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The Planning Cycle Analysis of current Situation Where are we now? (Base Line Data) Forecasting Where is the world moving to? Develop Objectives Where do we want to be within a given period of time? Action Plan (Work Plan) What must I do to get where I want to go? Implementation of Work Plan Do it! Monitor Progress by comparing current data with Baseline Data Taking into consideration policies, strategies and national development plans Start of a new planning cycle Detect weaknesses, strengths, opportunities and risks
The activities and information requirements of the three major levels   of management Regular internal reports Detailed transaction reports Procedures manuals Current historical data Programmed decisions Production scheduling Inventory control Credit management Directions Commands Actions and other operational decisions Direct the utilization of resources and the performance of tasks in conformance with established rules Operational Management Forecasts and historical data Regular Internal Reports Exception reports Simulations Inquiries Personnel practices Capital Budgeting Marketing Mix Budgets Procedures Rules and other tactical decisions Allocate assigned resources to specific tasks Make rules Measure performance Exert control Tactical Management Forecasts Simulations Inquiries External Reports One-time reports Condensed internal reports Policy on industry and product diversification Social responsibility policy Major capital expenditure policy Goals and strategic objectives Company policies Long range plans and other strategic decisions Long range planning and goal setting Determine organizational resource requirements and allocations Strategic Management Information Requirements Activity Examples Activity Results Primary Activities Management Levels
External institutional analysis examples include: ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Internal institutional analysis examples include: ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Periodic Scheduled Reports  Exception Reports Demand Reports and Responses Drill-down Reports Major Management Information  Systems Reports
Sensitivity Analysis What-If  Analysis Goal-Seeking Analysis Optimization Analysis Important Decision  Support Systems Analytical Models
 
 
 
 
Decision Support Framework
Management Information System ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Creates reports managers can use  to make routine business decisions MIS
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
ISs to support decisions Information produced by analytical modeling of business data Information produced by extraction and manipulation of business data Information processing methodology Ad hoc, flexible, and adaptable format Prespecified, fixed format Information format Interactive inquiries and responses Periodic, exception, demand, and push reports and responses Information form and frequency Provide information and techniques to analyze specific problems Provide information about the performance of the organization Decision support provided Decision Support Systems Management Information Systems
Executive Support Systems (ESS) in Perspective Tailored to individual executives Easy to use- colour and graphic Drill down capabilities Support need for external data Can help when uncertainty is high Future-oriented Linked to value-added processes
Managerial Decisions in the Control Process Exhibit 18.7
 
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Key issues to consider in developing the strategic plan: ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Desired characteristics of Information ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Figure 9.3  An example of a mission statement, strategic goals, and tactical objectives for an in-line skate manufacturer
PERT AND CPM   ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Nature of Managerial Work ,[object Object],[object Object]
Table 1.1  A Categorization of Decision Characteristics Category I Decisions   Category II Decisions Classifications  Programmable; routine;  Nonprogrammable; unique; generic; computational;  judgmental; creative; negotiated; compromise  adaptive; innovative; inspirational Structure  Procedural; predictable;  Novel, unstructured, certainty regarding  consequential, elusive, and cause/effect relationships;  complex; uncertain cause/ recurring; within existing  effect relationships; non- technologies; well-defined  recurring; information information channels;  channels undefined, incom- definite decision criteria;  plete information; decision outcome preferences may  criteria may be unknown; be certain or uncertain  outcome preferences may be certain or uncertain Strategy   Reliance upon rules and  Reliance on judgment, principles; habitual  intuition, and creativity; reactions; prefabricated  individual processing; response; uniform  heuristic problem-solving processing; computational  techniques; rules of thumb; techniques; accepted  general problem-solving methods for handling  processes
What is Strategic Planning? ,[object Object]
Strategic Planning = Align organization with its environment to promote stability and survival Traditional Planning = Set goals then develop steps to achieve those goals
Strategic Planning in the Organization ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]

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Images of Information Systems

