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The “Creation” of Childhood and Delinquency Early Conceptualizations of Childhood
“ The history of childhood is a nightmare from which we have only recently begun to awake.  The further back in history one goes, the lower the level of child care, and the more likely children are to be killed, abandoned, beaten, terrorized, and sexually abused.”   Lloyd DeMause., 1974:1
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],What is a “social construction?”
Childhood as a social construction ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Early Conceptualizations of Childhood ,[object Object],[object Object]
Children as “Non-Human ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Practices which reflected this “social construction:”
Children as “miniature adults” ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Practices which reflected this “social construction:” Even the paintings of this time portrayed children as adults, as can be seen in this portrait.
In Summary…. ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Changing Images of Childhood
Contrasting Views of Childhood ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Innocent Child ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Depraved Child ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Emerging Childrearing Practices ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Social Forces in the Emerging Conception of Childhood ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Social Stratification and the Emerging Conception of Childhood ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The “Invention” of Delinquency
Eighteenth Century Understanding of Delinquency ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Child Offender in the Eighteenth Century ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Crime, Poverty and Minority Status in the Eighteenth Century ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Nineteenth Century Changes ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Philosophical Shifts ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Nineteenth Century Social and Organizational Changes ,[object Object],[object Object]
The Creation of the Institution ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Entry to Folsom Prison ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Creation of the Juvenile Court ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
What is Juvenile Delinquency? Delinquency as Deviance
A Preliminary Definition... ,[object Object]
A Preliminary Distinction... ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Delinquency as a Violation of Social Norms Dimensions of Norms
Relativity of Norms, Deviance and Delinquency ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Institutional Definitions of Delinquency
Jurisdictional Definitions of Delinquency ,[object Object]
Who is the Juvenile Delinquent? ,[object Object],Living in a delinquent environment Commission of a delinquent offense Reporting of act to police Arrest Appearance in court Institutionalization Adjudication
Who is the Juvenile Delinquent? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Gathering Data on Delinquency Official Statistics And Unofficial Information
The State of America’s Children ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The State of America’s Children ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Significant Risk Factors ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
History of Childhood ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Who is a Juvenile Delinquent? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Jurisdiction ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Legal Responsibility of Juveniles ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Juvenile Arrests for Murder
Adult v. Juvenile Systems ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Categories of Delinquency  ,[object Object],[object Object]
Status Offenses ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Methods of Getting Statistics ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Official Reports ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Juvenile Crime Trends ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
National Crime Victimization Survey ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Self-Report ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Self-Reported Delinquent Activity—2000 Category One offense > 1 offense Total Serious fgt. 7 5 12 Gang fight 11 9 20 Hurt some-one badly 7 5  12 Stole < $50 12 18 30 B & E 10 12 22 Dam. school property 7 6  13
Gender ,[object Object],[object Object]
Delinquency Rates by Gender 1990-2000 MALE FEMALE Arrests < 3% >25% Serious/Violent Crime Arrests <23% >28%
Race ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Age ,[object Object],[object Object]
Chronic offenders ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Juvenile Victimization ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Population Trends ,[object Object]
The proportion of children under age 18 living in two-parent households declined between 1970 and 2002, regardless of race
The proportion of juvenile victimizations occurring outdoors remained relatively constant between 3 and 10 p.m.
