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ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES – V (ACOUSTICS)(RAR – 806)
MODULE-1 – BUILDING ACOUSTICS
(NOISE CONTROL)
AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 1
CONTENTS
▪ Noise and its types, Noise pollution.
▪ Sources of indoor noise, Indoor noise levels, Planning and
design against indoor noise.
▪ Sources of outdoor noise, Traffic noise levels, Planning
and design against outdoor (traffic & buildings in built-up
area) noise.
▪ Identification of various sources of noise and
recommendations to control them in various types of
buildings e.g. – Residential, Educational, Hospital, Office,
Hotels & Hostels, Industrial, Laboratories & Test houses,
Miscellaneous buildings etc.
AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 2
NOISE AND ITS TYPES
NOISE
The unwanted sound is called a noise. the hall or room
should be properly insulated from external and internal
noise. in general, there are three types of noises:
1. Air-borne noise, 2. Structure-borne noise, 3. Inside noise.
AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 3
AIR-BORNE NOISE
Extraneous noise which are coming from
outside through open windows, doors and
ventilators are known as air-borne noise.
the air-borne noise can be avoided by
following the remedies mentioned.
REMEDIES
1. The hall or room can be made air
conditioned.
2. By using doors and windows with
separate frames with proper sound
insulating material.
NOISE AND ITS TYPES
AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 4
STRUCTURE-BORNE NOISE
The noise which is conveyed through the structure of the
building is called structure-borne noise. The structural
vibration may occur due to street traffic, operation of heavy
machines, etc.
REMEDIES
1. This noise can be eliminate dby using double walls with
air space between them.
2. By using anti-vibration mounts this type of noise can be
reduced.
3. By covering the floor and wall with proper sound-
absorbing material this noise can be eliminated.
INSIDE NOISE
The Noise which are produced inside the hall or room is
called inside noise. the inside
noise may be produced due to Machinaries like air
conditioners, generators, fans,
typewriters, etc. Inside noise
Structure-Borne noise
NOISE AND ITS TYPES
REMEDIES
1. The sound producing Machineries can be placed over sound absorbing materials like
carpet, pads, wood, felt, etc.
2. By using curtains of sound absorbing materials.
3. By covering the floor, wall and ceiling with sound absorbing materials.
WHAT IS NOISE POLLUTION?
• Sound that is unwanted or disrupts one’s quality of life is called as noise. When there is
lot of noise in the environment, it is termed as noise pollution.
• Sound becomes undesirable when it disturbs the normal activities such as working,
sleeping, and during conversations.
AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 5
NOISE POLLUTION
AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 6
SOURCES OF NOISE POLLUTION
INDOOR NOISE
AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 7
SOURCES OF INDOOR NOISE?
• The banging of doors, noise of playing children, crying of infants, moving of furniture, loud
conversation of the inhabitants etc.
• Besides these are the entertainment equipment in the house, namely the radio, record-players
and television sets.
• Domestic gadgets like the mixer-grinders, pressure cookers, desert coolers, air- conditioners,
exhaust fans, vacuum cleaners, sewing and washing machines are all indoor sources of noise
pollution.
INDOOR NOISE
AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 8
Fig: Sources of noise in Buildings
AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 9
TRANSMISSION OF NOISE
The noise is transmitted in the following 3 ways.
1. Through the air.
2. By the vibration of Structural Members.
3. Through the Structural Members.
The 1st type of noise transmission, being common is important.
The 2nd type becomes prominent only when the enclosing walls, floors, ceilings etc.
are of thin construction.
The 3rd type is prevalent where mechanical vibrations are caused, particularly in
case of factories, work shops, public buildings, offices etc.
INDOOR NOISE
INDOOR NOISE LEVELS
AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 10
MAXIMUM ACCEPTABLE NOISE LEVELS
The maximum level of noise which will neither annoy the occupants nor damage
the acoustics of the building is termed as acceptable noise level inside the building.
Some maximum Acceptable noise levels:
S NO. TYPE OF BUILDING /STRUCTURE NOISE LEVEL (DB)
1 Studios for radio broadcasting 25-30
2 Auditoriums 35-40
3 Small offices, court room, libraries 40-45
4 Hospitals 40-45
5 Lecture Rooms 45-50
6 Residential Building 45-55
7 Large Offices 50-60
8 Factories 60-65
ACCEPTABLE INDOOR NOISE LEVELS FOR VARIOUS
BUILDINGS
AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 11
Acceptable noise levels are those which will neither cause uncomfortable conditions nor
damage the acoustics of the building Acceptable noise levels depend upon (a) nature
and type of noise (b) time of fluctuations of noise (c) background noise (d) type and use
of building
LOCATION NOISE LEVEL (Db)
AUDITORIA & CONCERT HALLS 20-25
RADIO &T.V STUDIOS 20-25
MUSIC ROOMS 25-30
HOSPITALS, CINEMA 35-40
APARTMENTS, HOTELS & HOMES 35-40
CONFERENCE ROOMS, SMALL OFFICES & LIBRARIES 35-40
COURT & CLASS ROOMS 40-45
LARGE PUBLIC OFFICES, BANKS, STORES 45-50
RESTURANTS 50-55
PLANNING AND DESIGN AGAINST INDOOR NOISE :
AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 12
Planning against indoor noise -
• The provision of furnishing material and lining
of walls and ceilings by means of air-filled
materials, helps to reduce the noise to a great
extent.
