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HERBS AS HEALTH FOOD
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P r e p a r e d B y : M s . D i v y a K a n o j i y a
A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r i n P h a r m a c o g n o s y
D e p a r t m e n t o f P h a r m a c y , S u m a n d e e p V i d y a p e e t h
D e e m e d t o b e U n i v e r s i t y , P i p a r i a , V a d o d a r a .
CONTENT:
 Brief introduction and therapeutic application of:
 Nutraceuticals
 Antioxidants
 Pro-biotics, Pre-biotics
 Dietary fibres
 Omega-3-fatty acids
 Spirulina
 Carotenoids
 Soya bean
 Garlic
2
N U T R A C E U T I C A L S
3
History
• The Greek physicion Hippocrates, often known as “father of medicine” said “lets the food be
the medicine, and the medicine be the food” the philosophy behind is :
“Focous on prevention’’
• The term “nutraceutical’’ was coined by combining the terms “nutrition’’ and
“pharmaceutical” in 1989 by Dr.stephen de felice. Md, founder and chairman of foundation for
innovation in medicine (FIM).
4
Definition of nutraceuticals
• According to Dr. Defelice, “nutraceutical” is any substance that is a food or a part of food that
provides medicinal or health benefits including the prevention and treatment of disease”.
• Nutraceutical combines two words “nutrient” (a nourishing food or food component) with
“pharmaceutical”(a medical drug). The word “nutraceutical” has been used to describe a
broad list of products sold under the premise of being dietary supplements.(i.g. a food), but for
the expressed intent of treatment or prevent of disease.
5
6
Current trends and future scope
• Herbs are used by the mankind since its origin on earth; to alleviate human illness and
for the maintenance of general health.
• The products of natural origin for general improvement of the health are referred as
the “health food” but not as drug or medicinal agent. Hence the foods may be defined
as the food supplemented with herbal ingredients, vitamins, minerals and the
nutrients or ingredients isolated from the conventional food.
• In recent years there is growing interest of the public in the health benefits of dietary
food and personal care products, with the results, more attention is being paid by the
pharma industry towards the health food (nutraceutical), herbal cosmetics and
personal care products.
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• In west, the fast growing segment of health food products industry look like a
revolution .this is because of the increase awareness of the consumers for health
benefits of these products and growing desire for the alternative to conventional
pharmaceutical products.
• The increasing interest and popularity of the health food products in Asia, Latin
America, Africa and middle east countries has opened a new ara of international
trade in alternative system of medicine(medical care).
• Health foods are termed by different names throughout the world i.e. Functional
food in oriental and nutraceuticals in the western region, thus the nutraceuticals
and functional foods are synonyms for health food products.
8
Classification
1. Based on their source
Source Nutraceuticals
Plants Tomato
Garlic
Momordica
Animals Shark liver oil
Cod liver oil
Minerals Calcium
Magnesium
Phosphorus
Micro-organism Bifidobacterium
lactobacilli
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2.Nutraceuticals used in various disease condition
Conditions Nutraceuticals
Allergy relief Ginkgo biloba
Arthritis support Glucosamine
Cancer prevention Flax seed, green tea
Cardiac disease Garlic
Cholesterol lowering Garlic
Digestive support Digestive enzymes
Diabetic support Garlic, Momordica
Female hormone support False unicorn
Immunomodulators Ginseng
10
3. Nutraceuticals as per chemical groupings
Class/Chemical groupings Examples
Inorganic mineral supplements Minerals
Vitamin supplements Vitamins
Digestive enzymes Enzymes
Probiotics Helpful bacteria
Prebiotics Digestive enzymes
Dietary fibers Fibers-fruits, cereals
Cereals and grains Wheat, Soya bean
Health drinks Fruits juice and vitamins
Poly unsaturated fatty acids
(PUFA)
Fish oil
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Class/Chemical groupings Examples
Antioxidants Natural antioxidants
Phytochemicals:
1. Flavonoids
2. Isoprenoids
3. Proteins
Bioflavonoids
Carotenoids
Soya proteins
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Inorganic mineral supplements
• Calcium: essential for building bones and teeth and maintaining bone
strength, imp. In nerve, mussles and glandular functions.
• Iron: helps in energy production, helps to carry and transport oxygen to
tissue.
• Magnesium:for healthy nerve and mussle function, bone formation.
