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The current state of the server-side
image conversion attacks
Emil Lerner
HotPics 2021
@emil_lerner
@neex
@neexemil
CTO at WunderFund.io

indepentent security researcher

occasional bughunter

Bushwhackers CTF team
Emil Lerner
Attacker model
PWN!
Server-side Preview

Generation
Attacker uploads

malicious image
2016 — Nikolay Ermishkin finds ImageTragick
2017 — YahooBleed via ImageMagick's RLE coder
2017 — Uninitialized memory disclosure via GIF (gifoeb)
2018 — Tavis Ormandy finds a lot of Ghostscript vulns
2018 — Memleak via XBM
and many more!
Previous work
Detection
Gifoeb converted

by ImageMagick
Gifoeb converted

by Pillow
Gifoeb converted

by java.awt.image
Impacts
Uninitialized memory dump
Local File Inclusion / Server Side Request Forgery
Remote Code Execution
ImageMagick: memory dump
Analyze recent commits
Find ones that add memfill-like calls
Commit message helps (oss-fuzz etc.)
ImageMagick: SVG decoder
Native SVG decoder supports file inclusion
Greatly expands attack surface
Usually even text:/etc/passwd works
Pillow
Become much less vulnerable in recent years
Always loaded as a library, so memory dump is impactful
Still a lot of silent fixes
Ghostscript
is used to process Postscript & PDF files in IM & Pillow
is a programming language with lots of features
implements /SAFER mode for untrusted files
Ghostscript < 9.50
tens of CVEs already out there and still vulnerable
find unprotected .forceput
overwrite /SAFER in systemdict
Ghostscript >= 9.50
/SAFER fully rewritten
.forceput doesn't help anymore
0-day:


(%pipe%/tmp/;echo "pwned") (r) open
GS = RCE
needsgoodcrawling
uploadusuallyavailableonlyafterregistration
hardtofindcorrespondingpreview
Automation
write a detailed instruction
hire a non-infosec person to upload pictures everywhere
take immediate profit instead of endless debugging
Automation Outsourcing
BB Story 1: AirBNB
...

for pattern in context.config.ALLOWED_SOURCES:

if isinstance(pattern, Pattern):

match = url

else:

pattern = "^%s$" % pattern

match = res.hostname



if re.match(pattern, match):

return True

...
http_loader.py
thumbor/loaders/http_loader.py
BB Story 1: AirBNB
Hostname goes to regex
Buy airbnb-photosXs3Xamazonaws.com
Get SSRF, but GET and blind
BB Story 1: AirBNB
Mix requests to the AWS metadata

and to the memory dumping exploit
The dumped memory will capture

AWS metadata eventually
BB Story 1: AirBNB
BB Story 2: DropBox
BB Story 2: DropBox's Sandbox
RCE in LXC sandbox
uid is “nobody”
gid=0!
BB Story 2: DropBox's Sandbox
there was a more privelleged Python process
put #encoding: something instead of the source
trigger exception somehow
BB Story 2: DropBox's Sandbox
Python tries to print backtrace
Does import encoding.something
Сode execution in the privilleged process :)
BB Story 3: Yandex.Realty
A lot of places to upload images
Only one where SVG is allowed: image in support chat
It looked like Ubuntu’s IM with default settings
BB Story 3: Yandex.Realty
SVG is converted to MVG before processing
Can request EPI format which is handled by GS
Can “include” itself via /proc/self/fd
Exploit for Ubuntu IM settings
@emil_lerner @neex
@neexemil
Thank you!

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