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Current status of Desert Locust and
future strategies for the
management
Desert locust is an international transboundary insect pest causing threat agricultural
production and livelihoods in many countries in Africa, Mid East and South West Asia.
The Ancient Egyptians carved locusts on tombs in the period 2470 to 2220 BC, and a
devastating plague is mentioned in the 'Book of Exodus' in the Bible, as taking place in
Egypt around 1446 BC.
Locusts are mentioned in Sanskrit literature in particular in the epic poem
Mahabharata. The earliest known Sanskrit text dates as early as 750 BCE.
Locusts are mentioned in the Al-Araf chapter 7 of the Koran. The magnitude of the
damage and loss caused by the locusts is very gigantic beyond imagination as they have
caused the starvation.
Locust adults can eat their own weight every day, i.e. about two grams of fresh
vegetation per day. A very small swarm eats as much in one day as about 35,000
people, posing a devastating threat to crops
It is polyphagous feeder, generally prefer new tender leaves, seeds, fruits, and growing
points
Introduction and History
Dr Yelseti Ramachandra Rao
•In 1930, he was assigned to study locusts
at Quetta, Baluchistan and from 1933 at
Karachi.
•He worked there until 1939 serving as the
research head for the Locust Scheme.
•He worked on a comprehensive monograph
on the desert locust which was published in
1960.
• This monumental research also led to the
establishment of a more permanent Locust
Warning Organization
ThDesert Locust recession area covers about 16 million km2 from West Africa to Western India.
The invasion area extends to the north, south and east of the recession area, covering some 30
million km2.
IRAN
Egypt
Western
Region
(CLCPRO)
FAO Commissionfor
Controlling the
Desert Locust in the
Western Region
10
Countries
Central
Region
(CRC)
FAO Commissionfor
Controlling the
Desert Locust in the
Central Region
16
Countries
Eastern
Region
(SWAC)
FAO Commissionfor
Controlling the
Desert Locust in
South-WestAsia
4
Countries
Iran,
Pakist
an,
India,
Afgani
stan
Distribution…
LWO
REGIONS OF LOCUST AFFECTED COUNTRIES
WESTERN
•Locust-affected countries in West and North-West Africa: Algeria, Chad, Libya,
Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Senegal, and Tunisia; during plagues only:
Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Gambia, Guinea and Guinea-Bissau.
CENTRAL
•Locust-affected countries along the Red Sea; Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia,
Oman, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Yemen: during plagues only: Bahrain ,
Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Qatar, Syria, Tanzania, Turkey, UAE and
Uganda.
EASTERN
•Locust-affected countries in South-West Asia: Afghanistan, India, Iran and
Pakistan.
Different Species of Locusts in the World
1. Australian plague locust : Chortoicetes terminifera - Australia
2. Bombay locust : Nomadacris succincta - India, South-east Asia
3. Brown locust : Locustana pardalina - Southern Africa
4. Desert locust : Schistocerca gregaria - deserts from West and North Africa
to western India
5. South American locust : Schistocerca cancellata - South America
6. Central American locust : Schistocerca piceifrons - Central America
7. Italian locust Calliptamus italicus : semi-deserts and steppes from
Morocco and central Europe to Central Asia
8. Migratory locust : Locusta migratoria - Asia, Africa and eastern Europe
9. Moroccan locust : Dociostaurus maroccanus - semi-deserts and steppes
from Morocco through North Africa and the Middle East to Central Asia
10. Red locust : Nomadacris septemfasciata - southern and south central
Africa
11. Rocky Mountain locust : Melanoplus spretus – extinct
12. Spur-throated locust : Australis procera - Australia
13. Tree locusts: Anacridium spp-South-east Asia
Phylum: Arthopoda
Class : Insecta
Order: Orthopotera
family: Acrididae
Taxonomy of Locust
Life cycle of Desert Locust
A desert locust lives about three to five
months
• The life cycle comprises three stages: egg,
hopper (nymph) and adult
• Eggs hatch in about two weeks
 Hoppers shed their skins five or six times,
each time growing in size.