The growth and decline in violent crime by juveniles between 1980 and 2003 are documented by both victim reports and arrests
Between 1994 and 2002, the number of murders involving a juvenile offender fell 65%, to its lowest level since 1984
Statistics ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Role of the Police in Dealing with Juvenile Offenders ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Role of Police (cont’d) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Police Discretion ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Official/Unofficial Action: The Officer’s Choice ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Least and Most Likely to be Handled Officially ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Research on Timing of Juvenile Crime ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
OJJDP Annual Report 2006 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Reviewing Data is Easy ,[object Object],Copyright 2006 National Center for Juvenile Justice 3700 S. Water Street, Suite 200 Pittsburgh, PA 15203-2363 Suggested Citation: Snyder, Howard N., and Sickmund, Melissa. 2006. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. More information is available online. The full report, report chapters, and data files for the graphs can be downloaded from  http://ojjdp.ncjrs.gov/ojstatbb/nr2006/index.html Additional statistics are available from OJJDP's Statistical Briefing Book, located at: http://ojjdp.ncjrs.gov/ojstatbb/index.html
Historical View of Female Delinquency ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Gender Differences and Delinquency ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Statistics ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Biological Explanations ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Early Socialization Explanations ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Modern Socialization Views ,[object Object],[object Object]
Liberal Feminist Views ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Juvenile Justice System ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
History and Development of the Juvenile Court Issues of Due Process Issues of Legislative Changes
Development of Juvenile Law and Procedure ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Early Juvenile Law ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Kent v. US  (1966) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Legal Reform Years: In re Gault (1967) In the landmark case,  In re Gault  (1967), the U.S. Supreme Court gave juveniles a number of due process protections: ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],continued…
In re Gault  (1967) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Legal Reform Years: The Juvenile Court After  Gault The court’s ruling in  Gault  and other cases not only increased procedural formality in juvenile court cases, but also shifted the traditional focus from the “whole child” to the child’s act. From there, it was a short step to offense-based sentencing and punitive orientation.
The Legal Reform Years: The Juvenile Court After  Gault Juvenile court procedures are still characterized by an informality that most people would find unacceptable if it were applied to adults in criminal court.
In re Winship (1970) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
McKeiver v. Pennsylvania (1971) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Waiver of Rights ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Waiver of Rights (cont’d) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Adult/Juvenile Comparison ADULTS JUVENILES Comprehension of  Miranda  rights 23% --inadequate understanding 55% --inadequate understanding Understanding the Words 37% --did not understand words 63% --did not understand words Right to Counsel 15% --did not understand right 45% --did not understand right Knowing Extent of Rights -- 62% --thought punished if silent
Changing Beliefs ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Waiver to Adult Court ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Reasons for Waiver ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Judicial Waiver ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Legislative Waiver ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Prosecutorial Waiver ,[object Object],[object Object]
Ohio System of Waiver ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Ohio System of Waiver ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Trends in Waiver Law ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Send to Adult Prisons for Serious Property Crimes STRONGLY AGREE 6% SOMEWHAT AGREE 9% NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE 2% SOMEWHAT DISAGREE 22% STRONGLY DISAGREE 61%
Send to Adult Prisons for Selling Large Amount of Drugs STRONGLY AGREE 14% SOMEWHAT AGREE 17% NEITHER AGREE OR DISAGREE 2% SOMEWHAT DISAGREE 22% STRONGLY DISAGREE 46%
Send to Adult Prisons for Serious Violent Crimes STRONGLY AGREE 23% SOMEWHAT AGREE 21% NEITHER AGREE OR DISAGREE 3% SOMEWHAT DISAGREE 22% STRONGLY DISAGREE 34%
Blended Sentencing ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Group Presentations What do we learn from the media?
