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Hardest Hatev2

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Public Presentation given at the University of Minnesota-Duluth on March 23, 2009.

Published in: Education, Spiritual
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Hardest Hatev2

  1. 1. White Racial Extremist Movements The Hardest Hate: An Introduction to White Racial Extremism
  2. 2. Thank You! <ul><li>I would like to thank Dr. Daniel Martin, Chair Janelle Wilson, and the Sociology and Anthropology Department for bringing me here to the University of Minnesota – Duluth to speak with you today… </li></ul><ul><li>I have been here before speaking to the First Reading XV Sessions - &quot;The Popular Culture of White Supremacy” on April 28, 1995. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Thinking about White Racial Extremism <ul><li>The project has focused on understanding the reasons that lead some people to join a social movement that many of us do not understand… </li></ul><ul><li>The research has taken multiple tracks: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Interviewing members and leaders of these groups, </li></ul><ul><li>(2) individuals who are connected to these groups, </li></ul><ul><li>(3) content analysis of written material by and about these groups, </li></ul><ul><li>(4) and collection and analysis of data on hate crime and hate crime laws. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Interview Data I have interviewed 325 individuals involved in extremist organizations in the United States <ul><li>Midwest: </li></ul><ul><li>Ohio (148) </li></ul><ul><li>Kentucky (25) </li></ul><ul><li>West Virginia (15) </li></ul><ul><li>Pennsylvania (14) </li></ul><ul><li>Illinois (13) </li></ul><ul><li>Indiana (16) </li></ul><ul><li>South: </li></ul><ul><li>North Carolina (19) </li></ul><ul><li>South Carolina (25) </li></ul><ul><li>Georgia (16) </li></ul><ul><li>Tennessee (16) </li></ul><ul><li>East: </li></ul><ul><li>Massachusetts (18) </li></ul>
  5. 5. How many white racial extremists are in the U.S.? <ul><li>Hard to know </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why… frequent changes and fluctuations in membership </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Did not track these groups until recently </li></ul><ul><li>Most of data comes from watchdog groups (Anti-racist groups) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Hate Groups (2003)
  7. 7. Hate in Ohio (2003)
  8. 8. Content Analysis <ul><li>I have also conducted content analysis on hundreds of newspaper and print articles, television and radio programs, and letters to the editors written by white racial extremists. </li></ul><ul><li>This analysis has helped contextualize white racial extremists in the local and national consciousness. </li></ul><ul><li>I have also reviewed the scholarly literature in deviant behavior, criminology, popular culture, social movements, and white racial extremism. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, I have also examined hundreds of web sites. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Little good scholarship <ul><li>Although much scholarly work has focused on extremism in a useful way... </li></ul><ul><li>Need for research on the ‘New Racism…’ </li></ul><ul><li>Need for research that does not see racial extremists as pathological… </li></ul>
  10. 10. Introduction <ul><li>White Supremacy </li></ul><ul><li>vs. </li></ul>White Racialism
  11. 11. What is a Racist?