 Hoppers develop over a period of about
30-40 days
• Adults mature in about three weeks to nine
months but more frequently from two to four
months, depending on environmental
conditions, mainly temperature
• Adults that can fly are initially sexually
immature, but eventually become sexually
mature and can copulate and lay eggs
• Solitary individuals always remain
somewhere in the environment, ready to
mate when conditions are favourable
Badisco et al., 2011
Source :LWO
Source :LWO
•Guaiacol is produced in the gut of desert locusts by the breakdown of plant material. This
process is undertaken by the gut bacterium Pantoea agglomeran. Guaiacol is one of the
main components of the pheromone that cause locust swarming (Dillon, Road et all, 2000)
•Serotinin enhances solitariness phase transition of migratory locust(Guao et al 2013)
•Gregarious adults (swarms) migrate in the direction of the wind at the wind speed and can
cover distance of up to about 150km/day. The direction and speed of the wind determine
the displacement of adults and swarms (Burrows et al., 2011)
What triggers to form swarm…
Source :LWO
Toxic anti-predator defense mechanism in locusts
Kang lee, 2019
A cytochrome (CYP) gene (CYP305M2) make formation of PAN and HCN
biosynthesis from phenylalanine in gregarious locusts. CYP305M2 is present
at barely detectable levels in solitary locusts
• The existing series of locust swarms from Iran to Pakistan and due to
dusty summer winds (Arabian flow) facilitate to enter Rajasthan.
•if good rains fall, rapidly reproduce and increase some 20-fold in three
months.
•Usually only one swarm crosses over to India from Pakistan, but this time,
multiple swarms emerged, according to experts
•North westerly winds and non- availability vegetation in Pakistan might
have brought them to Rajasthan and then wind blowing eastern side to
Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.
•According to IMD, data Rajasthan has 25 districts with large excess rainfall
(more than 60 per cent excess rainfall) from March 1 to May 25 while
Madhya Pradesh has 39 districts with large excess rainfall.
2020 outbreak and trigger factors to swarm
Source :LWO
Locust Warning Organization -India
Locust Warning Organisation (LWO), established in 1939 and
amalgamated in 1946 with the Directorate of Plant Protection
Quarantine and Storage (PPQS) of the Ministry of Agriculture.
‘
LWO circle offices, field HQ Jodhpur and Central HQ Faridabad where
these are compiled and analyzed to forewarn the probability of locust
outbreak and upsurges.
The locust situation is appraised to the State Governments of
Rajasthan and Gujarat with the advice to gear up their field
functionaries to keep a constant vigil on locust situation in their areas
and intimate the same to nearest LWO offices for taking necessary
action at their end.
Source
:LWO
FUNCTIONS
• Keep constant vigil through field survey to prevent crop losses due to locust attack
in approximately 2 lakh sq. kms. Scheduled Desert Area in the States of Rajasthan
and Gujarat
• Avoid upsurge of locust population in SDA and entry of locust swarms into India
through prompt control operations.
• Hold Indo-Pak Border meetings for exchange of locust situation information
between two Countries to effectively monitor the situation and ensure
preparedness to tackle the emerging locust threat, if any.
• Train the Farmers, State functionaries and locust staff on latest locust control
technologies.
• Advise state functionaries, BSF personnel, Panchayat Raj Institutions to inform the
nearest LWO office if any locust activity was reported in their areas for needful
action.
• Issuance of Desert Locust Situation Bulletin at fortnightly intervals to inform all
concerned stakeholders about emerging locust situation in India.
• Conduct research at Field Station on Investigation on Locusts(FSIL) at Bikaner on
bio-efficacy of pesticides and bio-pesticides for locust control.
eLocust-3g
Source :LWO
Desert Locust Risk Map –FAO(May 2020)
Locust swarms and global forecast, May-July 2020
Photo: FAO
Photo: LWO
Source: LWO
Source: LWO
This is the second round of
locust attack in India, the first
one having occurred during Dec-
Feb
In Jan 2020, the biggest locust
swarm to hit Gujarat in over
quarter of century resulted in
more than 25000 hectares of
wheat, rapeseed, cumin and
potatoes being attacked at least
1/3rd the crops damaged in 75%
of affected areas, according
state directorate of agriculture
NDTV
Source: LWO
Integrated Desert Locust Management
Economic threshold level (ETL) which is 10,000 adults/ha. and -6 hoppers/bush
1.Cultivable land must be deep ploughing by exposing eggs
sun or eaten by birds
2. Farmers should go to their cropped field and make loud
sound by beating empty tins/metal plates, drum or radio
or through other electronic sound system to prevent
locust swarm landing in the crop.