  • 1.  
  • 2. The Planning Cycle Analysis of current Situation Where are we now? (Base Line Data) Forecasting Where is the world moving to? Develop Objectives Where do we want to be within a given period of time? Action Plan (Work Plan) What must I do to get where I want to go? Implementation of Work Plan Do it! Monitor Progress by comparing current data with Baseline Data Taking into consideration policies, strategies and national development plans Start of a new planning cycle Detect weaknesses, strengths, opportunities and risks
  • 3. The activities and information requirements of the three major levels of management Regular internal reports Detailed transaction reports Procedures manuals Current historical data Programmed decisions Production scheduling Inventory control Credit management Directions Commands Actions and other operational decisions Direct the utilization of resources and the performance of tasks in conformance with established rules Operational Management Forecasts and historical data Regular Internal Reports Exception reports Simulations Inquiries Personnel practices Capital Budgeting Marketing Mix Budgets Procedures Rules and other tactical decisions Allocate assigned resources to specific tasks Make rules Measure performance Exert control Tactical Management Forecasts Simulations Inquiries External Reports One-time reports Condensed internal reports Policy on industry and product diversification Social responsibility policy Major capital expenditure policy Goals and strategic objectives Company policies Long range plans and other strategic decisions Long range planning and goal setting Determine organizational resource requirements and allocations Strategic Management Information Requirements Activity Examples Activity Results Primary Activities Management Levels
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7. Periodic Scheduled Reports Exception Reports Demand Reports and Responses Drill-down Reports Major Management Information Systems Reports
  • 8. Sensitivity Analysis What-If Analysis Goal-Seeking Analysis Optimization Analysis Important Decision Support Systems Analytical Models
  • 9.  
  • 10.  
  • 11.  
  • 12.  
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16. ISs to support decisions Information produced by analytical modeling of business data Information produced by extraction and manipulation of business data Information processing methodology Ad hoc, flexible, and adaptable format Prespecified, fixed format Information format Interactive inquiries and responses Periodic, exception, demand, and push reports and responses Information form and frequency Provide information and techniques to analyze specific problems Provide information about the performance of the organization Decision support provided Decision Support Systems Management Information Systems
  • 17. Executive Support Systems (ESS) in Perspective Tailored to individual executives Easy to use- colour and graphic Drill down capabilities Support need for external data Can help when uncertainty is high Future-oriented Linked to value-added processes
  • 18. Managerial Decisions in the Control Process Exhibit 18.7
  • 19.  
  • 20.
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23. Figure 9.3 An example of a mission statement, strategic goals, and tactical objectives for an in-line skate manufacturer
  • 24.
  • 25.
  • 26. Table 1.1 A Categorization of Decision Characteristics Category I Decisions Category II Decisions Classifications Programmable; routine; Nonprogrammable; unique; generic; computational; judgmental; creative; negotiated; compromise adaptive; innovative; inspirational Structure Procedural; predictable; Novel, unstructured, certainty regarding consequential, elusive, and cause/effect relationships; complex; uncertain cause/ recurring; within existing effect relationships; non- technologies; well-defined recurring; information information channels; channels undefined, incom- definite decision criteria; plete information; decision outcome preferences may criteria may be unknown; be certain or uncertain outcome preferences may be certain or uncertain Strategy Reliance upon rules and Reliance on judgment, principles; habitual intuition, and creativity; reactions; prefabricated individual processing; response; uniform heuristic problem-solving processing; computational techniques; rules of thumb; techniques; accepted general problem-solving methods for handling processes
  • 27.
  • 28. Strategic Planning = Align organization with its environment to promote stability and survival Traditional Planning = Set goals then develop steps to achieve those goals
  • 29.

Editor's Notes

  1. CD screentour: MIS
  2.  What is strategic planning?  Strategic planning is a long-term, future-oriented process of assessment, goal-setting, and decision-mailing that maps an explicit path between the present and a vision of the future. It relies on careful consideration of an organization’s capabilities and environment, and leads to priority-based resource allocation and other decisions. Simply stated, strategic planning is a management tool to help an organization do a better job. Strategic planning can help an organization focus its vision and priorities in response to a changing environment and to ensure that members of the organization are working toward the same goals. Key concepts in this definition: The process is strategic because it involves choosing how best to respond to the circumstances of a dynamic environment. Strategic planning is systematic in that it calls for following a process that is both focused and productive. Strategic planning involves choosing specific priorities – making decisions about ends and means, in both the long term and short term. Finally, the process is about building commitment – engaging stakeholders, members, and the community in the process of identifying priorities.