  12. 12. White racialist beliefs <ul><li>Spirituality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Racist Christian Identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Racist Odinism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Community: Family and Race as Nation </li></ul><ul><li>Race War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ZOG/JOG </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Odinism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered the religion of the Vikings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15-50 percent are racist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Christian Identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Covenant, Sword, and Arm of the Lord (CSA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aryan Nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World Church of the Creator (WCotC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The creation of man & the two-seed theory </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Extremist Organizations <ul><li>Ties to Hate Crime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important to remember the rise and development of Hate Crime in the U.S. & abroad as related to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>these individuals and organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Domestic v. International Extremism </li></ul><ul><li>Again - Hard to Measure Membership </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. “Hate Groups”/White racial extremism trends </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Briefly we will now turn our attention to Hate Crime for a few minutes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is a Hate Crime? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of Hate Crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact of Hate Crimes </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Hate Crimes and Hate Crime Laws <ul><li>Often a response to “hate activity” </li></ul><ul><li>Hate Crimes and Hate Groups (5%) </li></ul><ul><li>Significantly different than non-hate crimes </li></ul>
  17. 17. RAV v. St. Paul <ul><li>Seventeen-year-old Robert Anthony Viktora, who was white, burned a cross on a black family’s front lawn. </li></ul><ul><li>He was charged with a variety of offenses, but in 1992 (in R.A.V. v. City of St. Paul ) the Supreme Court found one of his convictions to be a violation of the first amendment. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Mitchell v. Wisconsin </li></ul><ul><li>Penalty Enhancement </li></ul><ul><li>- 2 parts </li></ul>
  19. 19. Mitchell v. Wisconsin <ul><li>Nineteen-year-old Todd Mitchell, who was black, urged his friends to “go get” a fourteen-year-old white boy who happened to be walking by. </li></ul><ul><li>The friends beat the boy badly enough to put him in a coma. Mitchell also faced a variety of charges, but this time, only a year after Viktora’s case, the Supreme Court upheld those convictions ( Wisconsin v. Mitchell , 1993). </li></ul>
  20. 20. What’s the Difference? <ul><li>What distinguished Viktora’s case from Mitchell’s? The former involved hate speech , whereas the latter involved hate crime . </li></ul><ul><li>These terms are often used interchangeably by lay people and the media, and the distinction may seem unimportant. </li></ul><ul><li>In reality, however, hate crime and hate speech are very different from legal, policy, and phenomenological standpoints. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Increasing Levels of Hate Crimes? <ul><li>In recent decades, our society has witnessed a significant increase in the occurrence of hate crimes targeting particular groups. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the main concerns related to this unforeseen growth of hate crimes is that the brutality and nature of these crimes has intensified immensely. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Hate crimes are frequently Attacks <ul><li>Over the past few years, the number of attacks against people because of their race, religion, sexual orientation, or ethnic origin has increased at an alarming rate. </li></ul><ul><li>The increase in anti-Semitic violence in the 1990s is instructive of this trend. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Benjamin Smith                         Benjamin Nathaniel Smith, who went on a deadly killing spree in the Midwest that targeted minorities, is one of the most recent hate-motivated criminals whose acts have prompted federal and local action. (AP Photo)
  24. 24. Characteristics of Hate Crimes <ul><li>1. Severity of attack --most hate crimes are violent assaults. </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of attack --hatred is illustrated when force is exercised beyond what may be necessary to subdue victims, make them comply, disarm them, or take goods from them. 3/4 of all hate crime attacks involve some physical injury. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Warning the next slide is graphic It is alright to avert your eyes…
  26. 27. Hate Crimes are Vicious <ul><li>I show you that slide to demonstrate the anger and hostility that accompany violent hate assaults </li></ul>
  27. 28. Characteristics of Hate Crimes II <ul><li>Randomness --hate crimes appear to be irrational crimes perpetuated at random on total strangers (85% of HC are committed by strangers) victims rarely provoke their attackers directly. </li></ul><ul><li>Perpetuated by multiple offenders --unlike most violent crimes, hate crimes are usually committed by groups of people. </li></ul>
