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MANAGING EMPLOYEE DISCIPLINE
Journal title: Employee Performance and Discipline Problems: A New Approach
AUTHOR
• Mark Alexander
He is a human resources and labour
relations practitioner with over 25 years of
experience in the field of labour-management
relations, personnel management, and
organization management. He has developed a
unique expertise in implementing employee-
centered change.
INTRODUCTION
• Dealing with performance problems and
taking disciplinary action are two of the most
frustrating and stressful issues that management
has to face.
• This study reviews the problems associated with
traditional approaches to performance problems
and discipline and outlines several strategies
that will allow management and union
representatives to handle these problems more
effectively.
• they do not clearly differentiate between
performance and personal problems
and legitimate discipline cases
Redeker (1989) and
others have
recommended ‘non-
punitive discipline’ or
‘discipline without
punishment’ programs
for dealing with
performance problems
and disciplinary matters.
Although these
programs have
sometimes proven
beneficial, they usually
fail because
• they place the responsibility for solving
the problem solely with the employee
and not jointly with the employee, the
union, and management
• they do not recognize that different
situations and different people require
different approaches.
CURRENT SITUATION: INACTION AND
VICIOUS CYCLE
CONFLICT AVOIDANCE
• By not acting, management is signaling to
every employee that unsatisfactory
performance
• Inappropriate behaviour is acceptable or, at
the very least, that employees can skirt or
even break rules or regulations without fear
of discipline.
DIAGNOSING PROBLEM
• Improvement efforts should focus on correcting
the problem, preventing recurrence and
restoring the individual to a healthy, satisfying
work relationship.
• If the goal is to correct the problem, then
recognizing the type of problem involved is
crucial to determining an appropriate strategy for
improvement.
4 DISTINCT TYPES
ANALYZING TYPE I: PERFORMANCE
PROBLEMS
TYPE I: PERFORMANCE PROBLEMS
•Situations where the employee’s quality
and/or quantity of work is unsatisfactory.
• MANAGERIAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL
SHORTCOMINGS
• LACK OF UNDERSTANDING OF ROLES AND EXPECTATIONS
- In many instances management fails to tell subordinates what their
roles are and what is expected of them.
• INAPPROPRIATE JOB ASSIGNMENT
- Poor performance may occur when the organization makes a poor
job assignment. This is more likely to occur in a growing
organization, but it also occurs in more stable situations.
• JOB DESIGN
- Employees will be motivated to perform well in jobs that offer
variety, a challenge, responsibility, and an opportunity for personal
growth.
TYPE I: PERFORMANCE PROBLEMS
• EMPLOYEE-CENTRED CAUSES
• LACK OF INTEREST
- Obviously, if an employee is to perform properly, he/she must be
interested in the type of work that needs to be done.
• PERSONALITY
- personality traits are often very difficult to change, it may be necessary to
assign the individual to a position more in keeping with his/her personality.
• LIMITED CAPABILITIES
- All employees are limited in their capabilities to carry out certain
organizationally required functions, and problems will arise when they are
required to perform tasks that are beyond their capabilities.
TYPE I: PERFORMANCE PROBLEMS
• DETERMINING WHICH EMPLOYEE TO HELP
• THE EMPLOYEE’S PERSONAL AND WORK HISTORY
- most important factors in this category:
• THE SERIOUSNESS OF THE PROBLEM
- It is important to determine how serious the problem is for the
organization’s goals and expectations
• CONSTRAINTS ON CORRECTIVE ACTION AND PROBABILITY
OF SUCCESSFUL CORRECTION
- Managers should determine what constraints there are on taking
corrective action and what the chances are for success.
TYPE I: PERFORMANCE PROBLEMS
Length of service
Performance record
Skill level
Attendance record
Attitudes and personality
Level in the organization
The kind of supervision
that has been given
• PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT STRATEGIES
 IDENTIFYING AND CLARIFYING ROLES AND EXPECTATIONS
- A job description will facilitate role clarification and it can serve as a basis for
discussion between the boss and the subordinate. (Cranny, Smith, and Stone 1992; Grote
1996).