Explanations for Delinquency A Brief Introduction to Sociological Theory
Theory Without Panic! ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
 
What Causes Delinquency? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Criminological Paradigms ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Theories Within Classical School ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Positive School—Biological Theories ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Positive School—Psychological Theories ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Positive School—Sociological Theories ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
What Do We Know About Offenders? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Developmental & Life Course Theories ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Life Trajectories ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Life Trajectories
Different Theories ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Moffitt’s Developmental Theory ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Defining the Life-Course Persistent Offender ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Factors Related to Life Course Persistence ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
LCP Interaction in Environment ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Intervention ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Adolescent Limited ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Explaining AL Behavior ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Explaining AL Desistence ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Sampson & Laub’s Age-Graded Theory ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Influencing Factors ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
A General Theory of Crime ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Developmental Pathways for Females ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
In sum… ,[object Object],[object Object]
INDIVIDUAL VIEWS OF DELINQUENCY Biology Rational Choice Modern Individualism
Categories of Theories ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Classical/Choice ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
More Theories ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Deterrence ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Biological Theories ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Modern Biosocial Theories ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Modern Biosocial Theories ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Genetics ,[object Object],[object Object]
% Adopted Juveniles with Criminal Record Biological and adoptive parents NO CRIMINAL RECORD 13.5% BIOLOGICAL  parents had criminal record 20% ADOPTIVE  parents had criminal record 15% Biological and adoptive parents BOTH HAD CRIMINAL RECORDS 25%
Psychological Theories ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Cognitive Theory ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Antisocial Personality Disorder ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Explanations of Female Violence ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Social Theories of Delinquency ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Structural Explanations for Delinquency
Defining Structural Theories ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Structural Theories I: Strain Theory
Strain Theory Delinquency  Economic Inequality
Historical Foundation of  Strain Theory ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Robert Merton ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Social Structure and Anomie Merton’s theory of “anomie” stressed two structural conditions: The interaction of these conditions produce five adaptive responses:
Strain—Modes of Adaption Conformity Accepts cultural goal Accepts institution Highly unlikely JD Ritualism Rejects cultural goal Accepts institution Unlikely JD Innovation Accepts cultural goal Rejects institution Most likely JD Retreatism Rejects cultural goal Rejects institution Likely JD Rebellion Rejects cultural goal Rejects institution Likely JD
Differential Opportunity Theory ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Lloyd Ohlin
Differential Opportunity’s Three Subcultural Responses ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Cohen’s Subcultural Strain Theory ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Cohen’s Adaptive Responses to Status Frustration ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Structural Theories II: Cultural Deviance Theories
Cultural Deviance Theories Cultural Orientation Delinquency
Historical Foundation of Cultural Deviance Theories ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Robert Park A founder of the “ Chicago School”
Social Disorganization Theory ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Social Disorganization Lack of Supervision Delinquency/Gangs
Lower Class Focal Values ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Social Process Theories for Delinquency
Historical Background ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
General Assumptions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Types of Social Process Theories ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Social Process Theories I: Social Learning Theories
Social Learning Theories ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Differential Association Theory ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Edwin Sutherland
Differential Reinforcement Theory ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Ron Akers
Drift and Neutralization Theory ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Gresham Sykes
Social Process Theories II: Social Control Theories
General Assumptions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Containment Theory ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Walter Reckless
Social Bond Theory ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Social Bond
Societal Reaction Theories for Delinquency
Overview of Societal Reaction Theory ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Historical Context of Societal Reaction Theory ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Societal Reaction Theory Labeling Theory
Broad Mosaic of Labeling Theory ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Central Questions of Labeling Theory ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Why are certain  behaviors  defined as delinquent? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Howard Becker
Why are certain  individuals  labeled delinquent? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],William Chambliss
What is the  effect  of the label? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Erving Goffman Edwin Lemert
Societal Reaction Theory: Conflict Theory
The Marxist Foundation ,[object Object],Economic Infrastructure Law Family Religion Education Science
Marxist Foundation (cont.) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Marx and Crime ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Early Marxist Criminologists ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Frederick Engels
Themes of Modern Conflict Theorists ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Social Correlates of Delinquency Gender
Our Knowledge Gap on Gender and Delinquency ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Nature and Extent of  Male and Female Delinquency