  28. 29. A New Idea <ul><li>Although bigotry is probably as old as humanity, the term &quot;hate crime&quot; is a new one, as is the idea of special treatment of these offenses. </li></ul><ul><li>The first hate crime law was passed around 1980, and two decades later, 43 states, the District of Columbia, and the federal government had all enacted some form of hate crime legislation (Anti-Defamation League [ADL], 2001). </li></ul><ul><li>The phrase has entered the popular vernacular, and it is used frequently by the media. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Groups <ul><li>Now that we have talked about Hate Crime, lets turn our attention to the various groups in the United States that I have conducted interviews with leaders and followers… </li></ul><ul><li>We discuss these groups to understand the variety of white racial extremists… </li></ul>
  30. 32. Ku Klux Klan (1 st era) <ul><li>Not ONE Klan </li></ul><ul><li>Dates of the “Klan Eras” vary </li></ul><ul><li>First era (1866-1871) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1866: Formed in Pulaski, Tenn. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1871: 550,000 members </li></ul></ul>
  31. 33. KKK <ul><li>Knights of Ku Klux Klan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st Era Klan 1865-1869/1870 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Founded in Pulaski, TN during Christmas 1865 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Started as a social group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First Imperial Wizard was Nathan Bedford Forest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Born July 13, 1821-October 29, 1877 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over time evolved into vigilantes then terrorist </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolved in 1869-1870 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 34. KKK (2) <ul><li>Second era (1915-1930) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1920: 5,000 members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-Semitic and anti-Catholic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1925: 3.5 million - 5 million members (high point) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scandals caused decline </li></ul></ul>
  33. 35. Ku Klux Klan (3-4) <ul><li>Third era (1954-1969) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil rights era </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fourth era (1974-1984) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1974: 1,500 members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The new image (e.g. David Duke) </li></ul></ul>
  34. 36. Third and Fourth Era Ku Klux Klan <ul><li>In the 1950s, the KKK reemerged to oppose the civil rights movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the era of fragmented Klans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Dynamite Klan” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1950s Church Bombings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Fourth era (1974-1984) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1974: 1,500 members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The new image (e.g. David Duke) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imperial Wizard and leader, David Duke </li></ul></ul>
  35. 37. KKK Today <ul><li>Fifth era (three possibilities) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1981 - present: new era of secrecy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1995 - present: the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has yet to occur </li></ul></ul>
  36. 38. <ul><li>Downtown </li></ul><ul><li>Cincinnati </li></ul><ul><li>(12/03) </li></ul><ul><li>The Klan in Ohio </li></ul>
  37. 40. Preparing for a Klan Rally
  38. 41. 1999: There were 7 Klan Rallies in Ohio (3 examples) <ul><li>March 21, 1999 (Kettering) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15 Klan, 12 supporters, 200 protestors, 80/85 officers used, 2 arrests, $20,000-25,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>September 11, 1999 (Columbus) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20 Klan, 3 supporters, 200-300 protestors, $120,000 ($36,000 barracades) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>June 19, 1999 (Bowling Green) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 Klan, 1 supporter, 50-60 protestors, all 32 officers used, $4,000 </li></ul></ul>
  39. 42. <ul><li>American Nazis Party </li></ul><ul><ul><li>George Lincoln Rockwell, Arlington, VA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coined the term “White Power” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme Anti-Semitism & Racism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vanguard Principle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Admiration for Hitler (esp. his focus on organization, core beliefs, Anti-Semitism, and control) </li></ul></ul>
  40. 43. George Lincoln Rockwell <ul><li>Killed by follower in 1967 </li></ul>
  41. 44. <ul><li>Thomas Metzger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Race and Reason </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recruited young people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1988 SPLC law suit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lost and owed 8 million </li></ul></ul>
  42. 45. <ul><li>American Dissident Voices radio show </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance Records </li></ul><ul><li>Neo-Nazi </li></ul><ul><li>William Pierce </li></ul><ul><li>The Turner Diaries </li></ul>
