing strategic ideas,
maybe even decision-making routines
OPENNESS AS INCLUSION
“Open forms of strategy-making with
more inside and outside
organizations and more of
different actors internally and externally.
Whittington et al. (2011, p. 531)
transparency
inclusion
Surveying Dialoguing Rating
Informing
transparency inclusion
inclusion inclusion
≠
How are openness and inclusion connected?
How connected are openness and inclusion?
CO
M
M
ERCIAL
BREAK
Dobusch, L. & Dobusch, L. (2019): The
Relation between Openness and Closure
in Open Strategy: Programmatic and
Constitutive Approaches to Openness. In
D. Seidl, G. von Krogh & R Whittington
(eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Open
Strategy. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 326-336
Routines of Openness Revisited
Exclusionary Openness
Why is open for "anyone" not open enough?
Quelle: David Lerner, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Internet_troll.jpg, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
If your group has nine helpful
and polite members, and one
rude, sexist, loud member,
most women are going to
continue to stay away because
of that one member
“
Valeria Aurora (2002),
http://tldp.org/HOWTO/
Encourage-Women-Linux-
HOWTO/
Quelle: David Lerner, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Internet_troll.jpg, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
Routines of excluding
exclusionary behavior
as a precondition for
openness?
How to resolve this dual character of
openess-related routines as
both inclusionary and exclusionary?
Quelle: David Lerner, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Internet_troll.jpg, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
Openness and Closure as CONSTITUTIVE
Analyzing the paradoxical
nature of openness (and
closure) by focusing on
legitimate closure routines.
e.g., classifying documents
(as a form of official secrecy
(Costas & Grey 2014)) to enhance
transparency
II
IOpenness and closure as
inextricably linked and
interacting with each other
>> we find examples of
closure in all empirical
studies of open strategy
As researchers:
How to investigate the dual character of
openess-related routines as
both inclusionary and exclusionary?
Working GROUPS
> First: 5’ think about example of your own empirical research
> Second: share and discuss examples
Leonhard Dobusch
University of Innsbruck
RRC Workshop Linz
Institute of Strategic Management
Johannes Kepler University Linz (JKU)
September 28-30, 2022
OPENNESS AS AN ORGANIZING PRINCIPLE
Routines of Open Scholarship
HOW OPEN DO YOU WANNA BE?
HOW DO YOU WANNA BE OPEN?
HOW OPEN DO YOU WANNA BE?
HOW DO YOU WANNA BE OPEN?
First Act: Blogging about a “Revelatory Case”
Second Act: Monitoring the Phenomenon
#OpenScience
Third Act: Developing Argument in Practitioner Outlet
Fourth Act: Refine Argument in Blog Posts
Fifth Act: Getting Access to Data via Blog-based Reputation
Sixth Act: Preprint of Research Paper
Seventh Act: Publication in Peer-Reviewed Journal
Seventh Act: Publication in Peer-Reviewed Journal
OPEN ACCESS
Eighth Act: Spreading-the-Word via Social Media
#OpenScience
Achter Akt: Verbreitung über Social Media
#OpenScience
Published: October 22, 2019
Downloads: 1.193
Published: October 22, 2019
Downloads: 327
Eighth Act: Spreading-the-Word via Social Media
Ninth Act: Summary in yet Another Blog Post
Ninth Act: Summary in yet Another Blog Post
Tenth Act: Correspondence Section in Nature
Journalism
Bubble
Continuous Exchange
Research
specific
General
public
Open / non proprietary
Closed / proprietary
BLOGS
HOW OPEN DO YOU WANNA BE?
Working GROUPS
> Where would you want to be more open and why?
> What is holding you back?
CONTACT
E-mail:
Leonhard.Dobusch@uibk.ac.at
Twitter / Mastodon:
@leonidobusch // @leonido@chaos.social
Websites:
bit.ly/LD-UIBK // www.dobusch.net
Research blogs:
governancexborders.com // osconjunction.net

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Openness as an Organizing Principle: Open Organizing Routines

  • 1. Leonhard Dobusch University of Innsbruck RRC Workshop Linz Institute of Strategic Management Johannes Kepler University Linz (JKU) September 28-30, 2022 OPENNESS AS AN ORGANIZING PRINCIPLE Open Organizing Routines
  • 2. Openness as an Organizing Principle
  • 3. second coming of openness within the supposedly already-open society “ Tkacz, N. (2012, p. 400)
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10. How smart companies are opening up strategic initiatives to involve front-line employees, experts, suppliers, customers, entrepreneurs, and even competitors. “
  • 11. Quelle: David Lerner, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Internet_troll.jpg, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Increasing Openness as a PROGRAM Tensions such as “compromising speed” or “burdening wider audiences with the pressures of strategy” (Hautz et al., 2017) as limitations or hurdles for achieving greater openness II IOpenness as the opposite of closure, representing two endpoints of a continuum from closed to open: Inviting more actors, sharing more information >> open++ open++ as a normative ideal
  • 13. ROUTINES (re)produce patterns of action and social structures", including "patterns of social equality and inequality" “ (Feldman & Pentland, 2022) >> openness imperatives demand changes to the way organizations re-produce these patterns
