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Identifying the
Inquiry and
Stating the
Problem
Practical Research 2
Module 2
Ronan Sierra Santos
Lesson Objectives
At end of this session
learners are expected
to clearly formulate
their research problem
in the area of their
interest. It focuses on
identifying problem for
research inquiry.
Lesson 1 – Designing Research Topic
Lesson 2 – Research Title (write)
Lesson 3 – Background of Research (describe)
Lesson 4 – Research Questions (state)
Lesson 5 – Scope and Delimitation of the Study (indicate)
Lesson 6 – Presenting the Statement of the Problem
Lesson 8:
Learning Goals
➔ Develop instructional
strategies to strengthen
student skills for
creating, evaluating, and
revising research
questions.
WARM UP
Writing Directions for a Sandwich
Breakout Room Activity 2
12A
12B
Research Topic or Problem
An intellectual
stimulus calling for an
answer in the form of
scientific inquiry
Developing a research problem can be
done in four (4) steps:
1. Choose a broad topic
2. Do a preliminary research
3. Define the problem
4. Refine the question
Sources of
Research
Topics or
Problems:
Prevailing theories or philosophy
Observations, intuitions or a combination of both
Different subjects taken and from them identify a
problem that interests a student-researcher most
Fields of interest or specialization or event from related
fields
Existing problems in the
classroom/school/campus/university which one may
want to solve are good sources of research problems
Sources of
Research
Topics or
Problems:
Existing needs of the community or society
Repetition or extension of investigations already
conducted or may be an offshoot of studies underway
Related studies and literatures
Advice of authorities or experts from funding agencies
Offshoots of friendly conversations
Incidental from interesting topics of professors during
the course meeting/session
Criteria in
Choosing a
Research
Problem:
• It should be something new or different from
what has already been written about.
• It must be original.
• It should be significant to the field of study or
discipline.
• It must necessarily arouse intellectual curiosity.
• It should be of researcher’s interest and
researcher must be with the topic.
• It should be modest one for a beginner to be
carried on within a limited period of time.
• It should be clear, not ambiguous.
Criteria in
Choosing a
Research
Problem:
• It should be specific, not general.
• It should consider the training and personal
qualifications of the researcher.
• It should consider the availability of data
involved in the study and the methods and
techniques to be employed in gathering them.
• It should consider the availability of effective
instruments for gathering the data and their
treatment.
• It should consider the financial capacity of the
researcher to support the project.
• It should consider the time factor involved in the
undertaking.
Basis for Selecting the Problem:
TECHNICAL PERSONAL
Significant to chosen field/advancement
Pioneering or novel
Originality
Arouse intellectual curiosity
Relevance to degree
Availability or manageability of data
Availability of instruments
Interest
Training
Expertise
Financial capacity
Time
Guidelines
in the
Formulation
of a
Research
Title:
1.The title must contain the following
elements:
• The subject matter of research problem
• The setting or locale of the study
• The respondents or participants involved in the
study
• The time or period when the study was conducted
2. The title must be broad enough to
include all aspects of the study but
should be brief and concise as possible.
Guidelines in
the
Formulation
of a
Research
Title:
3. The use of terms as “Analysis of”, “A Study of”, “An
Investigation of” and the like should be avoided.
4. If the title contains more than one line, it should be
written in inverted pyramid.
5. When typed or encoded in the title page, all words in
the title should be in capital letters.
6. If possible, the title should not be longer than 15
substantive.
7. Avoid a long, detailed title that gives too much
information.
8. To shorten the title, delete the terms “assessment” or
“evaluation” if these are already emphasized in the text.
Characteristics
of a Good Title:
• A title should give readers information about the
contents of the research and is preferable to one
that is vague or general.
• Titles do not need to be stuffy or dull but they
should generally give readers some idea at the
outset of what the research paper will contain.
• Choose a title that is a phrase rather than a
complete sentence.
• Select a straightforward title over other kinds.