3. Smoking the field in as these locusts won’t be active
during night hours
4.Collecting hoppers with catching machines , Killing them
with flame-throwers &Crushing them with rollers
5. Spray Neem based formulation (0.15 % EC) @ 45 ml/ 15 liter water
on standing crop as feeding deterrent.
OR
6.Dust the crop with Quinalphos 1.5 % DP OR chlorpyriphos 1.5 % DP
or Methyl Parathion 2 % DP @ 25 kg/ha on standing crop.
7. If oviposition holes are found in the uncultivated fields, first dust
any insecticide (Quinalphos 1.5 % DP OR chlorpyriphos 1.5 % DP or
Methyl Parathion 2 % DP @ 25 kg/ha) and then plough the field to kill
the eggs and emerging nymphs.
8. If hatching of eggs started and nymphs observed, spray bio-
pesticide —Metarrhizium anisopliae var. acridum/ Paranosema
locustae(Africa and China) @ 75 gram/15 lit water or dust any
insecticide :Quinalphos 1.5 % DP OR chlorpyriphos 1.5 % DP or Methyl
Parathion 2 % DP @ 25 kg/ha to kill the emerging nymphs.
Cont…
Cont…
9. If hopper band is formed and observed marching, ignite dry grass or
any trash in front of the marching hopper band to kill the nymphs.
OR
10. Dig a trench 2 feet deep and 2 feet wide in front of marching
hopper band and then apply Quinalphos 1.5 % DP OR chlorpyriphos 1.5
% DP @ 25 kg/ha in the trench or if water is available, pour water in
the trench.
11. If the Hopper band is roosting, either go for dusting Quinalphos 1.5
% DP OR chlorpyriphos 1.5 % DP or spray malathion 96 % ULV @ 1.0
lit./ha with the help of ULV spray
12. If the adult locust swarm has settled on the ground in uncultivated
field, either go for dusting Quinalphos 1.5 % DP OR chlorpyriphos 1.5 %
DP @ 25 kg/ha or spray malathion 96 % ULV @ 1.0 lit./ha with the help
of ULV sprayer directly on the hopper band provided it is in small area.
13.If it is on large uncultivated land, apply same dust of ULV
formulations using vehicle mounted dusters/ULV(ultra low volume)
sprayers as the case may be.
14.If a locust swarm is spotted invading a cropped area, the State
Agriculture Department should arrange Aerial spraying of ULV
formulation of insecticide like malathion 96 % ULV @ 1.0 lit./ha with
the help of ULV nozzles fitted on a Helicopter/Drones.
15.If the Locust swarm is spotted settled in non scheduled cropped or
non-cropped area, the State Agriculture Department should arrange
Aerial spraying of ULV formulation of insecticide like malathion 96 %
ULV @ 1.0 lit./ha or fenitrothion 96 % ULV @ 0.5 lit./ha with the help
of ULV nozzles fitted on a Helicopter/drones.
Cont…
16.The desert locust has natural enemies such as predatory wasps
and flies, parasitoid wasps(Flesh flies, Tachinid flies and tangled
veined flies are nymph and adult parasitoids) predatory Blister beetle,
Ground beetle and Crickets are eggs predators larvae, birds(Rose-
coloured and common stralings (Pastor roseus and Sturnus
vulgaris)) and reptiles.
These may be effective at keeping solitary populations in check but
are of limited effects against gregarious desert locusts because of the
enormous numbers of insects in the swarms and hopper bands.
Cont…
The locusts killed by the drone in Samode, Jaipur district on Sunday(31/5/2020)
www.hindustantimes.com
Source: LWO
Source: LWO
Source: LWO
Source: LWO
Source: LWO
Source: LWO
February
Source: LWO
Source: LWO
Source: LWO
Future Action Plan:
• NBAIR Bengaluru will be testing entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria
basina and M.anisoplie isolates against desert locusts at Rajasthan
• The Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT) Hyderabad,developed
aggregation pheromone (volatile compounds viz., benzaldehyde, Guaiacol
and other few compounds) for mass trapping for gregarious stage of
desert locust and these will be testing hot spot locations of Rajasthan.
• Import of Green muscle entomopathogenic fungus from UK against
desert locust
• Identification of alternative botanicals against desert locust
Remember, without farmers there will be no food,
and without food there will be no life.