Many employees perform below potential because their managers have not clearly
identified with them:
What their job is, the objectives they should strive for, the kind of behaviours
expected of them.
 TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
- Investment in training for individual employees or for whole groups produces
improved performance results (Huselid 1995).
 ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT
- If the organization is acting as a barrier to the attainment of expected performance
levels, management should discuss those barriers with the employee and attempt to
determine how they might be removed.
 INCREASED FEEDBACK
- The employee must then receive the appropriate feedback either through a
supervisor or through some kind of measurement and reporting mechanism.
TYPE I: PERFORMANCE PROBLEMS
 JOB INVOLVEMENT, JOB ENRICHMENT, REENGINEERING
- If employees are displaying a low level of interest in their work or if the design of the
job does not allow for effective motivation, increased employee involvement or job
enrichment will produce higher performance levels. Reengineering initiatives have
produced substantial improvements in performance for the individuals involved, for
teams of workers and whole organizational units.
 MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT
- Managers must be knowledgeable about managerial techniques if they or their
employees are to perform effectively.
 REMOVAL
- When there is a poor fit between an employee and the job, managers must consider
either transferring or terminating the employee.
 IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SOLUTION
- The implementation of these solutions requires skill in motivation, leadership,
communication, feedback, and measurement. It is vitally important for managers and
supervisors to recognize their responsibility to manage performance problems.
TYPE I: PERFORMANCE PROBLEMS
DEALING WITH TYPE II SITUATIONS:
PERSONAL PROBLEMS
4 DISTINCT TYPES
TYPE II: PERSONAL PROBLEM
• Situations where personal problems, off
the job, are influencing the employee’s
work performance.
• Most personal problems arise for two reasons:
• Health and stress problems
- It has been estimated that at any time a minimum of 6 percent of a
company’s workforce is suffering from substance abuse problems alone
(Brown 1988).
• Family and personal problems
- Family and personal problems are major outside sources of unsatisfactory
performance. Almost everyone has family or personal troubles that affect
their work performance at some time during their career.
TYPE II: PERSONAL PROBLEM
• EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE
 In many cases, the employee’s problem can be corrected or alleviated only
with professional help.
 Using EAP (Employee Assistance Program) that operate confidentially and
refer employees to professional social workers, counselors or trained
coordinators.
 The key elements in creating and sustaining a successful EAP are having a
program that employees know about, understand, and trust and having
supervisors and union stewards who are skilled in confronting employees
about their performance in a supportive and responsible manner.
 Sometimes disciplinary action is necessary in order to make an employee
accept responsibility for seeking help.
TYPE II: PERSONAL PROBLEM
TAKING DISCIPLINARY ACTION
IN TYPE III SITUATIONS
4 DISTINCT TYPES
TYPE III SITUATIONS
• Situations where there has been a deliberate violation of
the law or established company rules or regulations.
• Management will be required to take some disciplinary action in
some type 3 situations.
• In each of these type 3 situations, the test of whether discipline is
justified is whether:
 The employee deliberately carried out the act
 The employee knew or should have known that what he or she was
doing was wrong,
 The rule or regulation was reasonable, and
 The discipline that is contemplated is appropriate to the seriousness
of the offence.
If we are to improve upon how we take disciplinary action then we need
to find ways to avoid this trap.
TYPE III SITUATIONS
• QUESTIONS TO BE ASKED
o WAS THE ACT DELIBERATE?
- It is the responsibility of management to prove that the act took place by
collecting evidence from witnesses and from relevant documents and
records.
The following techniques of information collection will increase the probability of
reaching this agreement:
 the use of an independent or outside investigator who is recognized for
having special skills and experience in the area under investigation,
 the inclusion of the union representative in any interviews that are
conducted in order to collect information,
 the joint undertaking of information collection and analysis by union and
management.
TYPE III SITUATIONS
o WAS THE EMPLOYEE AWARE OF THE RULES?