• Use no punctuation at the end of the title.
• Do not underline the title of research or enclose it
in quotation marks, instead, use a word processing
program or printer that permits italics. Use them in
place of underlining.
Examples:
• Higher Order Thinking Skills in Reading of Freshmen in Enderun Colleges Inc.,
Academic Year 2022- 2023
• Establishment of Jackfruit Tea Processing Plant in Barangay Bantayan, Tabaco, Albay
• Level of Acceptability of Worksheets for Film-Clippings by the Multimedia Arts
Professors in Enderun Colleges in School Year 2021-2022
• Awareness on Traffic Rules and Regulations of Tricycle Operators and Drivers
Association in Brgy. Santolan, Pasig City in 2019
• Level of Acceptability of the Tracing Guide for Children with Cerebral Palsy by the
Special Education Teachers in the Division of Pampanga, School Year 2015-2016
Background of
the Study
It includes information which
would focus attention on the
importance and validity of
the problem. It is the general
orientation to the problem
area. A brief rationale to
justify the problem must be
provided. This is the present
state of knowledge regarding
the problem
The background includes:
• Discussion of the problem in general and
the specific situations as observed and
experienced by the researcher
• Concepts and ideas related to the
problem
• Discussion of the existing or present
conditions and what is aimed to be in the
future or the gap to be filled in by the
researcher.
Statement
of the
Problem
• This is the basic difficulty, the issue, the area
of concern, the circumstances which exist,
then, how they ought to be. The researcher
should give the background which led to this
circumstances that exist. Briefly describe the
condition or a situation that exists which is
perceived as something less than the ideal: or
what it should be and how you see it to be.
• It has two main elements:
• The objective
• Research questions
Objective or
Purpose of
the Study
• It is the first part of the problem where the
researcher states the objective. This is a
statement of a long term objective expected to be
achieved by the study. This is derived by the
identification and crystallization of the research
problem and as reflected in the title.
Research
Questions or
Investigative
Problems
These are the specific
questions which are to be
answered in the study. The
answers to these should lead
to the solution of the
research problem. Focus on a
clear goal or objective. State
the precise goal. The problem
should be limited enough in
making a definite conclusion
possible.
Research Questions or Investigative Problems
1. The major statement or question
may be followed by minor
statements or questions. The
introductory statement must be the
purpose/aim or the objective of the
study.
EXAMPLE:
Specifically, the study aims to
determine the causes of low
performance of selected programs
in the board examinations. Further,
it seeks to answer to answer to the
following sub problems 1, 2, 3 etc.
Research Questions or Investigative Problems
2. If the goal is specifically to test
a given hypothesis, then state
so. In many cases, the objective
will be a more general statement
than that of a hypothesis.
EXAMPLE:
The primary objective of this
study is to test the hypothesis
that there is a relationship
between workplace condition
and teaching performance of
faculty members.
Research Questions or Investigative Problems
3. Investigative questions are
the specific topical questions
that one must resolve to
achieve research objective or
test the research hypothesis.
EXAMPLE:
This study attempted to evaluate the status and extent of implementation
of the Computer Education Program in the Division of Rizal SY 2015-2016
as perceived by teacher and student respondents. Specifically, this sought
answers to the following questions:
1.1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:
2.1.1 teacher respondents
3.1.2 student respondents
4.2. What is the extent of the Computer Education Program
implementation as perceived by the teacher-respondents with respect to:
5.3. What is the extent of the Computer Education Program
implementation as perceived by the student-respondents with respect to:
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The scope describes the
coverage of the study. It
specifies what is covered
in terms of concept,
number of subjects or
the population included
in the study, as well as
the timeline when the
study was conducted.
Delimit by citing factors
or variables that are not
to be included and the
boundary in terms of
time frame, number of
subjects, participants or
respondents who are
excluded. Specify that
which you will not deal
within the study.