•Mr. Suraj Prasad
•Mr. P V Ramana
•Mr. K Rajendra Prasad
•Mr. K Rajendra Kumar
Students
•Mr Satish,
Mr Jatin and Mr Ramana

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Locust current status

  • 1. Current status of Desert Locust and future strategies for the management
  • 2. Desert locust is an international transboundary insect pest causing threat agricultural production and livelihoods in many countries in Africa, Mid East and South West Asia. The Ancient Egyptians carved locusts on tombs in the period 2470 to 2220 BC, and a devastating plague is mentioned in the 'Book of Exodus' in the Bible, as taking place in Egypt around 1446 BC. Locusts are mentioned in Sanskrit literature in particular in the epic poem Mahabharata. The earliest known Sanskrit text dates as early as 750 BCE. Locusts are mentioned in the Al-Araf chapter 7 of the Koran. The magnitude of the damage and loss caused by the locusts is very gigantic beyond imagination as they have caused the starvation. Locust adults can eat their own weight every day, i.e. about two grams of fresh vegetation per day. A very small swarm eats as much in one day as about 35,000 people, posing a devastating threat to crops It is polyphagous feeder, generally prefer new tender leaves, seeds, fruits, and growing points Introduction and History
  • 3. Dr Yelseti Ramachandra Rao •In 1930, he was assigned to study locusts at Quetta, Baluchistan and from 1933 at Karachi. •He worked there until 1939 serving as the research head for the Locust Scheme. •He worked on a comprehensive monograph on the desert locust which was published in 1960. • This monumental research also led to the establishment of a more permanent Locust Warning Organization
  • 4. ThDesert Locust recession area covers about 16 million km2 from West Africa to Western India. The invasion area extends to the north, south and east of the recession area, covering some 30 million km2. IRAN Egypt Western Region (CLCPRO) FAO Commissionfor Controlling the Desert Locust in the Western Region 10 Countries Central Region (CRC) FAO Commissionfor Controlling the Desert Locust in the Central Region 16 Countries Eastern Region (SWAC) FAO Commissionfor Controlling the Desert Locust in South-WestAsia 4 Countries Iran, Pakist an, India, Afgani stan Distribution… LWO
  • 5. REGIONS OF LOCUST AFFECTED COUNTRIES WESTERN •Locust-affected countries in West and North-West Africa: Algeria, Chad, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Senegal, and Tunisia; during plagues only: Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Gambia, Guinea and Guinea-Bissau. CENTRAL •Locust-affected countries along the Red Sea; Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Yemen: during plagues only: Bahrain , Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Qatar, Syria, Tanzania, Turkey, UAE and Uganda. EASTERN •Locust-affected countries in South-West Asia: Afghanistan, India, Iran and Pakistan.
  • 6. Different Species of Locusts in the World 1. Australian plague locust : Chortoicetes terminifera - Australia 2. Bombay locust : Nomadacris succincta - India, South-east Asia 3. Brown locust : Locustana pardalina - Southern Africa 4. Desert locust : Schistocerca gregaria - deserts from West and North Africa to western India 5. South American locust : Schistocerca cancellata - South America 6. Central American locust : Schistocerca piceifrons - Central America 7. Italian locust Calliptamus italicus : semi-deserts and steppes from Morocco and central Europe to Central Asia 8. Migratory locust : Locusta migratoria - Asia, Africa and eastern Europe 9. Moroccan locust : Dociostaurus maroccanus - semi-deserts and steppes from Morocco through North Africa and the Middle East to Central Asia 10. Red locust : Nomadacris septemfasciata - southern and south central Africa 11. Rocky Mountain locust : Melanoplus spretus – extinct 12. Spur-throated locust : Australis procera - Australia 13. Tree locusts: Anacridium spp-South-east Asia
  • 7. Phylum: Arthopoda Class : Insecta Order: Orthopotera family: Acrididae Taxonomy of Locust
  • 8. Life cycle of Desert Locust A desert locust lives about three to five months • The life cycle comprises three stages: egg, hopper (nymph) and adult • Eggs hatch in about two weeks  Hoppers shed their skins five or six times, each time growing in size.  Hoppers develop over a period of about 30-40 days • Adults mature in about three weeks to nine months but more frequently from two to four months, depending on environmental conditions, mainly temperature • Adults that can fly are initially sexually immature, but eventually become sexually mature and can copulate and lay eggs • Solitary individuals always remain somewhere in the environment, ready to mate when conditions are favourable
  • 9.