• The transmission of noise by vibrations can be
prevented by making the walls, floors, partitions
very rigid and massive or heavy.
• Structure-borne noise or sounds can be
prevented by introducing discontinuities in the
path of vibrating waves and by using sound
absorbing materials.
• The personal protective devices, such as
earplugs, head-phones etc can be used to reduce
the noise to the extent of 20 to 30 dB.
SOURCES OF OUTDOOR NOISE
AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 13
These noises have their source of origin outside the room or
building
Outdoor noise comes in many varieties:
• Industrial
• Loudspeaker
• Construction work
• Road Traffic
• Trains
• Air crafts
• Radios and microphones
• Machineries and equipment’s
• Outdoor mechanical equipment for air control in buildings, fans,
pumps and much more.
• Many larger municipalities have noise standards, requiring noise
levels not to exceed 65 dB(A) during daytime and not to exceed
55 dB(A) after 10 PM.
OUTDOOR NOISE
AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 14
TYPICAL NOISE LEVELS OF TRAFFIC
TYPE NOISE LEVEL (Db)
BOEING 707 (450M) 111
BOEING 737 (450M) 107
BOEING 747 (450M) 103
AIRBUS 4300 (450M) 101
CONCORDE (450M) 114
STEAM TRAIN (30M) 85
DIESEL (30M) 83
ELECTRIC (30M) 77
ELEVATED TRAIN 120
DIESEL TRUCK (15M) 80
PASSANGER CAR (6M) 70
HEAVY URBAN TRAFFIC 70
Levels of highway traffic
noise typically range from 70
to 80 dB(A) at a distance of
15 meters (50 feet) from the
highway.
AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 15
PLANNING AND DESIGN AGAINST OUTDOOR NOISE
Planning against noise -
1. Integral part of town and country planning regulations ranging from regional
proposal to detailed zoning, 3D layouts and road design within built up areas.
2. Noise generated by
• Traffic (rail, road and air traffic)
• Zones and buildings (industry, commercial, office and public buildings
• Public gathering and social activities
3. Residential areas to be set back from airports, state and national highways, main
railway lines
4. Two aspects of design creating buffer zones and green belts to keep buildings away
from busy highways etc. Secondly principle of shading and screening - interposing a
less vulnerable building to screen a more vulnerable building by providing a solid
barrier.
OUTDOOR NOISE
OUTDOOR NOISE
AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 16
PLANNING AND DESIGN AGAINST OUTDOOR NOISE
AIR TRAFFIC NOISE-
2 sources of aircraft noise - flyover noise and ground noise
Flyover noise- noise under flight paths
Ground noise- Noise emitted during ground operations
• New development should not be carried out in the airport vicinity due to the sound
levels which can cause serious health issues if exposed for prolonged time. In case
development in those areas become necessary - adequate sound insulation shall be
provided.
• Noise exposure in the vicinity of the airport combines many factors into a single
number evaluation. A commonly used criterion is Noise Exposure Forecast (NEF).
NEF develops noise contours in the vicinity of the airport - NEF 40 and above are not
acceptable while NEF 25 are acceptable.
• No residential development be allowed beyond NEF 35 level.
• Buildings in the vicinity of the airport to be adequately sealed to minimise and erase
the airport noise - which is possible for office buildings with central AC but will not
work for residential buildings.
AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 17
PLANNING AND DESIGN AGAINST OUTDOOR NOISE
RAIL TRAFFIC NOISE-
• Noise builds up during day and night along with vibration.
• Residential and public buildings to be avoided abutting the railway lines. Industrial
and Commercial buildings are favoured to abut the railway lines.
• Underground railway lines cause noise and vibrations which cause both air borne
and structure borne noise.
ROAD TRAFFIC NOISE-
• Avoid shortcut of heavy traffics through residential layouts.
• Trees with heavy foliage planted on both sides of carriageways helps to muffle the
traffic noise if it extends for a considerable distance.
• External noise to be limited to 60dBA for residential buildings with openable
windows.
• Honking strictly prohibited near sensitive buildings like Hospitals.
• Barriers to be provided to shield sites from noise.
OUTDOOR NOISE
COMMON INDOOR AND OUTDOOR NOISE LEVELS
AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 18
AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 19
RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS
Sources of noise nuisance- Outdoor noise & Indoor noise
Outdoor noise- The main sources of outdoor noise in residential areas are traffic (Aeroplane,
railways, roadways), children playing, hawkers, services deliveries, road repairs blaring loud-
speakers and various types of moving machinery in the neighbourhood and building
operations.
Indoor noise- As far as indoor noises are concerned, conversation of the occupants, footsteps,
banging of doors, shifting of the furniture, operation of the cistern and water closet, playing of
radio, television, music system, cooling and ventilation machinery, etc.