Parameters of the Research:
WHAT – THE
TOPIC OF
INVESTIGATION
AND THE
VARIABLES
INCLUDED
WHERE – THE
VENUE OR THE
SETTING OF THE
RESEARCH
WHEN - THE TIME
FRAME BY WHICH
THE STUDY WAS
CONDUCTED
WHY – THE
GENERAL
OBJECTIVES OF
THE RESEARCH
WHO – THE
SUBJECT OF THE
STUDY, THE
POPULATION AND
SAMPLING
HOW – THE
METHODOLOGY
OF THE RESEARCH
WHICH MAY
INCLUDE THE
RESEARCH
DESIGN,
METHODOLOGY
AND THE
RESEARCH
INSTRUMENT
Example:
• The main purpose of the study is to provide
information regarding metro-sexuality and how
being a metro sexual affects the lifestyle of the
student. The study considers the student’s
personal information such as their name
(optional), gender, age, and section.
• The researchers limited the study to 80 male and
female secondary education student enrolled in the
second semester of school year 2022-2023 of
Enderun Colleges. Each of the respondents was
given a questionnaire to answer. The students
selected came from four different sections to
prevent bias and get objective perceptions.
Significance of the Study
The researcher defines who will benefit out of the
findings of the study. He describes how the
problem will be solved and specifically pinpoints
who will benefit from such findings or results.
Tips in Writing the Significance of the
Study:
• Refer to the statement of the problem.
• Write from generic to specific.
Do the following:
1. Think of three topics which you intend to prepare as your research
undertaking. Take your time in choosing the topic. Take note that the
topic should be related to your academic track/strand.
2. What are the 5 important things you had in mind considering these
three topics?
3. Formulate your research titles for the three topics and present them
to your teacher. Have your teacher approve one research title.
• Steps in developing a research topic;(1) Choose a broad topic, (2) Do a
preliminary research, (3) Define the problem, and (4) Refine the question
• Background of the study states the situation or circumstances within
which your research topic was conceptualized.
• Research Problem is the focus of investigation.
• Characteristics of good research questions are feasible, clear,
significant, and ethical.
• The scope specifies the coverage of your study such as variables,
population or participant, and timeline. Delimitation cites factors of your
study that are not included or excluded or those you will not deal in your
study.
Summary

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Module 2 - Inquiry Identificatio and Problem Statement.pptx

  • 1. Identifying the Inquiry and Stating the Problem Practical Research 2 Module 2 Ronan Sierra Santos
  • 2. Lesson Objectives At end of this session learners are expected to clearly formulate their research problem in the area of their interest. It focuses on identifying problem for research inquiry. Lesson 1 – Designing Research Topic Lesson 2 – Research Title (write) Lesson 3 – Background of Research (describe) Lesson 4 – Research Questions (state) Lesson 5 – Scope and Delimitation of the Study (indicate) Lesson 6 – Presenting the Statement of the Problem
  • 3. Lesson 8: Learning Goals ➔ Develop instructional strategies to strengthen student skills for creating, evaluating, and revising research questions.
  • 4. WARM UP Writing Directions for a Sandwich Breakout Room Activity 2 12A 12B
  • 5. Research Topic or Problem An intellectual stimulus calling for an answer in the form of scientific inquiry Developing a research problem can be done in four (4) steps: 1. Choose a broad topic 2. Do a preliminary research 3. Define the problem 4. Refine the question
  • 6. Sources of Research Topics or Problems: Prevailing theories or philosophy Observations, intuitions or a combination of both Different subjects taken and from them identify a problem that interests a student-researcher most Fields of interest or specialization or event from related fields Existing problems in the classroom/school/campus/university which one may want to solve are good sources of research problems
  • 7. Sources of Research Topics or Problems: Existing needs of the community or society Repetition or extension of investigations already conducted or may be an offshoot of studies underway Related studies and literatures Advice of authorities or experts from funding agencies Offshoots of friendly conversations Incidental from interesting topics of professors during the course meeting/session
  • 8. Criteria in Choosing a Research Problem: • It should be something new or different from what has already been written about. • It must be original. • It should be significant to the field of study or discipline. • It must necessarily arouse intellectual curiosity. • It should be of researcher’s interest and researcher must be with the topic. • It should be modest one for a beginner to be carried on within a limited period of time. • It should be clear, not ambiguous.