  • 13.
  • 14. •Guaiacol is produced in the gut of desert locusts by the breakdown of plant material. This process is undertaken by the gut bacterium Pantoea agglomeran. Guaiacol is one of the main components of the pheromone that cause locust swarming (Dillon, Road et all, 2000) •Serotinin enhances solitariness phase transition of migratory locust(Guao et al 2013) •Gregarious adults (swarms) migrate in the direction of the wind at the wind speed and can cover distance of up to about 150km/day. The direction and speed of the wind determine the displacement of adults and swarms (Burrows et al., 2011) What triggers to form swarm… Source :LWO
  • 15. Toxic anti-predator defense mechanism in locusts Kang lee, 2019 A cytochrome (CYP) gene (CYP305M2) make formation of PAN and HCN biosynthesis from phenylalanine in gregarious locusts. CYP305M2 is present at barely detectable levels in solitary locusts
  • 16. • The existing series of locust swarms from Iran to Pakistan and due to dusty summer winds (Arabian flow) facilitate to enter Rajasthan. •if good rains fall, rapidly reproduce and increase some 20-fold in three months. •Usually only one swarm crosses over to India from Pakistan, but this time, multiple swarms emerged, according to experts •North westerly winds and non- availability vegetation in Pakistan might have brought them to Rajasthan and then wind blowing eastern side to Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. •According to IMD, data Rajasthan has 25 districts with large excess rainfall (more than 60 per cent excess rainfall) from March 1 to May 25 while Madhya Pradesh has 39 districts with large excess rainfall. 2020 outbreak and trigger factors to swarm
  • 18. Locust Warning Organization -India Locust Warning Organisation (LWO), established in 1939 and amalgamated in 1946 with the Directorate of Plant Protection Quarantine and Storage (PPQS) of the Ministry of Agriculture. ‘ LWO circle offices, field HQ Jodhpur and Central HQ Faridabad where these are compiled and analyzed to forewarn the probability of locust outbreak and upsurges. The locust situation is appraised to the State Governments of Rajasthan and Gujarat with the advice to gear up their field functionaries to keep a constant vigil on locust situation in their areas and intimate the same to nearest LWO offices for taking necessary action at their end.
  • 20. FUNCTIONS • Keep constant vigil through field survey to prevent crop losses due to locust attack in approximately 2 lakh sq. kms. Scheduled Desert Area in the States of Rajasthan and Gujarat • Avoid upsurge of locust population in SDA and entry of locust swarms into India through prompt control operations. • Hold Indo-Pak Border meetings for exchange of locust situation information between two Countries to effectively monitor the situation and ensure preparedness to tackle the emerging locust threat, if any. • Train the Farmers, State functionaries and locust staff on latest locust control technologies. • Advise state functionaries, BSF personnel, Panchayat Raj Institutions to inform the nearest LWO office if any locust activity was reported in their areas for needful action. • Issuance of Desert Locust Situation Bulletin at fortnightly intervals to inform all concerned stakeholders about emerging locust situation in India. • Conduct research at Field Station on Investigation on Locusts(FSIL) at Bikaner on bio-efficacy of pesticides and bio-pesticides for locust control.
  • 22.