Mr. Streetman Jason 1102 - 280 Bypass Phenix City AL 36867 Charles Bradshaw Fall, 1999   Nature and Extent of  Male and Female Delinquency
Nature and Extent of  Male and Female Delinquency
Explaining Female (vs. male) Delinquency ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
“ Trait” Explanations for Female Delinquency ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Sociological Explanations for Female Delinquency ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Changing Gender Patterns ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Explaining Changing Gender Patterns ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Social Correlates of Delinquency The Family
Why Look at the Family as a Causal Context for Delinquency? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Family Variables Linked to Delinquency:  The Broken Home I ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Family Variables Linked to Delinquency:  The Broken Home II ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Family Variables Linked to Delinquency:  Family Conflict ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Family Variables Linked to Delinquency: Parental Rejection ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Family Variables Linked to Delinquency: Discipline ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Family Variables Linked to Delinquency: Family Role Models ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Family Variables Linked to Delinquency: Family Size ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
A Special Case: The Abusive Family ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Extent of Child Abuse: Reported Cases ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Extent of Child Abuse: Unreported Cases ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Abused and the Abusers ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
What Causes Child Abuse? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Relationship between Child Abuse and Delinquency ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Abuse Modeling of Aggression Vulnerability to Stress Delinquency
Cohort Studies on Abuse and Delinquency ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Social Correlates of Delinquency The School
Significance of the School in the Study of Delinquency ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The School and Delinquency: Proposed Effects ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],School Attendance Frustration Delinquency School Attendance Positive Values, Relationships Less Delinquency
Theoretical Basis for Positions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Testing the Theories: Elliot Study ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Findings
Testing the Theories: Thornberry et al. Study Hypotheses Strain Theory:   Criminal behavior of dropouts should decline  more sharply  than that of graduates after leaving school, and rates for dropouts should converge quickly with those of graduates Control Theory:  Natural decline during post-high school years should be  more gradual  for dropouts than graduates, and will not converge with decline for graduates Method Sample:  10% sample of Philadelphia Birth Cohort Study (N=567 boys) Variables:   Dropping Out, Criminal Involvement (arrests), Race, Father’s Occupation, Marital Status, Employment Status
Testing the Theories: Thornberry et al. Study Findings
Social Correlates of Delinquency Social Class
Traditional Understanding ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Some Early Self-report Evidence: Individual Social Class  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Study by Empey and Erikson (cont.) Overall Findings
Study by Empey and Erikson (cont.) Findings for Specific Offenses
Some Early Self-report Evidence: Community Social Class ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Clark and Wenninger Study
Clark and Wenninger Study (cont.) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Industrial City Lower Urban Similar Delinquency  Patterns Upper Urban Rural Farm Different Delinquency Patterns
Some Early Self-report Evidence: Rising Affluence ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Study by Jackson Toby (cont.) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Reassessing Social Class and Delinquency I: Criticisms of Prior Research ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Reassessing Social Class and Delinquency II: Recent Studies ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Joseph Weis Study
Social Correlates and Delinquency Juvenile Gangs
History of Gangs in America ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Defining “Gang” ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Miller’s Characteristics and Definition of a Gang ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Types of Gangs ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Lewis Yablonsky’s Typology ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Yablonsky’s “Near Group” ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Non-Sociological Theories of Gang Formation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Sociological Theories of Gang Formation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Extensiveness of Gangs Extensiveness of Gangs
Extent of Gang Delinquency ,[object Object],[object Object]
Social Correlates of Delinquency Drug Use
Types of Drugs Used ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
How is Drug Use Measured: Three National Surveys ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Trends in Drug Use: ISR Statistics
Trends in Drug Use: NHS Statistics
Drug Use and Crime: Three Models Drug Use Crime Crime Drug Use Drug Use Crime Other Factors
Drug Use:  A Career Model Drug Availability Life Structure
Career Patterns of Heroin Use
The Juvenile Justice System An Overview
Nineteenth Century Juvenile Justice ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Factors in the Development of the Juvenile Court Industrialization and Urbanization Child Saving Movement Development of Juvenile Institutions
Industrialization and Urbanization ,[object Object],[object Object]
Child-Saving Movement ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Juvenile Institution ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Establishment of the Juvenile Court ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Twentieth Century Implementation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Contemporary Overview ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Philosophical and Procedural Distinctions between Juvenile and Criminal Justice ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Key Court Cases in Twentieth Century Juvenile Justice ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Official Reaction to Juvenile Delinquency Components of the Juvenile Justice System I: The Police
History of Police Work with Juveniles ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
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Jd Powerpointsv1

  • 1. The “Creation” of Childhood and Delinquency Early Conceptualizations of Childhood
  • 2. “ The history of childhood is a nightmare from which we have only recently begun to awake. The further back in history one goes, the lower the level of child care, and the more likely children are to be killed, abandoned, beaten, terrorized, and sexually abused.” Lloyd DeMause., 1974:1
  • 3.