- Again the responsibility rests with management to inform
employees of rules and regulations, through initial orientation and
on-going training and communication.
o ARE THE RULES REASONABLE?
- The development of a code, along with formal training programs
and policies can also resolve the third test, whether the rules,
regulations, and expectations are reasonable.
o IS THE DISCIPLINE APPROPRIATE?
- For the fourth test, determining the degree of discipline, companies
have historically used a ‘progressive’ approach in taking the
disciplinary measure they believed to be appropriate to punish the
employee and to prevent recurrence.
TYPE III SITUATIONS
TAKING DISCIPLINARY ACTION
IN TYPE IV SITUATIONS
4 DISTINCT TYPES
TYPE IV SITUATIONS
• Situations where there have been repeated minor violations of company
rules, regulations, or performance problems that have not responded to
non-disciplinary corrective action.
• Type 4 problems are the most difficult to analyze and deal with, because
they arise out of type 1, 2, and 3 problems. Type 4 problems are:
 Type I problems that have not responded to management taking all the
appropriate and corrective action to try to solve the performance
discrepancy.
 Type II problems for which the employee has been provided with
appropriate assistance and support to deal with a personal problem, but the
personal problem still results in performance shortcomings.
 Type III problems in which continued minor violations and infractions have
led to a culminating incident, and, as a consequence, management is
required to discipline the employee.
• Discipline, in the case of type 4 problems, is a ‘wake-up call’ that
puts the employee on notice that he/she has to take responsibility
for the offence.
• Because type 4 problems derive from the other three types, they are
varied and often complex.
• The critical element is that in each case, non-punitive corrective
measures should be tried before discipline is used, thus increasing
the potential for avoiding the vicious cycle
TYPE IV SITUATIONS
IMPLEMENTING A NEW APPROACH
• How should management and labour go about implementing this new
approach to diagnosing and dealing with performance and disciplinary
problems?
• FOUR-PHASE IMPLEMENTATION OF AN NAPDM (A New Approach to
Performance and Discipline Management)
THANK YOU FOR LISTENING!
Gamit, Ynnah Ysabelle V.
Human Resource Management

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Managing Employee Discipline

  • 1. MANAGING EMPLOYEE DISCIPLINE Journal title: Employee Performance and Discipline Problems: A New Approach
  • 2. AUTHOR • Mark Alexander He is a human resources and labour relations practitioner with over 25 years of experience in the field of labour-management relations, personnel management, and organization management. He has developed a unique expertise in implementing employee- centered change.
  • 3. INTRODUCTION • Dealing with performance problems and taking disciplinary action are two of the most frustrating and stressful issues that management has to face. • This study reviews the problems associated with traditional approaches to performance problems and discipline and outlines several strategies that will allow management and union representatives to handle these problems more effectively.
  • 4. • they do not clearly differentiate between performance and personal problems and legitimate discipline cases Redeker (1989) and others have recommended ‘non- punitive discipline’ or ‘discipline without punishment’ programs for dealing with performance problems and disciplinary matters. Although these programs have sometimes proven beneficial, they usually fail because • they place the responsibility for solving the problem solely with the employee and not jointly with the employee, the union, and management • they do not recognize that different situations and different people require different approaches.
  • 5. CURRENT SITUATION: INACTION AND VICIOUS CYCLE CONFLICT AVOIDANCE • By not acting, management is signaling to every employee that unsatisfactory performance • Inappropriate behaviour is acceptable or, at the very least, that employees can skirt or even break rules or regulations without fear of discipline.
  • 6.
  • 7. DIAGNOSING PROBLEM • Improvement efforts should focus on correcting the problem, preventing recurrence and restoring the individual to a healthy, satisfying work relationship. • If the goal is to correct the problem, then recognizing the type of problem involved is crucial to determining an appropriate strategy for improvement.
  • 8. 4 DISTINCT TYPES ANALYZING TYPE I: PERFORMANCE PROBLEMS
  • 9. TYPE I: PERFORMANCE PROBLEMS •Situations where the employee’s quality and/or quantity of work is unsatisfactory.
