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Hypothesis
- a prediction of what will be found at the outcome of a research project and is typically
focused on the relationship between two different variables studied in the research. It is
usually based on both theoretical expectations about how things work, and already
existing scientific evidence.
Hypothesis Testing
- refers to the formal procedures used by statisticians to accept or reject statistical
hypotheses.
- Statisticians follow a formal process to determine whether to reject a null hypothesis,
based on sample data. This process, called hypothesis testing, consists of four steps.
o State the hypotheses. This involves stating the null and alternative hypotheses.
The hypotheses are stated in such a way that they are mutually exclusive. That is,
if one is true, the other must be false.
o Formulate an analysis plan. The analysis plan describes how to use sample data
to evaluate the null hypothesis. The evaluation often focuses around a single test
statistic.
o Analyze sample data. Find the value of the test statistic (mean score, proportion, t
statistic, z-score, etc.) described in the analysis plan.
o Interpret results. Apply the decision rule described in the analysis plan. If the
value of the test statistic is unlikely, based on the null hypothesis, reject the null
hypothesis.
Types of Hypothesis
1. Simple Hypothesis
Simple hypothesis is that one in which there exists relationship between two variables
one is called independent variable or cause and other is dependent variable or effect.
For example
a. Smoking leads to Cancer
b. The higher ratio of unemployment leads to crimes.
2. Complex Hypothesis
Complex hypothesis is that one in which as relationship among variables exists. I
recommend you should read characteristics of a good research hypothesis. In this type
dependent as well as independent variables are more than two. For example
a. Smoking and other drugs leads to cancer, tension chest infections etc.
b. The higher ration of unemployment poverty, illiteracy leads to crimes like dacoit,
Robbery, Rape, prostitution & killing etc.
3. Empirical Hypothesis
Working hypothesis is that one which is applied to a field. During the formulation it is an
assumption only but when it is pat to a test become an empirical or working hypothesis.
4. Null Hypothesis
Null hypothesis is contrary to the positive statement of a working hypothesis. According
to null hypothesis there is no relationship between dependent and independent variable.
It is denoted by ‘HO”.
5. Alternative Hypothesis
Firstly many hypotheses are selected then among them select one which is more
workable and most efficient. That hypothesis is introduced latter on due to changes in
the old formulated hypothesis. It is denote by “HI”.
6. Logical Hypothesis
It is that type in which hypothesis is verified logically. J.S. Mill has given four cannons of
these hypothesis e.g. agreement, disagreement, differenceand residue.
7. Statistical Hypothesis
A hypothesis which can be verified statistically called statisticalhypothesis. The
statement would be logical or illogical but if statistic verifies it, it will be statistical
hypothesis.
Decision Errors
Two types of errors can result from a hypothesis test.
- Type I error. A Type I error occurs when the researcher rejects a null hypothesis when it is
true. The probability of committing a Type I error is called the significance level. This
probability is also called alpha, and is often denoted by α.
- Type II error. A Type II error occurs when the researcher fails to reject a null hypothesis
that is false. The probability of committing a Type II error is called Beta, and is often
denoted by β. The probability of not committing a Type II error is called the Power of the
test.
Relevance (write in simple terms)
- Within social science, a hypothesis can take two forms. It can predict that there is no
relationship between two variables, in which case it is a null hypothesis.
- Or, it can predict the existence of a relationship between variables, which is known as an
alternative hypothesis.
- In either case, the variable that is thought to either affect or not affect the outcome is
known as the independent variable, and the variable that is thought to either be affected
or not is the dependent variable.
- Researchers seek to determine whether or not their hypothesis, or hypotheses if they
have more than one, will prove true. Sometimes they do, and sometimes they do not.
Either way, the research is considered successful if one can conclude whether or not a
hypothesis is true.
Importance of Hypothesis (connected to relevance of hypothesis)
 To the Point Enquiry
Hypothesis makes a research activity to the point and destination, Research without
hypothesis is like a sailor in the sea without compass. So, research is to the point enquiry
of problem due to the guidance of hypothesis.
 Development of Research Techniques
There are various types of social problems which are complex in nature. For this research
is very difficult. We cannot cover it with a single technique but it requires many
techniques. These techniques are due to hypothesis provided to a researcher.
 Separating Relevant From Irrelevant Observation
A Researcher during study will take the observations and facts which are accordance to
the condition and situation. While drop out the irrelevant facts from his study. This
separation is due to hypothesis formulation which keeps away relevant observation from
irrelevant.