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  • 9. Changing Images of Childhood
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  • 16. The “Invention” of Delinquency
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  • 25. What is Juvenile Delinquency? Delinquency as Deviance
  • 26.
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  • 28. Delinquency as a Violation of Social Norms Dimensions of Norms
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  • 34. Gathering Data on Delinquency Official Statistics And Unofficial Information
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  • 51. Self-Reported Delinquent Activity—2000 Category One offense > 1 offense Total Serious fgt. 7 5 12 Gang fight 11 9 20 Hurt some-one badly 7 5 12 Stole < $50 12 18 30 B & E 10 12 22 Dam. school property 7 6 13
  • 52.
  • 53. Delinquency Rates by Gender 1990-2000 MALE FEMALE Arrests < 3% >25% Serious/Violent Crime Arrests <23% >28%
  • 54.
  • 55.
  • 56.
  • 57.
  • 58.
  • 59. The proportion of children under age 18 living in two-parent households declined between 1970 and 2002, regardless of race
  • 60. The proportion of juvenile victimizations occurring outdoors remained relatively constant between 3 and 10 p.m.
  • 61. The growth and decline in violent crime by juveniles between 1980 and 2003 are documented by both victim reports and arrests
  • 62. Between 1994 and 2002, the number of murders involving a juvenile offender fell 65%, to its lowest level since 1984
  • 63.
  • 64.
  • 65.
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  • 79.
  • 80. History and Development of the Juvenile Court Issues of Due Process Issues of Legislative Changes
  • 81.
  • 82.
  • 83.
  • 84.
  • 85.
  • 86. The Legal Reform Years: The Juvenile Court After Gault The court’s ruling in Gault and other cases not only increased procedural formality in juvenile court cases, but also shifted the traditional focus from the “whole child” to the child’s act. From there, it was a short step to offense-based sentencing and punitive orientation.
  • 87. The Legal Reform Years: The Juvenile Court After Gault Juvenile court procedures are still characterized by an informality that most people would find unacceptable if it were applied to adults in criminal court.
  • 88.
  • 89.
  • 90.
  • 91.
  • 92. Adult/Juvenile Comparison ADULTS JUVENILES Comprehension of Miranda rights 23% --inadequate understanding 55% --inadequate understanding Understanding the Words 37% --did not understand words 63% --did not understand words Right to Counsel 15% --did not understand right 45% --did not understand right Knowing Extent of Rights -- 62% --thought punished if silent
  • 93.
  • 94.
  • 95.
  • 96.
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  • 98.
  • 99.
  • 100.
  • 101.
  • 102. Send to Adult Prisons for Serious Property Crimes STRONGLY AGREE 6% SOMEWHAT AGREE 9% NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE 2% SOMEWHAT DISAGREE 22% STRONGLY DISAGREE 61%
  • 103. Send to Adult Prisons for Selling Large Amount of Drugs STRONGLY AGREE 14% SOMEWHAT AGREE 17% NEITHER AGREE OR DISAGREE 2% SOMEWHAT DISAGREE 22% STRONGLY DISAGREE 46%
  • 104. Send to Adult Prisons for Serious Violent Crimes STRONGLY AGREE 23% SOMEWHAT AGREE 21% NEITHER AGREE OR DISAGREE 3% SOMEWHAT DISAGREE 22% STRONGLY DISAGREE 34%
  • 105.
  • 106. Group Presentations What do we learn from the media?
  • 107. Explanations for Delinquency A Brief Introduction to Sociological Theory
  • 108.
  • 109.  
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  • 133.
  • 134. INDIVIDUAL VIEWS OF DELINQUENCY Biology Rational Choice Modern Individualism
  • 135.
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  • 138.
  • 139.
  • 140.
  • 141.
  • 142.
  • 143. % Adopted Juveniles with Criminal Record Biological and adoptive parents NO CRIMINAL RECORD 13.5% BIOLOGICAL parents had criminal record 20% ADOPTIVE parents had criminal record 15% Biological and adoptive parents BOTH HAD CRIMINAL RECORDS 25%
  • 144.