Recommendations
Site planning- sited away from noisy sources, no thoroughfare through the residential areas,
softscape around residential areas, minimising hardscape.
Internal planning- Non critical and ancillary functions towards the noisy sources and habitable
spaces in the quieter zones, Windows and doors located away from noisy sources, Layout plans
with suitable acoustical partitions or buffer spaces between private and semi public spaces.
Sound insulation- reduction of air borne noise, suppression of noise at the source, reduction
of air borne noise transmitted through structure, reduction of structure borne noise, reduction
of impact noise.
VARIOUS SOURCES OF NOISE AND RECOMMENDATIONS
TO CONTROL THEM IN VARIOUS TYPES OF BUILDINGS
AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 20
EDUCATIONAL BUILDINGS
Sources of noise nuisance - Outdoor noise & Indoor noise
Outdoor noise-The outdoor sources of noise produced on school premises, which cause
disturbance within the school, include the noise arising from playgrounds, playing fields and
open-air swimming pools. Though playgrounds are used mainly during break periods, they are
also used for games and physical education at times when teaching is in progress in the
adjoining class rooms.
Indoor noise- Indoor sources of noise are as follows:
a) Singing, instrumental and reproduced music which may take place in class rooms and in
dining and assembly halls particularly in primary schools. In secondary schools, specialized
music rooms are generally provided;
b) The movement of chairs, desks and tables at the end of one period may disturb a class
engaged in a lesson in a room below;
c) The shutting and openings of doors and windows which may occur at any time during
teaching periods;
d) Audio-visual presentations in class rooms;
e) Wood and metal workshops, machine shops (engineering laboratories), typing rooms etc,
which produce continuous or intermittent sound of considerable loudness;
VARIOUS SOURCES OF NOISE AND RECOMMENDATIONS
TO CONTROL THEM IN VARIOUS TYPES OF BUILDINGS
AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 21
f) Practical work carried out in general teaching areas;
g) Gymnasia and swimming pools;
h) School kitchens and dining spaces where food preparation and the handling of crockery
and utensils persist for the greater part of the school day;
j) Corridors and other circulation spaces; and
k) Plumbing and mechanical services.
Recommendations
• Site planning- sited away from noisy sources, planning for noisy activities in the school
premises to be sited away from spaces requiring quiet environment.
• Internal planning - Grouping, windows and ventilators, doors, acoustic sliding partitions,
open planning and circulation areas, furniture
• Noise reduction within rooms - suitable reverberation times are required based on the
functional requirement (shorter reverberation times are desirable whenever possible).
Attention to be specially given while designing for hearing impaired and visually impaired
persons to ensure adequate reverberation time.
• Sound insulation- reduction of air borne noise and impact noise (minimum sound
reduction between different rooms is 45dB)
VARIOUS SOURCES OF NOISE AND RECOMMENDATIONS
TO CONTROL THEM IN VARIOUS TYPES OF BUILDINGS
AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 22
HOSPITAL BUILDINGS
Problems of noise control vary from hospital to hospital but the principles outlined below
apply to all types. A quiet environment in hospitals is desirable for patients who are acutely ill.
Sources of noise nuisance - Outdoor noise & Indoor noise.
Outdoor noise- This may be classified into two main categories:
a) Noise from sources outside the hospital premises, for example, traffic and industrial noises;
b) Noise from sources outside the building but usually within the control of the hospital
authority, for example, ambulances, motor-cars and service vehicles, fuel and stores
deliveries, laundries, refuse collection, trucks and trolleys.
Indoor noise- A hospital is a complex building with many services and the numerous internal
sources of structure-borne and air-borne noises are grouped into three main categories:
a) Noise consequent upon hospital routines. This category includes sources which transmit
noise through both structure-borne and airborne paths, many of which may be quite near
to patients particularly those in wards.
VARIOUS SOURCES OF NOISE AND RECOMMENDATIONS
TO CONTROL THEM IN VARIOUS TYPES OF BUILDINGS
AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 23
b) Loudspeaker, radio or television, audible call system, telephone bells and buzzers, and
other air-borne noises, such as loud conversation.
c) Noises from fixed or mobile equipment and services not directly concerned with hospital
routines.
Recommendations
Site planning- sited away from noisy sources
Detailed planning - arranging of spaces based on functions and numerous other factors.
Reduction of noise at source - use of resilient materials, other measures
Reduction of noise by structural means - Insulation, Absorption
VARIOUS SOURCES OF NOISE AND RECOMMENDATIONS
TO CONTROL THEM IN VARIOUS TYPES OF BUILDINGS
AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 24
OFFICE BUILDINGS
Modern office buildings are often noisier than older buildings due to the use of thinner and
more rigid forms of construction, harder finishes, more austere furnishings and use of business
machines.
Sources of noise nuisance - Indoor noise from various machines and equipments,
conversations, footsteps etc.
Indoor noise- Main sources of indoor noise include the following:
a) Office machines, such as typewriters, and printers;
b) Telephonic conversation;
c) Noise from the public admitted to the building;
d) Footsteps, voices and slamming of doors in circulation spaces, lift doors and gates;
e) Sound reproduction in staff training rooms, conference rooms and recreation rooms, etc;
f) Handling of crockery and utensils in canteens and kitchens; and
g) HVAC and lift machinery.