  43. 46. National Alliance <ul><li>Founded by William Pierce </li></ul>
  44. 47. The Turner Diaries <ul><li>Key text to Robert Jay Matthews (the Order) and Timothy McVeigh </li></ul><ul><li>One of the best selling books among the racist right </li></ul><ul><li>Also wrote “Hunter” </li></ul>
  45. 48. Philosophy of the National Alliance <ul><li>See Motto at left (on back of card) </li></ul>
  46. 50. <ul><li>Founded by Richard Butler and moved to a compound outside of Lake Hayden, Idaho and based on the religious philosophy of Christian Identity </li></ul>
  47. 51. The Order <ul><li>Splinter Group of Aryan Nations that was tired of all the talk and waiting for an eventual race war in the United States. They believed that direct action needed to be taken to begin the race war. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed by Robert Jay Matthews. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Killed controversial Denver-based radio talk show host Alan Berg. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Successfully robbed two brinks armored cars and netted almost 4 million dollars. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Killed a member that they thought was a traitor. </li></ul></ul>
  48. 52. Robert Jay Matthews <ul><li>1950-1983 </li></ul><ul><li>Matthews pictured here with his ‘girlfriend’ </li></ul><ul><li>Leader of the Order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called the Silent Brotherhood </li></ul></ul>
  49. 53. Significance of The Order <ul><li>Established a clarion call for direct violent confrontation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bought paramilitary equipment and trained for a strike on a populated city in the Pacific Northwest. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Richard Snell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timothy McVeigh (not only was influenced by the Turner Diaries but also by The Order ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spread the money that was stolen around the white racial extremist movement </li></ul>
  50. 54. Ritual <ul><li>Swearing-in ceremony </li></ul><ul><li>View of History </li></ul><ul><li>Organization of the Group </li></ul><ul><li>Brotherhood </li></ul><ul><li>David Lane – The 14 Words </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;We must secure the existence of our people and a future for white children.&quot; </li></ul>
  51. 55. Aryan Nations Problems <ul><li>Sued for 6.5 million dollars and lost…which lost the compound and all of the resources of the organization in Coeur d’Alene, Idaho </li></ul><ul><li>Moved headquarters and leadership to Ohio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ray Redfairn </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Then split again… </li></ul>
  52. 57. Racist Skinheads and Neo-Nazis
  53. 58. Racist Skinheads <ul><li>Skinhead origins </li></ul><ul><li>National Front (England) </li></ul><ul><li>Music – Skrewdriver </li></ul><ul><li>“ Foot soldiers of the movement” </li></ul>
  54. 59. Racist Skinhead Beliefs <ul><li>Connection to Neo-Nazis Beliefs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vanguard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hitler’s Organizational Principles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focused on Race </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use music, popular culture, anger to promote message </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uniform vs. Clean Appearance </li></ul>
  55. 60. Origin of Racist Skinheads <ul><li>Developed from music subcultures in England in the late 1960s and early 1970s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rudes/Rudeboys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Punk </li></ul></ul>
  56. 61. Racist Skinhead Music <ul><li>Skrewdriver </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ian Stewart Donaldson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led to the development of other “White Power” music: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RaHoWa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>George (Hawthorne) Burdi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistance Records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Angry Aryans, Max Resist, Bound For Glory, many more… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  57. 62. Anti-Racist Skinheads <ul><li>These are groups that use the skinhead music and subculture to fight extremists in the United States and abroad: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharp Skins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Edge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-Racist Action </li></ul></ul>
  58. 63. <ul><li>Church of Jesus Christ Christian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historic Development (Barkin, Religion and the Racist Right ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>True Identity of Israel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Racial Identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enosh – Aliens that went to war w/ God </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Man </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jews </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mongrels </li></ul></ul></ul>
  59. 64. Armageddon <ul><li>Christian Identity believers (not what they call themselves but we need a term to identify them) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believe that Jesus will not return until Jews, Enosh, and Mongrels are removed from the Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They do not believe in the rapture because they believe that Christians must fight evil rather than waiting for God to pull them out of the fight </li></ul></ul>