  • 145.
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  • 147.
  • 148.
  • 150.
  • 151. Structural Theories I: Strain Theory
  • 152. Strain Theory Delinquency Economic Inequality
  • 153.
  • 154.
  • 155. Social Structure and Anomie Merton’s theory of “anomie” stressed two structural conditions: The interaction of these conditions produce five adaptive responses:
  • 156. Strain—Modes of Adaption Conformity Accepts cultural goal Accepts institution Highly unlikely JD Ritualism Rejects cultural goal Accepts institution Unlikely JD Innovation Accepts cultural goal Rejects institution Most likely JD Retreatism Rejects cultural goal Rejects institution Likely JD Rebellion Rejects cultural goal Rejects institution Likely JD
  • 157.
  • 158.
  • 159.
  • 160.
  • 161. Structural Theories II: Cultural Deviance Theories
  • 162. Cultural Deviance Theories Cultural Orientation Delinquency
  • 163.
  • 164.
  • 165.
  • 166. Social Process Theories for Delinquency
  • 167.
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  • 170. Social Process Theories I: Social Learning Theories
  • 171.
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  • 175. Social Process Theories II: Social Control Theories
  • 176.
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  • 178.
  • 180. Societal Reaction Theories for Delinquency
  • 181.
  • 182.
  • 183. Societal Reaction Theory Labeling Theory
  • 184.
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  • 188.
  • 189. Societal Reaction Theory: Conflict Theory
  • 190.
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  • 195. Social Correlates of Delinquency Gender
  • 196.
  • 197. Nature and Extent of Male and Female Delinquency
  • 198. Mr. Streetman Jason 1102 - 280 Bypass Phenix City AL 36867 Charles Bradshaw Fall, 1999 Nature and Extent of Male and Female Delinquency
  • 199. Nature and Extent of Male and Female Delinquency
  • 200.
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  • 205. Social Correlates of Delinquency The Family
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  • 221. Social Correlates of Delinquency The School
  • 222.
  • 223.
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  • 225.
  • 226. Testing the Theories: Thornberry et al. Study Hypotheses Strain Theory: Criminal behavior of dropouts should decline more sharply than that of graduates after leaving school, and rates for dropouts should converge quickly with those of graduates Control Theory: Natural decline during post-high school years should be more gradual for dropouts than graduates, and will not converge with decline for graduates Method Sample: 10% sample of Philadelphia Birth Cohort Study (N=567 boys) Variables: Dropping Out, Criminal Involvement (arrests), Race, Father’s Occupation, Marital Status, Employment Status
  • 227. Testing the Theories: Thornberry et al. Study Findings
  • 228. Social Correlates of Delinquency Social Class
  • 229.
  • 230.
  • 231. Study by Empey and Erikson (cont.) Overall Findings
  • 232. Study by Empey and Erikson (cont.) Findings for Specific Offenses
  • 233.
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  • 239. Social Correlates and Delinquency Juvenile Gangs
  • 240.
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  • 246.
  • 247.
  • 248. Extensiveness of Gangs Extensiveness of Gangs
  • 249.
  • 250. Social Correlates of Delinquency Drug Use
  • 251.
  • 252.
  • 253. Trends in Drug Use: ISR Statistics
  • 254. Trends in Drug Use: NHS Statistics
  • 255. Drug Use and Crime: Three Models Drug Use Crime Crime Drug Use Drug Use Crime Other Factors
  • 256. Drug Use: A Career Model Drug Availability Life Structure
  • 257. Career Patterns of Heroin Use
  • 258. The Juvenile Justice System An Overview
  • 259.
  • 260. Factors in the Development of the Juvenile Court Industrialization and Urbanization Child Saving Movement Development of Juvenile Institutions
  • 261.
  • 262.
  • 263.
  • 264.
  • 265.
  • 266.
  • 267.
  • 268.
  • 269. Official Reaction to Juvenile Delinquency Components of the Juvenile Justice System I: The Police
  • 270.