VARIOUS SOURCES OF NOISE AND RECOMMENDATIONS
TO CONTROL THEM IN VARIOUS TYPES OF BUILDINGS
AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 25
Recommendations
• Site planning- Rooms demanding quiet conditions should be placed on the quiet side of the
site. Even on quiet thoroughfares, these rooms should also not be planned at street level.
• Detailed planning - noise reduction within rooms (reverberation time should not exceed
1sec @500 Hz), large general offices, lightweight construction, open plan offices, office
equipment rooms, banking halls, public offices and waiting spaces, canteen, circulation
space
• Requirement of sound insulation- With open window (single or double) the sound
reduction (Dw) will be 5-10dB, and with sealed double windows it will be 40-45dB.
Intermediate values are obtainable with closed openable windows (single or double) but
only, of course, at such times as ventilation may be dispensed with.
HOTEL AND HOSTEL BUILDINGS
Hotels and hostels are primarily used as dwelling units, and hotels also provide for public
entertainment. The most serious risk of course is disturbance to sleep, and adequate care,
therefore, need be taken to protect the occupants from being disturbed by outdoor and
indoor noise.
VARIOUS SOURCES OF NOISE AND RECOMMENDATIONS
TO CONTROL THEM IN VARIOUS TYPES OF BUILDINGS
AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 26
Sources of noise nuisance - Outdoor noise & Indoor noise
Outdoor noise- Hotels near railway stations, airports, highways and those situated in highly
urbanized areas are specially vulnerable to outdoor noise. The outdoor noise in many of the
areas is of a high level even late at night and in the early morning.
Indoor noise- In so far as indoor noise is concerned, the noise could be due to the occupants
themselves, which is transmitted from one room to the other. It could also be due to public
functions and late night use of restaurants located in the hotel as also due to miscellaneous
utility equipment installed for providing and maintaining the services in the hotel, such as, air
conditioning equipment, pumping equipment, power laundry and kitchen. Sometimes hotels
equipped with standby generators are a potential source of noise.
Recommendations
• Site planning - While it is desirable to locate the hotel, or hostel away from an area where
there is a high ambient noise level, many a time these have to be located in noisy areas for
public convenience.
• Internal planning - Where a hotel is located in a noisy environment, the provision of sealed
windows (single or double) and provision of an air conditioning system is desirable for
rooms exposed to noise.
VARIOUS SOURCES OF NOISE AND RECOMMENDATIONS
TO CONTROL THEM IN VARIOUS TYPES OF BUILDINGS
AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 27
INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS
Industrial buildings are primarily producers rather than receivers of noise. The level of
industrial noise commonly exceeds that from any other source with the exception of aircraft.
As compared with traffic noise, its effects are less widespread but it is often more annoying in
character.
Sources of noise nuisance - Indoor noise.
Indoor noise- Noises in industrial buildings are mainly of indoor origin. Noise in factories and
workshops is generally caused by machine tools and by operations involved in making and
handling the product and they are classified into the following groups, depending upon how
the noise energy is generated.
Recommendations
• Site planning –
• Internal planning -
VARIOUS SOURCES OF NOISE AND RECOMMENDATIONS
TO CONTROL THEM IN VARIOUS TYPES OF BUILDINGS
AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 28
LABORATORIES AND TEST HOUSES
Sources of noise nuisance - Outdoor noise & Indoor noise
Outdoor noise- In a test house or laboratory, where research workers and scientists are
engaged in performing sophisticated experiments, the external noise is mostly contributed by
noise emitting buildings (workshops, machine rooms), airports, railway stations and general
traffic noises. The outdoor sources of noise in a college laboratory include noises produced in a
playground as well.
Indoor noise- The following sources mainly contribute to indoor noises in research
institutions/college laboratories:
a) Workshops, machine rooms, cafeteria, etc.;
b) Air-conditioning and exhaust fans;
c) Noise produced within the test house or laboratory while performing experiments; and
d) Typing or other machine noises, telephone service, lift, sanitary services, etc.
Recommendations
Site planning- While planning for a laboratory or test house, care should be taken in the design
that no noise emitting installations should exist in its neighbourhood. However, where outdoor
noises exist, such as from local factory, heavy traffic airports, railway lines, sport grounds or
busy markets, buildings should be kept as far away as possible from the source of noise.
VARIOUS SOURCES OF NOISE AND RECOMMENDATIONS
TO CONTROL THEM IN VARIOUS TYPES OF BUILDINGS
AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 29
The window and door openings towards the noise sources should be minimum. Minimum
amount of glazing should be placed on walls directly facing the noise sources.
Internal planning- Noisy places should be kept separate from the quiet ones. The location of
laboratories or test houses should be so chosen that it is cut off from the noisy zones. Where
there are offices attached to a laboratory, provision should be made to treat the offices and to
use acoustical partitions, to achieve a sound isolation Dw of at least 35 dB.