  • 14. OPENNESS AS THE "OTHER" WAY OF ORGANIZING [S]trategy is traditionally exclusive. […] Opacity is important to strategy […]. Open strategy challenges both these orthodoxies[.] “ (Whittington et al. 2011, p. 535) Open strategy balances the tenets of traditional business strategy with the promise of open innovation. “ (Chesbrough and Appleyard 2007, p. 58) >> 'openness' as an open (no pun intended) conceptual frame to evaluate, adapt and/or complement established (clusters of) routines
  • 15. as not “traditional“, “closed“, “exclusive“ NEGATIVE DEFINITION OF OPENNESS …selective revealing (Henkel et al. 2014) …selective inclusion …"openwashing" (Heimstädt 2017) Allows… Routines related to openness: licensing, (re-)integrating … soliciting, deliberating, … auditing, window dressing, …
  • 16. Normative Anchors for Organizing Openness: Transparency and Inclusion
  • 17. OPENNESS AS TRANSPARENCY 17 openness in terms of transparency, both in the strategy formulation stage and, more commonly, in the communication of strategies once they are formulated. “ (Whittington et al. 2011, p. 532) >> routines of informing, communicating and discussing strategically relevant information
  • 18. 18 Inclusion refers to participation in an organization’s ‘strategic conversation’[.] “ (Whittington et al. 2011, p. 536) >> routines of collecting, deliberating, and condensing strategic ideas, maybe even decision-making routines OPENNESS AS INCLUSION
  • 19. “Open forms of strategy-making with more inside and outside organizations and more of different actors internally and externally. Whittington et al. (2011, p. 531) transparency inclusion
  • 22. How are openness and inclusion connected?
  • 23. How connected are openness and inclusion?
  • 24. CO M M ERCIAL BREAK Dobusch, L. & Dobusch, L. (2019): The Relation between Openness and Closure in Open Strategy: Programmatic and Constitutive Approaches to Openness. In D. Seidl, G. von Krogh & R Whittington (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Open Strategy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 326-336
  • 25. Routines of Openness Revisited
  • 27. Why is open for "anyone" not open enough?
  • 28. Quelle: David Lerner, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Internet_troll.jpg, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ If your group has nine helpful and polite members, and one rude, sexist, loud member, most women are going to continue to stay away because of that one member “ Valeria Aurora (2002), http://tldp.org/HOWTO/ Encourage-Women-Linux- HOWTO/
  • 29. Quelle: David Lerner, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Internet_troll.jpg, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Routines of excluding exclusionary behavior as a precondition for openness?
  • 30. How to resolve this dual character of openess-related routines as both inclusionary and exclusionary?
  • 31. Quelle: David Lerner, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Internet_troll.jpg, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Openness and Closure as CONSTITUTIVE Analyzing the paradoxical nature of openness (and closure) by focusing on legitimate closure routines. e.g., classifying documents (as a form of official secrecy (Costas & Grey 2014)) to enhance transparency II IOpenness and closure as inextricably linked and interacting with each other >> we find examples of closure in all empirical studies of open strategy
  • 32. As researchers: How to investigate the dual character of openess-related routines as both inclusionary and exclusionary? Working GROUPS > First: 5’ think about example of your own empirical research > Second: share and discuss examples
  • 33. Leonhard Dobusch University of Innsbruck RRC Workshop Linz Institute of Strategic Management Johannes Kepler University Linz (JKU) September 28-30, 2022 OPENNESS AS AN ORGANIZING PRINCIPLE Routines of Open Scholarship
  • 34. HOW OPEN DO YOU WANNA BE? HOW DO YOU WANNA BE OPEN?
  • 35. HOW OPEN DO YOU WANNA BE? HOW DO YOU WANNA BE OPEN?
  • 36.
  • 37. First Act: Blogging about a “Revelatory Case”
  • 38. Second Act: Monitoring the Phenomenon #OpenScience
  • 39. Third Act: Developing Argument in Practitioner Outlet
  • 40. Fourth Act: Refine Argument in Blog Posts
  • 41. Fifth Act: Getting Access to Data via Blog-based Reputation
  • 42. Sixth Act: Preprint of Research Paper
  • 43. Seventh Act: Publication in Peer-Reviewed Journal
  • 44. Seventh Act: Publication in Peer-Reviewed Journal OPEN ACCESS
  • 45. Eighth Act: Spreading-the-Word via Social Media #OpenScience
  • 46. Achter Akt: Verbreitung über Social Media #OpenScience
  • 47. Published: October 22, 2019 Downloads: 1.193 Published: October 22, 2019 Downloads: 327 Eighth Act: Spreading-the-Word via Social Media
  • 48. Ninth Act: Summary in yet Another Blog Post
  • 49. Ninth Act: Summary in yet Another Blog Post
  • 50. Tenth Act: Correspondence Section in Nature
  • 52. Research specific General public Open / non proprietary Closed / proprietary BLOGS
  • 53. HOW OPEN DO YOU WANNA BE? Working GROUPS > Where would you want to be more open and why? > What is holding you back?
  • 54. CONTACT E-mail: Leonhard.Dobusch@uibk.ac.at Twitter / Mastodon: @leonidobusch // @leonido@chaos.social Websites: bit.ly/LD-UIBK // www.dobusch.net Research blogs: governancexborders.com // osconjunction.net