 Selecting Required Facts
During study a researcher come across many factors but he confined himself to the
selection of required facts through formulation of hypothesis. Hypothesis helps him in
selection of relevant facts regarding to the problematic situation.
 Direction of Research
Hypothesis acts as a guide master in research. It gives new knowledge and direction to a
researcher. It directs a scientist to know about the problematic situation and its causes.
 Acts as a Guide
Hypothesis gives new ways and direction to a researcher. It acts as a guide and a leader
in various organizations or society. It is like the investigator’s eye.
 Prevents Blind Research
Hypothesis provides lighting to the darkness of research. It gives difference b/w scientific
and unscientific, false and true research. It prevents blind research and give accuracy.
 Accuracy & Precision
Hypothesis provides accuracy and precision to a research activity. Accuracy and precision
is the feature of scientific investigation which is possible due to hypothesis.
 Link between Theory & Investigation
Theory is a source of hypothesis which leads to its formulation. Hypothesis leads to
scientific investigation. So, hypothesis acts as a bridge b/w theory and investigation.
 Link between Assumption & Observation
During formulation hypothesis is in the stage of assumption. In the field it transformed
into hypothesis in working form. This transformation is due to observation in the field.
So, it creates a link between assumption & observation.
 Provide answer for a Question
A hypothesis highlights the causes of a problematic situation. Further solution is also
given by a hypothesis which provides answer to a question.
 Save Time, Money & Energy
Hypothesis save time, money and energy of a researcher because it is a guide for him
and help him in saving these basic things.
 Proper Data Collection
Hypothesis provides the basis of proper Data Collection Relevant and correct
information collected by a researcher is the main function of a good formulated
hypothesis.
 Proper Conclusion
A proper formulated hypothesis may lead to a good reasonable, utilized and proper
conclusion. If the hypothesis is better than the conclusions drawn by a researcher would
be better for solution of a problem.
http://www.studylecturenotes.com/social-research-methodology/importance-of-hypothesis
http://www.studylecturenotes.com/social-research-methodology/types-of-hypothesis-null-
empirical-complex-logical-hypothesis
https://www.thoughtco.com/definition-and-types-of-hypothesis-3026350
http://stattrek.com/hypothesis-test/hypothesis-testing.aspx

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Hypothesis

  • 1. Hypothesis - a prediction of what will be found at the outcome of a research project and is typically focused on the relationship between two different variables studied in the research. It is usually based on both theoretical expectations about how things work, and already existing scientific evidence. Hypothesis Testing - refers to the formal procedures used by statisticians to accept or reject statistical hypotheses. - Statisticians follow a formal process to determine whether to reject a null hypothesis, based on sample data. This process, called hypothesis testing, consists of four steps. o State the hypotheses. This involves stating the null and alternative hypotheses. The hypotheses are stated in such a way that they are mutually exclusive. That is, if one is true, the other must be false. o Formulate an analysis plan. The analysis plan describes how to use sample data to evaluate the null hypothesis. The evaluation often focuses around a single test statistic. o Analyze sample data. Find the value of the test statistic (mean score, proportion, t statistic, z-score, etc.) described in the analysis plan. o Interpret results. Apply the decision rule described in the analysis plan. If the value of the test statistic is unlikely, based on the null hypothesis, reject the null hypothesis. Types of Hypothesis 1. Simple Hypothesis Simple hypothesis is that one in which there exists relationship between two variables one is called independent variable or cause and other is dependent variable or effect. For example a. Smoking leads to Cancer b. The higher ratio of unemployment leads to crimes. 2. Complex Hypothesis Complex hypothesis is that one in which as relationship among variables exists. I recommend you should read characteristics of a good research hypothesis. In this type dependent as well as independent variables are more than two. For example a. Smoking and other drugs leads to cancer, tension chest infections etc. b. The higher ration of unemployment poverty, illiteracy leads to crimes like dacoit, Robbery, Rape, prostitution & killing etc. 3. Empirical Hypothesis Working hypothesis is that one which is applied to a field. During the formulation it is an assumption only but when it is pat to a test become an empirical or working hypothesis. 4. Null Hypothesis Null hypothesis is contrary to the positive statement of a working hypothesis. According to null hypothesis there is no relationship between dependent and independent variable. It is denoted by ‘HO”. 5. Alternative Hypothesis Firstly many hypotheses are selected then among them select one which is more workable and most efficient. That hypothesis is introduced latter on due to changes in the old formulated hypothesis. It is denote by “HI”. 6. Logical Hypothesis It is that type in which hypothesis is verified logically. J.S. Mill has given four cannons of these hypothesis e.g. agreement, disagreement, differenceand residue. 7. Statistical Hypothesis