Miscellaneous buildings
Law courts & Council Chambers
Libraries, Museums & Art Galleries
Auditoria & Theatres
Noise from building services
VARIOUS SOURCES OF NOISE AND RECOMMENDATIONS
TO CONTROL THEM IN VARIOUS TYPES OF BUILDINGS

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Module-1-(Building Acoustics) Noise Control (Unit-3). pdf

  • 1. ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES – V (ACOUSTICS)(RAR – 806) MODULE-1 – BUILDING ACOUSTICS (NOISE CONTROL) AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 1
  • 2. CONTENTS ▪ Noise and its types, Noise pollution. ▪ Sources of indoor noise, Indoor noise levels, Planning and design against indoor noise. ▪ Sources of outdoor noise, Traffic noise levels, Planning and design against outdoor (traffic & buildings in built-up area) noise. ▪ Identification of various sources of noise and recommendations to control them in various types of buildings e.g. – Residential, Educational, Hospital, Office, Hotels & Hostels, Industrial, Laboratories & Test houses, Miscellaneous buildings etc. AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 2
  • 3. NOISE AND ITS TYPES NOISE The unwanted sound is called a noise. the hall or room should be properly insulated from external and internal noise. in general, there are three types of noises: 1. Air-borne noise, 2. Structure-borne noise, 3. Inside noise. AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 3 AIR-BORNE NOISE Extraneous noise which are coming from outside through open windows, doors and ventilators are known as air-borne noise. the air-borne noise can be avoided by following the remedies mentioned. REMEDIES 1. The hall or room can be made air conditioned. 2. By using doors and windows with separate frames with proper sound insulating material.
  • 4. NOISE AND ITS TYPES AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 4 STRUCTURE-BORNE NOISE The noise which is conveyed through the structure of the building is called structure-borne noise. The structural vibration may occur due to street traffic, operation of heavy machines, etc. REMEDIES 1. This noise can be eliminate dby using double walls with air space between them. 2. By using anti-vibration mounts this type of noise can be reduced. 3. By covering the floor and wall with proper sound- absorbing material this noise can be eliminated. INSIDE NOISE The Noise which are produced inside the hall or room is called inside noise. the inside noise may be produced due to Machinaries like air conditioners, generators, fans, typewriters, etc. Inside noise Structure-Borne noise
  • 5. NOISE AND ITS TYPES REMEDIES 1. The sound producing Machineries can be placed over sound absorbing materials like carpet, pads, wood, felt, etc. 2. By using curtains of sound absorbing materials. 3. By covering the floor, wall and ceiling with sound absorbing materials. WHAT IS NOISE POLLUTION? • Sound that is unwanted or disrupts one’s quality of life is called as noise. When there is lot of noise in the environment, it is termed as noise pollution. • Sound becomes undesirable when it disturbs the normal activities such as working, sleeping, and during conversations. AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 5
  • 6. NOISE POLLUTION AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 6 SOURCES OF NOISE POLLUTION
  • 7. INDOOR NOISE AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 7 SOURCES OF INDOOR NOISE? • The banging of doors, noise of playing children, crying of infants, moving of furniture, loud conversation of the inhabitants etc. • Besides these are the entertainment equipment in the house, namely the radio, record-players and television sets. • Domestic gadgets like the mixer-grinders, pressure cookers, desert coolers, air- conditioners, exhaust fans, vacuum cleaners, sewing and washing machines are all indoor sources of noise pollution.
  • 8. INDOOR NOISE AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 8 Fig: Sources of noise in Buildings
  • 9. AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 9 TRANSMISSION OF NOISE The noise is transmitted in the following 3 ways. 1. Through the air. 2. By the vibration of Structural Members. 3. Through the Structural Members. The 1st type of noise transmission, being common is important. The 2nd type becomes prominent only when the enclosing walls, floors, ceilings etc. are of thin construction. The 3rd type is prevalent where mechanical vibrations are caused, particularly in case of factories, work shops, public buildings, offices etc. INDOOR NOISE
  • 10. INDOOR NOISE LEVELS AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 10 MAXIMUM ACCEPTABLE NOISE LEVELS The maximum level of noise which will neither annoy the occupants nor damage the acoustics of the building is termed as acceptable noise level inside the building. Some maximum Acceptable noise levels: S NO. TYPE OF BUILDING /STRUCTURE NOISE LEVEL (DB) 1 Studios for radio broadcasting 25-30 2 Auditoriums 35-40 3 Small offices, court room, libraries 40-45 4 Hospitals 40-45 5 Lecture Rooms 45-50 6 Residential Building 45-55 7 Large Offices 50-60 8 Factories 60-65
  • 11. ACCEPTABLE INDOOR NOISE LEVELS FOR VARIOUS BUILDINGS AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 11 Acceptable noise levels are those which will neither cause uncomfortable conditions nor damage the acoustics of the building Acceptable noise levels depend upon (a) nature and type of noise (b) time of fluctuations of noise (c) background noise (d) type and use of building LOCATION NOISE LEVEL (Db) AUDITORIA & CONCERT HALLS 20-25 RADIO &T.V STUDIOS 20-25 MUSIC ROOMS 25-30 HOSPITALS, CINEMA 35-40 APARTMENTS, HOTELS & HOMES 35-40 CONFERENCE ROOMS, SMALL OFFICES & LIBRARIES 35-40 COURT & CLASS ROOMS 40-45 LARGE PUBLIC OFFICES, BANKS, STORES 45-50 RESTURANTS 50-55
  • 12. PLANNING AND DESIGN AGAINST INDOOR NOISE : AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 12 Planning against indoor noise - • The provision of furnishing material and lining of walls and ceilings by means of air-filled materials, helps to reduce the noise to a great extent. • The transmission of noise by vibrations can be prevented by making the walls, floors, partitions very rigid and massive or heavy. • Structure-borne noise or sounds can be prevented by introducing discontinuities in the path of vibrating waves and by using sound absorbing materials. • The personal protective devices, such as earplugs, head-phones etc can be used to reduce the noise to the extent of 20 to 30 dB.