  • 9. Criteria in Choosing a Research Problem: • It should be specific, not general. • It should consider the training and personal qualifications of the researcher. • It should consider the availability of data involved in the study and the methods and techniques to be employed in gathering them. • It should consider the availability of effective instruments for gathering the data and their treatment. • It should consider the financial capacity of the researcher to support the project. • It should consider the time factor involved in the undertaking.
  • 10. Basis for Selecting the Problem: TECHNICAL PERSONAL Significant to chosen field/advancement Pioneering or novel Originality Arouse intellectual curiosity Relevance to degree Availability or manageability of data Availability of instruments Interest Training Expertise Financial capacity Time
  • 11. Guidelines in the Formulation of a Research Title: 1.The title must contain the following elements: • The subject matter of research problem • The setting or locale of the study • The respondents or participants involved in the study • The time or period when the study was conducted 2. The title must be broad enough to include all aspects of the study but should be brief and concise as possible.
  • 12. Guidelines in the Formulation of a Research Title: 3. The use of terms as “Analysis of”, “A Study of”, “An Investigation of” and the like should be avoided. 4. If the title contains more than one line, it should be written in inverted pyramid. 5. When typed or encoded in the title page, all words in the title should be in capital letters. 6. If possible, the title should not be longer than 15 substantive. 7. Avoid a long, detailed title that gives too much information. 8. To shorten the title, delete the terms “assessment” or “evaluation” if these are already emphasized in the text.
  • 13. Characteristics of a Good Title: • A title should give readers information about the contents of the research and is preferable to one that is vague or general. • Titles do not need to be stuffy or dull but they should generally give readers some idea at the outset of what the research paper will contain. • Choose a title that is a phrase rather than a complete sentence. • Select a straightforward title over other kinds. • Use no punctuation at the end of the title. • Do not underline the title of research or enclose it in quotation marks, instead, use a word processing program or printer that permits italics. Use them in place of underlining.
  • 14. Examples: • Higher Order Thinking Skills in Reading of Freshmen in Enderun Colleges Inc., Academic Year 2022- 2023 • Establishment of Jackfruit Tea Processing Plant in Barangay Bantayan, Tabaco, Albay • Level of Acceptability of Worksheets for Film-Clippings by the Multimedia Arts Professors in Enderun Colleges in School Year 2021-2022 • Awareness on Traffic Rules and Regulations of Tricycle Operators and Drivers Association in Brgy. Santolan, Pasig City in 2019 • Level of Acceptability of the Tracing Guide for Children with Cerebral Palsy by the Special Education Teachers in the Division of Pampanga, School Year 2015-2016
  • 15. Background of the Study It includes information which would focus attention on the importance and validity of the problem. It is the general orientation to the problem area. A brief rationale to justify the problem must be provided. This is the present state of knowledge regarding the problem The background includes: • Discussion of the problem in general and the specific situations as observed and experienced by the researcher • Concepts and ideas related to the problem • Discussion of the existing or present conditions and what is aimed to be in the future or the gap to be filled in by the researcher.
  • 16. Statement of the Problem • This is the basic difficulty, the issue, the area of concern, the circumstances which exist, then, how they ought to be. The researcher should give the background which led to this circumstances that exist. Briefly describe the condition or a situation that exists which is perceived as something less than the ideal: or what it should be and how you see it to be. • It has two main elements: • The objective • Research questions
  • 17. Objective or Purpose of the Study • It is the first part of the problem where the researcher states the objective. This is a statement of a long term objective expected to be achieved by the study. This is derived by the identification and crystallization of the research problem and as reflected in the title.