  • 2. A hypothesis which can be verified statistically called statisticalhypothesis. The statement would be logical or illogical but if statistic verifies it, it will be statistical hypothesis. Decision Errors Two types of errors can result from a hypothesis test. - Type I error. A Type I error occurs when the researcher rejects a null hypothesis when it is true. The probability of committing a Type I error is called the significance level. This probability is also called alpha, and is often denoted by α. - Type II error. A Type II error occurs when the researcher fails to reject a null hypothesis that is false. The probability of committing a Type II error is called Beta, and is often denoted by β. The probability of not committing a Type II error is called the Power of the test. Relevance (write in simple terms) - Within social science, a hypothesis can take two forms. It can predict that there is no relationship between two variables, in which case it is a null hypothesis. - Or, it can predict the existence of a relationship between variables, which is known as an alternative hypothesis. - In either case, the variable that is thought to either affect or not affect the outcome is known as the independent variable, and the variable that is thought to either be affected or not is the dependent variable. - Researchers seek to determine whether or not their hypothesis, or hypotheses if they have more than one, will prove true. Sometimes they do, and sometimes they do not. Either way, the research is considered successful if one can conclude whether or not a hypothesis is true. Importance of Hypothesis (connected to relevance of hypothesis)  To the Point Enquiry Hypothesis makes a research activity to the point and destination, Research without hypothesis is like a sailor in the sea without compass. So, research is to the point enquiry of problem due to the guidance of hypothesis.  Development of Research Techniques There are various types of social problems which are complex in nature. For this research is very difficult. We cannot cover it with a single technique but it requires many techniques. These techniques are due to hypothesis provided to a researcher.  Separating Relevant From Irrelevant Observation A Researcher during study will take the observations and facts which are accordance to the condition and situation. While drop out the irrelevant facts from his study. This separation is due to hypothesis formulation which keeps away relevant observation from irrelevant.  Selecting Required Facts During study a researcher come across many factors but he confined himself to the selection of required facts through formulation of hypothesis. Hypothesis helps him in selection of relevant facts regarding to the problematic situation.  Direction of Research Hypothesis acts as a guide master in research. It gives new knowledge and direction to a researcher. It directs a scientist to know about the problematic situation and its causes.  Acts as a Guide Hypothesis gives new ways and direction to a researcher. It acts as a guide and a leader in various organizations or society. It is like the investigator’s eye.  Prevents Blind Research Hypothesis provides lighting to the darkness of research. It gives difference b/w scientific and unscientific, false and true research. It prevents blind research and give accuracy.  Accuracy & Precision Hypothesis provides accuracy and precision to a research activity. Accuracy and precision is the feature of scientific investigation which is possible due to hypothesis.  Link between Theory & Investigation
  • 3. Theory is a source of hypothesis which leads to its formulation. Hypothesis leads to scientific investigation. So, hypothesis acts as a bridge b/w theory and investigation.  Link between Assumption & Observation During formulation hypothesis is in the stage of assumption. In the field it transformed into hypothesis in working form. This transformation is due to observation in the field. So, it creates a link between assumption & observation.  Provide answer for a Question A hypothesis highlights the causes of a problematic situation. Further solution is also given by a hypothesis which provides answer to a question.  Save Time, Money & Energy Hypothesis save time, money and energy of a researcher because it is a guide for him and help him in saving these basic things.  Proper Data Collection Hypothesis provides the basis of proper Data Collection Relevant and correct information collected by a researcher is the main function of a good formulated hypothesis.  Proper Conclusion A proper formulated hypothesis may lead to a good reasonable, utilized and proper conclusion. If the hypothesis is better than the conclusions drawn by a researcher would be better for solution of a problem. http://www.studylecturenotes.com/social-research-methodology/importance-of-hypothesis http://www.studylecturenotes.com/social-research-methodology/types-of-hypothesis-null- empirical-complex-logical-hypothesis https://www.thoughtco.com/definition-and-types-of-hypothesis-3026350 http://stattrek.com/hypothesis-test/hypothesis-testing.aspx