  • 13. SOURCES OF OUTDOOR NOISE AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 13 These noises have their source of origin outside the room or building Outdoor noise comes in many varieties: • Industrial • Loudspeaker • Construction work • Road Traffic • Trains • Air crafts • Radios and microphones • Machineries and equipment’s • Outdoor mechanical equipment for air control in buildings, fans, pumps and much more. • Many larger municipalities have noise standards, requiring noise levels not to exceed 65 dB(A) during daytime and not to exceed 55 dB(A) after 10 PM.
  • 14. OUTDOOR NOISE AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 14 TYPICAL NOISE LEVELS OF TRAFFIC TYPE NOISE LEVEL (Db) BOEING 707 (450M) 111 BOEING 737 (450M) 107 BOEING 747 (450M) 103 AIRBUS 4300 (450M) 101 CONCORDE (450M) 114 STEAM TRAIN (30M) 85 DIESEL (30M) 83 ELECTRIC (30M) 77 ELEVATED TRAIN 120 DIESEL TRUCK (15M) 80 PASSANGER CAR (6M) 70 HEAVY URBAN TRAFFIC 70 Levels of highway traffic noise typically range from 70 to 80 dB(A) at a distance of 15 meters (50 feet) from the highway.
  • 15. AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 15 PLANNING AND DESIGN AGAINST OUTDOOR NOISE Planning against noise - 1. Integral part of town and country planning regulations ranging from regional proposal to detailed zoning, 3D layouts and road design within built up areas. 2. Noise generated by • Traffic (rail, road and air traffic) • Zones and buildings (industry, commercial, office and public buildings • Public gathering and social activities 3. Residential areas to be set back from airports, state and national highways, main railway lines 4. Two aspects of design creating buffer zones and green belts to keep buildings away from busy highways etc. Secondly principle of shading and screening - interposing a less vulnerable building to screen a more vulnerable building by providing a solid barrier. OUTDOOR NOISE
  • 16. OUTDOOR NOISE AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 16 PLANNING AND DESIGN AGAINST OUTDOOR NOISE AIR TRAFFIC NOISE- 2 sources of aircraft noise - flyover noise and ground noise Flyover noise- noise under flight paths Ground noise- Noise emitted during ground operations • New development should not be carried out in the airport vicinity due to the sound levels which can cause serious health issues if exposed for prolonged time. In case development in those areas become necessary - adequate sound insulation shall be provided. • Noise exposure in the vicinity of the airport combines many factors into a single number evaluation. A commonly used criterion is Noise Exposure Forecast (NEF). NEF develops noise contours in the vicinity of the airport - NEF 40 and above are not acceptable while NEF 25 are acceptable. • No residential development be allowed beyond NEF 35 level. • Buildings in the vicinity of the airport to be adequately sealed to minimise and erase the airport noise - which is possible for office buildings with central AC but will not work for residential buildings.
