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Ecosystem based Adaptation – Marine Fisheries
S Velvizhi, Ph.D
Fish for All Research and Training Centre
M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF)
velvizhi@mssrf.res.in
Virtual Consultation
Science for Resilient Food, Nutrition and Livelihoods:
Contemporary Challenges
August 7-10, 2020
Fishing Profile of Tamil Nadu
Physical Component
Length of Coastline : 1076 km
Fishing Villages : 576
Coastal Districts : 13
Human component
Active fishers Population : 8,02,912
Fishers families : 1,92,697
Infrastructure Component
Landing centres : 407
Major Fishing harbours : 4
Minor Fishing harbours : 11
Mechanized vessels : 10692
Motorized vessels : 24942
Non – Motorized vessels : 10436
Ecologically important coastal
areas
• Pulicate lake
• Pichavaram Mangroves
• Vedaranaym swamp
• Muthupet lagoon
• Palk Bay
• Gulf of MannarData Source : CMFRI
Major Gears
• Trawl nets
• Bag nets
• Gillnets
• Seines
• Hook and Line
Major Crafts
• Mechanized
• Motorized
• Non Motorized
How fishing is carried out
• Top fish producing state in the country (2019) – 7.75 lakhs tonne
• Yearly exported 88,257 MT of marine products
• Foreign exchange of Rs. 4,341.78 crore
Source IPCC 2019 - SROCC
Climate Change Effect in Marine Fisheries and Fisherfolks
Fisheries
• Physiological functions like growth, reproduction and spawning are directly
influenced by change of temperature
Examples
• Oil Sardine Fishery in North and East Coast of India
• Vertical migration of Mackerels
Fisher folks
• Occupational uncertainty
• Income disorganization
• Equipments Damages and lost
• Psycho-social problems
Annual average of SST in Tamil Nadu Coast
CC impacts in Fisheries and Potential Adaptive Measures
Minimize the impact of CC a balanced approach in fishery
management is needed which brings value to the ecosystem and
also services to people who depends on the resources for their
livelihood
Reduced Yields
Increased Yield
Variability
Reduced Profitability
Increased Risks
and Increased
vulnerability who live
near the coast
• Access to higher value markets
• Promoting Mariculture activities
• Diversify livelihoods
• Diversify markets and products
• Increase the efficiency of fishing
• Weather warning system
• Increased communication networks
• Early warning system
• Improved vessels stability and safety
• Sea walls and wet land rehabilitation
• Infrastructure like harbours and
landing centre facilities
• Clear post disaster recovery plan
Ecosystem Linkages in Marine Environment
• Elements are interconnected
• Affecting one part of the system can also have flow-on effects on other parts
Ecosystem Based Adaptation in Fisheries
• Integrated approach
• Adaptive management – leading to more effective planning
• Increase stakeholder participation
 More transparent planning and decision making
 Recognizes cultural and traditional values
 Protects the fishing sector from the impacts of other sectors and
vice versa
 Promotes gender equality
• Increase resilience of the fishing communities towards climate change
Ecological
Well-being
Human
Well-being
Good
Governance for
future generations
Sustainable development
Healthy Ecosystems
Rich Biodiversity
Habitats
Healthy oceans and
coastal areas
Living standards –
income, food,
Education, Food
security
Basic human rights
Living environment
security and human
safety
Fisheries Management through Ecosystem based Approach
Planning and
implementation
Processes and institutions
Compliance and
enforcement
• AR is a artificial fish habitat which provides living, hiding, and breeding
places for marine organisms
• Act as a barrier to reduce the height and speed of the waves
• Protects the eroding coast and coastal settlements
Artificial Reef for Marine Bio Resource Enhancement
• The management of AR is not an species specific but effective for all aquatic
organisms
• Single species framework to ecosystem based fishery management in the
region
Building Local Capacity and Creating Resilience of Fisherfolk
Engine Mechanism and Trouble Shooting
Safety-at-sea training and provision of
equipment (reduce risks and improve
safety)
Responsible Fisheries - Use of Byecatch
Reduction Devices
Engine Mechanism and Trouble Shooting
Ocean Observation System – Wave Rider and Sea Current Buoys
Communication Network
 HF transmitter range 50 km over sea
 INSAT Antenna
• Three Locations
• Real time information
• Wave Height
• Wave Direction
• Sea water Temperature
• Sea current
Fisher Friend (FFMA) for Climate Smart Fishing
Most vulnerable group to CC – small
scale fishers – more dependent on
traditional knowledge
Need value added information on
ocean condition
FFMA can enhance the adaptive
capacity of small scale fishers
Fisher friend
• (
• Early Warning services
• Livelihood services
• Risk reduction services
Supporting Improved and Inclusive Fish Value Chain
• Post harvest loss – physical loss, quality loss, market loss
• Post-harvest annual loss - Rs 15,000 crore to India’s marine fisheries sector.
• Infrastructure – storage, processing, drying,
packaging
• Knowledge and skill enhancement – value
addition, quality control, market, linkages
• Organization of groups – Promote women
collectives
• Credit and market linkages
Key Message
• Threats and issues to sustainable fisheries are broad and need
integrated approach
• EA helps to identify major issues to be addressed in fisheries
management
• EA facilitates integrated management across land, water and
living resources to reduce the climate change effects
• EA balancing ecological well-being with human well-being
through good governance

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Dr. S Velvizhi, MSSRF, Aug 8, 2020