  • 10. • MANAGERIAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL SHORTCOMINGS • LACK OF UNDERSTANDING OF ROLES AND EXPECTATIONS - In many instances management fails to tell subordinates what their roles are and what is expected of them. • INAPPROPRIATE JOB ASSIGNMENT - Poor performance may occur when the organization makes a poor job assignment. This is more likely to occur in a growing organization, but it also occurs in more stable situations. • JOB DESIGN - Employees will be motivated to perform well in jobs that offer variety, a challenge, responsibility, and an opportunity for personal growth. TYPE I: PERFORMANCE PROBLEMS
  • 11. • EMPLOYEE-CENTRED CAUSES • LACK OF INTEREST - Obviously, if an employee is to perform properly, he/she must be interested in the type of work that needs to be done. • PERSONALITY - personality traits are often very difficult to change, it may be necessary to assign the individual to a position more in keeping with his/her personality. • LIMITED CAPABILITIES - All employees are limited in their capabilities to carry out certain organizationally required functions, and problems will arise when they are required to perform tasks that are beyond their capabilities. TYPE I: PERFORMANCE PROBLEMS
  • 12. • DETERMINING WHICH EMPLOYEE TO HELP • THE EMPLOYEE’S PERSONAL AND WORK HISTORY - most important factors in this category: • THE SERIOUSNESS OF THE PROBLEM - It is important to determine how serious the problem is for the organization’s goals and expectations • CONSTRAINTS ON CORRECTIVE ACTION AND PROBABILITY OF SUCCESSFUL CORRECTION - Managers should determine what constraints there are on taking corrective action and what the chances are for success. TYPE I: PERFORMANCE PROBLEMS Length of service Performance record Skill level Attendance record Attitudes and personality Level in the organization The kind of supervision that has been given
  • 13. • PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT STRATEGIES  IDENTIFYING AND CLARIFYING ROLES AND EXPECTATIONS - A job description will facilitate role clarification and it can serve as a basis for discussion between the boss and the subordinate. (Cranny, Smith, and Stone 1992; Grote 1996). Many employees perform below potential because their managers have not clearly identified with them: What their job is, the objectives they should strive for, the kind of behaviours expected of them.  TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT - Investment in training for individual employees or for whole groups produces improved performance results (Huselid 1995).  ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT - If the organization is acting as a barrier to the attainment of expected performance levels, management should discuss those barriers with the employee and attempt to determine how they might be removed.  INCREASED FEEDBACK - The employee must then receive the appropriate feedback either through a supervisor or through some kind of measurement and reporting mechanism. TYPE I: PERFORMANCE PROBLEMS
  • 14.  JOB INVOLVEMENT, JOB ENRICHMENT, REENGINEERING - If employees are displaying a low level of interest in their work or if the design of the job does not allow for effective motivation, increased employee involvement or job enrichment will produce higher performance levels. Reengineering initiatives have produced substantial improvements in performance for the individuals involved, for teams of workers and whole organizational units.  MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT - Managers must be knowledgeable about managerial techniques if they or their employees are to perform effectively.  REMOVAL - When there is a poor fit between an employee and the job, managers must consider either transferring or terminating the employee.  IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SOLUTION - The implementation of these solutions requires skill in motivation, leadership, communication, feedback, and measurement. It is vitally important for managers and supervisors to recognize their responsibility to manage performance problems. TYPE I: PERFORMANCE PROBLEMS
  • 15. DEALING WITH TYPE II SITUATIONS: PERSONAL PROBLEMS 4 DISTINCT TYPES
  • 16. TYPE II: PERSONAL PROBLEM • Situations where personal problems, off the job, are influencing the employee’s work performance.