  • 17. AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 17 PLANNING AND DESIGN AGAINST OUTDOOR NOISE RAIL TRAFFIC NOISE- • Noise builds up during day and night along with vibration. • Residential and public buildings to be avoided abutting the railway lines. Industrial and Commercial buildings are favoured to abut the railway lines. • Underground railway lines cause noise and vibrations which cause both air borne and structure borne noise. ROAD TRAFFIC NOISE- • Avoid shortcut of heavy traffics through residential layouts. • Trees with heavy foliage planted on both sides of carriageways helps to muffle the traffic noise if it extends for a considerable distance. • External noise to be limited to 60dBA for residential buildings with openable windows. • Honking strictly prohibited near sensitive buildings like Hospitals. • Barriers to be provided to shield sites from noise. OUTDOOR NOISE
  • 18. COMMON INDOOR AND OUTDOOR NOISE LEVELS AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 18
  • 19. AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 19 RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Sources of noise nuisance- Outdoor noise & Indoor noise Outdoor noise- The main sources of outdoor noise in residential areas are traffic (Aeroplane, railways, roadways), children playing, hawkers, services deliveries, road repairs blaring loud- speakers and various types of moving machinery in the neighbourhood and building operations. Indoor noise- As far as indoor noises are concerned, conversation of the occupants, footsteps, banging of doors, shifting of the furniture, operation of the cistern and water closet, playing of radio, television, music system, cooling and ventilation machinery, etc. Recommendations Site planning- sited away from noisy sources, no thoroughfare through the residential areas, softscape around residential areas, minimising hardscape. Internal planning- Non critical and ancillary functions towards the noisy sources and habitable spaces in the quieter zones, Windows and doors located away from noisy sources, Layout plans with suitable acoustical partitions or buffer spaces between private and semi public spaces. Sound insulation- reduction of air borne noise, suppression of noise at the source, reduction of air borne noise transmitted through structure, reduction of structure borne noise, reduction of impact noise. VARIOUS SOURCES OF NOISE AND RECOMMENDATIONS TO CONTROL THEM IN VARIOUS TYPES OF BUILDINGS
  • 20. AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 20 EDUCATIONAL BUILDINGS Sources of noise nuisance - Outdoor noise & Indoor noise Outdoor noise-The outdoor sources of noise produced on school premises, which cause disturbance within the school, include the noise arising from playgrounds, playing fields and open-air swimming pools. Though playgrounds are used mainly during break periods, they are also used for games and physical education at times when teaching is in progress in the adjoining class rooms. Indoor noise- Indoor sources of noise are as follows: a) Singing, instrumental and reproduced music which may take place in class rooms and in dining and assembly halls particularly in primary schools. In secondary schools, specialized music rooms are generally provided; b) The movement of chairs, desks and tables at the end of one period may disturb a class engaged in a lesson in a room below; c) The shutting and openings of doors and windows which may occur at any time during teaching periods; d) Audio-visual presentations in class rooms; e) Wood and metal workshops, machine shops (engineering laboratories), typing rooms etc, which produce continuous or intermittent sound of considerable loudness; VARIOUS SOURCES OF NOISE AND RECOMMENDATIONS TO CONTROL THEM IN VARIOUS TYPES OF BUILDINGS
  • 21. AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 21 f) Practical work carried out in general teaching areas; g) Gymnasia and swimming pools; h) School kitchens and dining spaces where food preparation and the handling of crockery and utensils persist for the greater part of the school day; j) Corridors and other circulation spaces; and k) Plumbing and mechanical services. Recommendations • Site planning- sited away from noisy sources, planning for noisy activities in the school premises to be sited away from spaces requiring quiet environment. • Internal planning - Grouping, windows and ventilators, doors, acoustic sliding partitions, open planning and circulation areas, furniture • Noise reduction within rooms - suitable reverberation times are required based on the functional requirement (shorter reverberation times are desirable whenever possible). Attention to be specially given while designing for hearing impaired and visually impaired persons to ensure adequate reverberation time. • Sound insulation- reduction of air borne noise and impact noise (minimum sound reduction between different rooms is 45dB) VARIOUS SOURCES OF NOISE AND RECOMMENDATIONS TO CONTROL THEM IN VARIOUS TYPES OF BUILDINGS
  • 22. AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 22 HOSPITAL BUILDINGS Problems of noise control vary from hospital to hospital but the principles outlined below apply to all types. A quiet environment in hospitals is desirable for patients who are acutely ill. Sources of noise nuisance - Outdoor noise & Indoor noise. Outdoor noise- This may be classified into two main categories: a) Noise from sources outside the hospital premises, for example, traffic and industrial noises; b) Noise from sources outside the building but usually within the control of the hospital authority, for example, ambulances, motor-cars and service vehicles, fuel and stores deliveries, laundries, refuse collection, trucks and trolleys. Indoor noise- A hospital is a complex building with many services and the numerous internal sources of structure-borne and air-borne noises are grouped into three main categories: a) Noise consequent upon hospital routines. This category includes sources which transmit noise through both structure-borne and airborne paths, many of which may be quite near to patients particularly those in wards. VARIOUS SOURCES OF NOISE AND RECOMMENDATIONS TO CONTROL THEM IN VARIOUS TYPES OF BUILDINGS
  • 23. AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 23 b) Loudspeaker, radio or television, audible call system, telephone bells and buzzers, and other air-borne noises, such as loud conversation. c) Noises from fixed or mobile equipment and services not directly concerned with hospital routines. Recommendations Site planning- sited away from noisy sources Detailed planning - arranging of spaces based on functions and numerous other factors. Reduction of noise at source - use of resilient materials, other measures Reduction of noise by structural means - Insulation, Absorption VARIOUS SOURCES OF NOISE AND RECOMMENDATIONS TO CONTROL THEM IN VARIOUS TYPES OF BUILDINGS