  60. 65. How they view themselves
  61. 66. Pete Peters <ul><li>Identity Minister </li></ul><ul><li>Pastor of the LaPorte Church of Christ and head of its Scriptures for America Worldwide international outreach ministry. </li></ul>
  62. 67. Peters Activities <ul><li>Peters has hosted Scriptures for America Bible retreats, Family Bible Camp Conferences, and seminars that have attracted prominent Identity and other far-right figures. </li></ul><ul><li>He hosts a Scriptures for America short-wave radio program and disseminates audiocassette tapes of his sermons and those of other Identity preachers. </li></ul>
  63. 68. Scriptures for America <ul><li>Peters has promoted Scriptures for America Worldwide, the outreach arm of his church, as &quot;dedicated to preaching the Gospel of Jesus Christ and to revealing to the Anglo-Saxon, Germanic and kindred peoples of the world their true Biblical identity.&quot; </li></ul>
  64. 69. Identity Belief <ul><li>Peters alleges that the 12 tribes of Israel consist of &quot;the Anglo-Saxon, Germanic, Celtic, Scandinavian and kindred peoples -- the peoples who comprise the white race which settled the North American continent, forming the bedrock population of the United States of America.“ </li></ul>
  65. 70. Extremely Anti-Semetic <ul><li>Peters has said, &quot;We are not 'Judeo-Christians' -- a term which is an oxymoron, if ever there was one. </li></ul><ul><li>We neither follow nor promote the so-called 'Judeo-Christian ethic.' We are Christians.&quot; He has charged that &quot;anti-Christ Jews&quot; have &quot;warred against the truth&quot; to &quot;demonize the label Christian.&quot; </li></ul>
  66. 71. Spreading the Word <ul><li>Scriptures for America audiocassette tapes by others have included: &quot;The Six Million Holocaust&quot; by Ernst Zundel, a pro-Nazi propagandist and Holocaust denier; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The Point of No Return&quot; by Jack Mohr, a Mississippi-based anti-Jewish propagandist and Identity adherent; and </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The Greatest Conspiracy&quot; by Earl Jones, a New Mexico-based Identity minister. </li></ul>
  67. 72. <ul><li>Founded in 1973 by Ben Klassen who wrote a book called: White Man’s Bible </li></ul>
  68. 73. Creativity <ul><li>WCOTC is a white supremacist group that considers itself a religion founded on the proposition that the white race is &quot;nature's highest creation&quot; and that &quot;white people are the creators of all worthwhile culture and civilization.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Followers of the WCOTC do not believe in God, heaven, hell or eternal life. They consider Jews and nonwhites, whom they refer to as &quot;mud races,&quot; to be the &quot;natural enemies&quot; of the white race. </li></ul>
  69. 74. Matthew Hale <ul><li>Pontificus Maximus of World Church of the Creator until 1996-2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Former University of Michigan law student </li></ul><ul><li>After graduation he was denied the right to practice law </li></ul>
  70. 75. Rise of Matt Hale <ul><li>Hale assumed leadership in 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Publish The Struggle </li></ul><ul><li>More than 30 affiliated </li></ul><ul><li>Web sites; online mailing </li></ul><ul><li>lists, bulletin boards, </li></ul><ul><li>and chat rooms </li></ul>
  71. 76. <ul><li>White Power Music </li></ul><ul><li>Women and Children </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet and social media </li></ul>
  72. 77. “ Music of the White Resistance” <ul><li>Since the 1980s… </li></ul>
  73. 78. White Power Music <ul><li>Recruitment tool </li></ul><ul><li>Skrewdriver </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance Records </li></ul><ul><ul><li>George Burdi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Alliance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Panzerfaust </li></ul>
  74. 79. George “Hawthorne” Burdi <ul><li>Founder of the band RaHoWa (stand for Racial Holy War) </li></ul><ul><li>Founder of Resistance Records </li></ul><ul><li>Canadian </li></ul><ul><li>Former member of World Church of the Creator </li></ul>
  75. 80. <ul><li>Rahowa </li></ul><ul><li>Blue Eyed Devils </li></ul><ul><li>Bound for Glory </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme Hatred </li></ul><ul><li>Angry Aryans </li></ul><ul><li>Nordic Thunder </li></ul><ul><li>Blood and Honour </li></ul><ul><li>Brutal Attack </li></ul><ul><li>Berserkr </li></ul><ul><li>Max Resist </li></ul>
  76. 81. <ul><li>Racial Extremism </li></ul><ul><li>and the Internet </li></ul>
  77. 82. New Forms of Communication <ul><li>Media </li></ul><ul><li>Radio </li></ul><ul><li>Television </li></ul><ul><li>Politics </li></ul><ul><li>Rallies </li></ul><ul><li>Speeches </li></ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul>                                                                                                  
  78. 83. Youth Racialists
  79. 84. Female Racialists
  80. 85. The Purpose <ul><li>Understanding these groups so we can respond to them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we respond to behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>we do not understand? </li></ul></ul>
  81. 86. <ul><li>We have a few minutes left any questions that I can answer? </li></ul>

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