  • 23. Desert Locust Risk Map –FAO(May 2020)
  • 24. Locust swarms and global forecast, May-July 2020 Photo: FAO
  • 28. This is the second round of locust attack in India, the first one having occurred during Dec- Feb In Jan 2020, the biggest locust swarm to hit Gujarat in over quarter of century resulted in more than 25000 hectares of wheat, rapeseed, cumin and potatoes being attacked at least 1/3rd the crops damaged in 75% of affected areas, according state directorate of agriculture NDTV Source: LWO
  • 29. Integrated Desert Locust Management Economic threshold level (ETL) which is 10,000 adults/ha. and -6 hoppers/bush 1.Cultivable land must be deep ploughing by exposing eggs sun or eaten by birds 2. Farmers should go to their cropped field and make loud sound by beating empty tins/metal plates, drum or radio or through other electronic sound system to prevent locust swarm landing in the crop. 3. Smoking the field in as these locusts won’t be active during night hours 4.Collecting hoppers with catching machines , Killing them with flame-throwers &Crushing them with rollers
  • 30. 5. Spray Neem based formulation (0.15 % EC) @ 45 ml/ 15 liter water on standing crop as feeding deterrent. OR 6.Dust the crop with Quinalphos 1.5 % DP OR chlorpyriphos 1.5 % DP or Methyl Parathion 2 % DP @ 25 kg/ha on standing crop. 7. If oviposition holes are found in the uncultivated fields, first dust any insecticide (Quinalphos 1.5 % DP OR chlorpyriphos 1.5 % DP or Methyl Parathion 2 % DP @ 25 kg/ha) and then plough the field to kill the eggs and emerging nymphs. 8. If hatching of eggs started and nymphs observed, spray bio- pesticide —Metarrhizium anisopliae var. acridum/ Paranosema locustae(Africa and China) @ 75 gram/15 lit water or dust any insecticide :Quinalphos 1.5 % DP OR chlorpyriphos 1.5 % DP or Methyl Parathion 2 % DP @ 25 kg/ha to kill the emerging nymphs. Cont…
  • 31. Cont… 9. If hopper band is formed and observed marching, ignite dry grass or any trash in front of the marching hopper band to kill the nymphs. OR 10. Dig a trench 2 feet deep and 2 feet wide in front of marching hopper band and then apply Quinalphos 1.5 % DP OR chlorpyriphos 1.5 % DP @ 25 kg/ha in the trench or if water is available, pour water in the trench. 11. If the Hopper band is roosting, either go for dusting Quinalphos 1.5 % DP OR chlorpyriphos 1.5 % DP or spray malathion 96 % ULV @ 1.0 lit./ha with the help of ULV spray 12. If the adult locust swarm has settled on the ground in uncultivated field, either go for dusting Quinalphos 1.5 % DP OR chlorpyriphos 1.5 % DP @ 25 kg/ha or spray malathion 96 % ULV @ 1.0 lit./ha with the help of ULV sprayer directly on the hopper band provided it is in small area.
  • 32. 13.If it is on large uncultivated land, apply same dust of ULV formulations using vehicle mounted dusters/ULV(ultra low volume) sprayers as the case may be. 14.If a locust swarm is spotted invading a cropped area, the State Agriculture Department should arrange Aerial spraying of ULV formulation of insecticide like malathion 96 % ULV @ 1.0 lit./ha with the help of ULV nozzles fitted on a Helicopter/Drones. 15.If the Locust swarm is spotted settled in non scheduled cropped or non-cropped area, the State Agriculture Department should arrange Aerial spraying of ULV formulation of insecticide like malathion 96 % ULV @ 1.0 lit./ha or fenitrothion 96 % ULV @ 0.5 lit./ha with the help of ULV nozzles fitted on a Helicopter/drones. Cont…
  • 33. 16.The desert locust has natural enemies such as predatory wasps and flies, parasitoid wasps(Flesh flies, Tachinid flies and tangled veined flies are nymph and adult parasitoids) predatory Blister beetle, Ground beetle and Crickets are eggs predators larvae, birds(Rose- coloured and common stralings (Pastor roseus and Sturnus vulgaris)) and reptiles. These may be effective at keeping solitary populations in check but are of limited effects against gregarious desert locusts because of the enormous numbers of insects in the swarms and hopper bands. Cont…
  • 34. The locusts killed by the drone in Samode, Jaipur district on Sunday(31/5/2020) www.hindustantimes.com
  • 44. Future Action Plan: • NBAIR Bengaluru will be testing entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria basina and M.anisoplie isolates against desert locusts at Rajasthan • The Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT) Hyderabad,developed aggregation pheromone (volatile compounds viz., benzaldehyde, Guaiacol and other few compounds) for mass trapping for gregarious stage of desert locust and these will be testing hot spot locations of Rajasthan. • Import of Green muscle entomopathogenic fungus from UK against desert locust • Identification of alternative botanicals against desert locust
  • 45. Remember, without farmers there will be no food, and without food there will be no life.
  • 46. •Mr. Suraj Prasad •Mr. P V Ramana •Mr. K Rajendra Prasad •Mr. K Rajendra Kumar Students •Mr Satish, Mr Jatin and Mr Ramana