  • 24. AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 24 OFFICE BUILDINGS Modern office buildings are often noisier than older buildings due to the use of thinner and more rigid forms of construction, harder finishes, more austere furnishings and use of business machines. Sources of noise nuisance - Indoor noise from various machines and equipments, conversations, footsteps etc. Indoor noise- Main sources of indoor noise include the following: a) Office machines, such as typewriters, and printers; b) Telephonic conversation; c) Noise from the public admitted to the building; d) Footsteps, voices and slamming of doors in circulation spaces, lift doors and gates; e) Sound reproduction in staff training rooms, conference rooms and recreation rooms, etc; f) Handling of crockery and utensils in canteens and kitchens; and g) HVAC and lift machinery. VARIOUS SOURCES OF NOISE AND RECOMMENDATIONS TO CONTROL THEM IN VARIOUS TYPES OF BUILDINGS
  • 25. AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 25 Recommendations • Site planning- Rooms demanding quiet conditions should be placed on the quiet side of the site. Even on quiet thoroughfares, these rooms should also not be planned at street level. • Detailed planning - noise reduction within rooms (reverberation time should not exceed 1sec @500 Hz), large general offices, lightweight construction, open plan offices, office equipment rooms, banking halls, public offices and waiting spaces, canteen, circulation space • Requirement of sound insulation- With open window (single or double) the sound reduction (Dw) will be 5-10dB, and with sealed double windows it will be 40-45dB. Intermediate values are obtainable with closed openable windows (single or double) but only, of course, at such times as ventilation may be dispensed with. HOTEL AND HOSTEL BUILDINGS Hotels and hostels are primarily used as dwelling units, and hotels also provide for public entertainment. The most serious risk of course is disturbance to sleep, and adequate care, therefore, need be taken to protect the occupants from being disturbed by outdoor and indoor noise. VARIOUS SOURCES OF NOISE AND RECOMMENDATIONS TO CONTROL THEM IN VARIOUS TYPES OF BUILDINGS
  • 26. AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 26 Sources of noise nuisance - Outdoor noise & Indoor noise Outdoor noise- Hotels near railway stations, airports, highways and those situated in highly urbanized areas are specially vulnerable to outdoor noise. The outdoor noise in many of the areas is of a high level even late at night and in the early morning. Indoor noise- In so far as indoor noise is concerned, the noise could be due to the occupants themselves, which is transmitted from one room to the other. It could also be due to public functions and late night use of restaurants located in the hotel as also due to miscellaneous utility equipment installed for providing and maintaining the services in the hotel, such as, air conditioning equipment, pumping equipment, power laundry and kitchen. Sometimes hotels equipped with standby generators are a potential source of noise. Recommendations • Site planning - While it is desirable to locate the hotel, or hostel away from an area where there is a high ambient noise level, many a time these have to be located in noisy areas for public convenience. • Internal planning - Where a hotel is located in a noisy environment, the provision of sealed windows (single or double) and provision of an air conditioning system is desirable for rooms exposed to noise. VARIOUS SOURCES OF NOISE AND RECOMMENDATIONS TO CONTROL THEM IN VARIOUS TYPES OF BUILDINGS
  • 27. AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 27 INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS Industrial buildings are primarily producers rather than receivers of noise. The level of industrial noise commonly exceeds that from any other source with the exception of aircraft. As compared with traffic noise, its effects are less widespread but it is often more annoying in character. Sources of noise nuisance - Indoor noise. Indoor noise- Noises in industrial buildings are mainly of indoor origin. Noise in factories and workshops is generally caused by machine tools and by operations involved in making and handling the product and they are classified into the following groups, depending upon how the noise energy is generated. Recommendations • Site planning – • Internal planning - VARIOUS SOURCES OF NOISE AND RECOMMENDATIONS TO CONTROL THEM IN VARIOUS TYPES OF BUILDINGS
  • 28. AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 28 LABORATORIES AND TEST HOUSES Sources of noise nuisance - Outdoor noise & Indoor noise Outdoor noise- In a test house or laboratory, where research workers and scientists are engaged in performing sophisticated experiments, the external noise is mostly contributed by noise emitting buildings (workshops, machine rooms), airports, railway stations and general traffic noises. The outdoor sources of noise in a college laboratory include noises produced in a playground as well. Indoor noise- The following sources mainly contribute to indoor noises in research institutions/college laboratories: a) Workshops, machine rooms, cafeteria, etc.; b) Air-conditioning and exhaust fans; c) Noise produced within the test house or laboratory while performing experiments; and d) Typing or other machine noises, telephone service, lift, sanitary services, etc. Recommendations Site planning- While planning for a laboratory or test house, care should be taken in the design that no noise emitting installations should exist in its neighbourhood. However, where outdoor noises exist, such as from local factory, heavy traffic airports, railway lines, sport grounds or busy markets, buildings should be kept as far away as possible from the source of noise. VARIOUS SOURCES OF NOISE AND RECOMMENDATIONS TO CONTROL THEM IN VARIOUS TYPES OF BUILDINGS
  • 29. AR. MANISH KUMAR AXIS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 29 The window and door openings towards the noise sources should be minimum. Minimum amount of glazing should be placed on walls directly facing the noise sources. Internal planning- Noisy places should be kept separate from the quiet ones. The location of laboratories or test houses should be so chosen that it is cut off from the noisy zones. Where there are offices attached to a laboratory, provision should be made to treat the offices and to use acoustical partitions, to achieve a sound isolation Dw of at least 35 dB. Miscellaneous buildings Law courts & Council Chambers Libraries, Museums & Art Galleries Auditoria & Theatres Noise from building services VARIOUS SOURCES OF NOISE AND RECOMMENDATIONS TO CONTROL THEM IN VARIOUS TYPES OF BUILDINGS