  • 18. Research Questions or Investigative Problems These are the specific questions which are to be answered in the study. The answers to these should lead to the solution of the research problem. Focus on a clear goal or objective. State the precise goal. The problem should be limited enough in making a definite conclusion possible.
  • 19. Research Questions or Investigative Problems 1. The major statement or question may be followed by minor statements or questions. The introductory statement must be the purpose/aim or the objective of the study. EXAMPLE: Specifically, the study aims to determine the causes of low performance of selected programs in the board examinations. Further, it seeks to answer to answer to the following sub problems 1, 2, 3 etc.
  • 20. Research Questions or Investigative Problems 2. If the goal is specifically to test a given hypothesis, then state so. In many cases, the objective will be a more general statement than that of a hypothesis. EXAMPLE: The primary objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that there is a relationship between workplace condition and teaching performance of faculty members.
  • 21. Research Questions or Investigative Problems 3. Investigative questions are the specific topical questions that one must resolve to achieve research objective or test the research hypothesis. EXAMPLE: This study attempted to evaluate the status and extent of implementation of the Computer Education Program in the Division of Rizal SY 2015-2016 as perceived by teacher and student respondents. Specifically, this sought answers to the following questions: 1.1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of: 2.1.1 teacher respondents 3.1.2 student respondents 4.2. What is the extent of the Computer Education Program implementation as perceived by the teacher-respondents with respect to: 5.3. What is the extent of the Computer Education Program implementation as perceived by the student-respondents with respect to:
  • 22. Scope and Delimitation of the Study The scope describes the coverage of the study. It specifies what is covered in terms of concept, number of subjects or the population included in the study, as well as the timeline when the study was conducted. Delimit by citing factors or variables that are not to be included and the boundary in terms of time frame, number of subjects, participants or respondents who are excluded. Specify that which you will not deal within the study.
  • 23. Parameters of the Research: WHAT – THE TOPIC OF INVESTIGATION AND THE VARIABLES INCLUDED WHERE – THE VENUE OR THE SETTING OF THE RESEARCH WHEN - THE TIME FRAME BY WHICH THE STUDY WAS CONDUCTED WHY – THE GENERAL OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH WHO – THE SUBJECT OF THE STUDY, THE POPULATION AND SAMPLING HOW – THE METHODOLOGY OF THE RESEARCH WHICH MAY INCLUDE THE RESEARCH DESIGN, METHODOLOGY AND THE RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
  • 24. Example: • The main purpose of the study is to provide information regarding metro-sexuality and how being a metro sexual affects the lifestyle of the student. The study considers the student’s personal information such as their name (optional), gender, age, and section. • The researchers limited the study to 80 male and female secondary education student enrolled in the second semester of school year 2022-2023 of Enderun Colleges. Each of the respondents was given a questionnaire to answer. The students selected came from four different sections to prevent bias and get objective perceptions.
  • 25. Significance of the Study The researcher defines who will benefit out of the findings of the study. He describes how the problem will be solved and specifically pinpoints who will benefit from such findings or results. Tips in Writing the Significance of the Study: • Refer to the statement of the problem. • Write from generic to specific.
  • 26. Do the following: 1. Think of three topics which you intend to prepare as your research undertaking. Take your time in choosing the topic. Take note that the topic should be related to your academic track/strand. 2. What are the 5 important things you had in mind considering these three topics? 3. Formulate your research titles for the three topics and present them to your teacher. Have your teacher approve one research title.
  • 27. • Steps in developing a research topic;(1) Choose a broad topic, (2) Do a preliminary research, (3) Define the problem, and (4) Refine the question • Background of the study states the situation or circumstances within which your research topic was conceptualized. • Research Problem is the focus of investigation. • Characteristics of good research questions are feasible, clear, significant, and ethical. • The scope specifies the coverage of your study such as variables, population or participant, and timeline. Delimitation cites factors of your study that are not included or excluded or those you will not deal in your study. Summary