  • 1. Ecosystem based Adaptation – Marine Fisheries S Velvizhi, Ph.D Fish for All Research and Training Centre M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF) velvizhi@mssrf.res.in Virtual Consultation Science for Resilient Food, Nutrition and Livelihoods: Contemporary Challenges August 7-10, 2020
  • 2. Fishing Profile of Tamil Nadu Physical Component Length of Coastline : 1076 km Fishing Villages : 576 Coastal Districts : 13 Human component Active fishers Population : 8,02,912 Fishers families : 1,92,697 Infrastructure Component Landing centres : 407 Major Fishing harbours : 4 Minor Fishing harbours : 11 Mechanized vessels : 10692 Motorized vessels : 24942 Non – Motorized vessels : 10436 Ecologically important coastal areas • Pulicate lake • Pichavaram Mangroves • Vedaranaym swamp • Muthupet lagoon • Palk Bay • Gulf of MannarData Source : CMFRI
  • 3. Major Gears • Trawl nets • Bag nets • Gillnets • Seines • Hook and Line Major Crafts • Mechanized • Motorized • Non Motorized How fishing is carried out • Top fish producing state in the country (2019) – 7.75 lakhs tonne • Yearly exported 88,257 MT of marine products • Foreign exchange of Rs. 4,341.78 crore
  • 5. Climate Change Effect in Marine Fisheries and Fisherfolks Fisheries • Physiological functions like growth, reproduction and spawning are directly influenced by change of temperature Examples • Oil Sardine Fishery in North and East Coast of India • Vertical migration of Mackerels Fisher folks • Occupational uncertainty • Income disorganization • Equipments Damages and lost • Psycho-social problems Annual average of SST in Tamil Nadu Coast
  • 6. CC impacts in Fisheries and Potential Adaptive Measures Minimize the impact of CC a balanced approach in fishery management is needed which brings value to the ecosystem and also services to people who depends on the resources for their livelihood Reduced Yields Increased Yield Variability Reduced Profitability Increased Risks and Increased vulnerability who live near the coast • Access to higher value markets • Promoting Mariculture activities • Diversify livelihoods • Diversify markets and products • Increase the efficiency of fishing • Weather warning system • Increased communication networks • Early warning system • Improved vessels stability and safety • Sea walls and wet land rehabilitation • Infrastructure like harbours and landing centre facilities • Clear post disaster recovery plan
  • 7. Ecosystem Linkages in Marine Environment • Elements are interconnected • Affecting one part of the system can also have flow-on effects on other parts
  • 8. Ecosystem Based Adaptation in Fisheries • Integrated approach • Adaptive management – leading to more effective planning • Increase stakeholder participation  More transparent planning and decision making  Recognizes cultural and traditional values  Protects the fishing sector from the impacts of other sectors and vice versa  Promotes gender equality • Increase resilience of the fishing communities towards climate change
  • 9. Ecological Well-being Human Well-being Good Governance for future generations Sustainable development Healthy Ecosystems Rich Biodiversity Habitats Healthy oceans and coastal areas Living standards – income, food, Education, Food security Basic human rights Living environment security and human safety Fisheries Management through Ecosystem based Approach Planning and implementation Processes and institutions Compliance and enforcement
  • 10. • AR is a artificial fish habitat which provides living, hiding, and breeding places for marine organisms • Act as a barrier to reduce the height and speed of the waves • Protects the eroding coast and coastal settlements Artificial Reef for Marine Bio Resource Enhancement • The management of AR is not an species specific but effective for all aquatic organisms • Single species framework to ecosystem based fishery management in the region
  • 11. Building Local Capacity and Creating Resilience of Fisherfolk Engine Mechanism and Trouble Shooting Safety-at-sea training and provision of equipment (reduce risks and improve safety) Responsible Fisheries - Use of Byecatch Reduction Devices Engine Mechanism and Trouble Shooting
  • 12. Ocean Observation System – Wave Rider and Sea Current Buoys Communication Network  HF transmitter range 50 km over sea  INSAT Antenna • Three Locations • Real time information • Wave Height • Wave Direction • Sea water Temperature • Sea current
  • 13. Fisher Friend (FFMA) for Climate Smart Fishing Most vulnerable group to CC – small scale fishers – more dependent on traditional knowledge Need value added information on ocean condition FFMA can enhance the adaptive capacity of small scale fishers Fisher friend • ( • Early Warning services • Livelihood services • Risk reduction services
  • 14. Supporting Improved and Inclusive Fish Value Chain • Post harvest loss – physical loss, quality loss, market loss • Post-harvest annual loss - Rs 15,000 crore to India’s marine fisheries sector. • Infrastructure – storage, processing, drying, packaging • Knowledge and skill enhancement – value addition, quality control, market, linkages • Organization of groups – Promote women collectives • Credit and market linkages
  • 15. Key Message • Threats and issues to sustainable fisheries are broad and need integrated approach • EA helps to identify major issues to be addressed in fisheries management • EA facilitates integrated management across land, water and living resources to reduce the climate change effects • EA balancing ecological well-being with human well-being through good governance

Editor's Notes

  1. An important thing to understand is that many elements are interconnected. Something affecting one part of the system can also have flow-on effects on other parts. For example, Starting with decreased fisheries in the middle of the diagram, this results in declining human well-being (top of diagram) that causes increased habitat destruction (left of diagram) and increased sediment and loss of seagrass, thus resulting in decreased fisheries