  • 17. • Most personal problems arise for two reasons: • Health and stress problems - It has been estimated that at any time a minimum of 6 percent of a company’s workforce is suffering from substance abuse problems alone (Brown 1988). • Family and personal problems - Family and personal problems are major outside sources of unsatisfactory performance. Almost everyone has family or personal troubles that affect their work performance at some time during their career. TYPE II: PERSONAL PROBLEM
  • 18. • EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE  In many cases, the employee’s problem can be corrected or alleviated only with professional help.  Using EAP (Employee Assistance Program) that operate confidentially and refer employees to professional social workers, counselors or trained coordinators.  The key elements in creating and sustaining a successful EAP are having a program that employees know about, understand, and trust and having supervisors and union stewards who are skilled in confronting employees about their performance in a supportive and responsible manner.  Sometimes disciplinary action is necessary in order to make an employee accept responsibility for seeking help. TYPE II: PERSONAL PROBLEM
  • 19. TAKING DISCIPLINARY ACTION IN TYPE III SITUATIONS 4 DISTINCT TYPES
  • 20. TYPE III SITUATIONS • Situations where there has been a deliberate violation of the law or established company rules or regulations.
  • 21. • Management will be required to take some disciplinary action in some type 3 situations. • In each of these type 3 situations, the test of whether discipline is justified is whether:  The employee deliberately carried out the act  The employee knew or should have known that what he or she was doing was wrong,  The rule or regulation was reasonable, and  The discipline that is contemplated is appropriate to the seriousness of the offence. If we are to improve upon how we take disciplinary action then we need to find ways to avoid this trap. TYPE III SITUATIONS
  • 22. • QUESTIONS TO BE ASKED o WAS THE ACT DELIBERATE? - It is the responsibility of management to prove that the act took place by collecting evidence from witnesses and from relevant documents and records. The following techniques of information collection will increase the probability of reaching this agreement:  the use of an independent or outside investigator who is recognized for having special skills and experience in the area under investigation,  the inclusion of the union representative in any interviews that are conducted in order to collect information,  the joint undertaking of information collection and analysis by union and management. TYPE III SITUATIONS
  • 23. o WAS THE EMPLOYEE AWARE OF THE RULES? - Again the responsibility rests with management to inform employees of rules and regulations, through initial orientation and on-going training and communication. o ARE THE RULES REASONABLE? - The development of a code, along with formal training programs and policies can also resolve the third test, whether the rules, regulations, and expectations are reasonable. o IS THE DISCIPLINE APPROPRIATE? - For the fourth test, determining the degree of discipline, companies have historically used a ‘progressive’ approach in taking the disciplinary measure they believed to be appropriate to punish the employee and to prevent recurrence. TYPE III SITUATIONS
  • 24. TAKING DISCIPLINARY ACTION IN TYPE IV SITUATIONS 4 DISTINCT TYPES
  • 25. TYPE IV SITUATIONS • Situations where there have been repeated minor violations of company rules, regulations, or performance problems that have not responded to non-disciplinary corrective action. • Type 4 problems are the most difficult to analyze and deal with, because they arise out of type 1, 2, and 3 problems. Type 4 problems are:  Type I problems that have not responded to management taking all the appropriate and corrective action to try to solve the performance discrepancy.  Type II problems for which the employee has been provided with appropriate assistance and support to deal with a personal problem, but the personal problem still results in performance shortcomings.  Type III problems in which continued minor violations and infractions have led to a culminating incident, and, as a consequence, management is required to discipline the employee.
  • 26. • Discipline, in the case of type 4 problems, is a ‘wake-up call’ that puts the employee on notice that he/she has to take responsibility for the offence. • Because type 4 problems derive from the other three types, they are varied and often complex. • The critical element is that in each case, non-punitive corrective measures should be tried before discipline is used, thus increasing the potential for avoiding the vicious cycle TYPE IV SITUATIONS
  • 27. IMPLEMENTING A NEW APPROACH • How should management and labour go about implementing this new approach to diagnosing and dealing with performance and disciplinary problems? • FOUR-PHASE IMPLEMENTATION OF AN NAPDM (A New Approach to Performance and Discipline Management)
  • 28. THANK YOU FOR LISTENING! Gamit, Ynnah Ysabelle V. Human Resource Management