• Phosphorous: energy productiin, phosphorylation process, bone and
teeth, for genetic material.
• Cobalt, copper, chromium,zinc, selenium.
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Vitamin supplements
1. Water soluble vitamins:
• Vitamin C: necessary for healthy bones, teeth and skin, helps in wound
healing, prevent from common cold.
• Vitamin B1: helps in carbohydrate metabolism, essential for
neurological function.
• Vitamin B2: energy metabolism, maintain healthy eye, skin and nerve
function.
• Vitamin B3: energy metabolism, brain function.
• Vitamin B6: helps to produce essential proteins, convert proteins into
energy.
• Vitamin B12: formation of RBC, prevention of genetic materials,
maintenance of CNS, synthesis of amino acids, metabolism of fat,
protein & carbohydrase.
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2. Fat soluble vitamins
• Vitamin A: Antioxidant, essential for growth and development,
maintains healthy vision, skin and mucous membranes, may aid
in the prevention and treatment of certain cancer and in the
treatment of certain skin disorders.
• Vitamin D: essential for formation of bones and teeth, helps the
body to absorb and use the calcium.
• Vitamin K: essential for blood clotting.
• Vitamin E: antioxidant, helps to form blood cells, boosts immune
system.
15
Digestive enzymes
Prebiotics
• Prebiotics are the substance, which reach to colon in intact form
and selectively promote the growth of colonic probiotic
bacteria, hence they act as fertilizer for these symbiotic
bacteria.
• Commonly known prebiotics are:
• Oligofructose
• Inulin
• Lactulose
• Galacto – oligosaccharides
16
Probiotics
• Probiotics are the living microorganisms, which
improves the intestinal microbial balance.
• Examples:
• Species of lactobacillus
• Bifidobacterium
• Yeast
• Some E.Coli and bacillus species are also used as
probiotics.
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Dietary fibers
• Dietary fibers are used in health food products for the
normalization of intestinal transit.
• Dietary fibers are generally classified into two groups:
1. Water soluble fibers: they are present in oats, dried beans,
legumes, etc.
2. Water insoluble fibers: mainly help in bulking of stool and quick
passage through digestive tract. They are present in brown rice,
bananas, vegetables and whole grain cereals, like wheat & oat.
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Antioxidants
• Naturally occurring antioxidant which could be of therapeutic use
include superoxide dismutase, tocopherols, ascorbic acid,
adenosine transferrin, lactoferrin, glutathione and its precursors,
carotenoids and other plant pigments.
• Antioxidants are of 3 categories:
1. True antioxidants
2. Reducing agents
3. Antioxidant synergists
• Deficiency cause disease like cancers, rheumatoid arthritis,
Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease.
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Antioxidants Source
VITAMINS
Vitamin C
Vitamin E
Citrus fruits, vegetables
Grains, nuts, oils
CAROTENOIDS
Lycopene
Beta carotene
Tomatoes
Carrots, sweet potato
XANTHOPHYLLS
Beta cryptoxanthin Mango, papaya, oranges
FLAVANOIDS
Rutin
Luteolin
Quercetin
Kaempferol
Liquiritin
Tobacco, eucalyptus species
Lemon, red pepper, olive
Onion, apple skin, black grapes
Grape fruit, tea
Liquorice
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Polyunsaturated fatty acids (pufa)
• The natural vegetable oils and marine animal oils containing
polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) belonging to linoleic group,
help to reduce cholesterol, formation/deposition and prevent
thromboxane formation and thus useful as preventive measure
for atherosclerosis.
• Examples: sunflower oil, corn oil, soyabean oil, mustard oil and
marine fishes.
22
Cereals and grains
• Cereal and pulse crops are staple foods that provide essential
nutrients to many populations of the world. Traditionally, whole
grains were consumed but most current foods are derived from
refined fractions of cereal and pulse crops.
• Consumption of processed or refined products may reduce the
health benefits of food. In wheat-based processed foods, for
example, the removed 40% of the grain (mainly the bran and the
germ of the wheat grain) contains the majority of the health
beneficial components.
• Examples: oats, rice, wheat, bran oil, corn, soyabean, commen
beans
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Herbs as a functional food
• Aloe vera: anti-inflammatory, emollient, wound healing.
• Evening primrose oil: dietary supplement of linoleic acid,
treatment of atopic eczema.
• Garlic: antibacterial, antifungal, antithrombotic, anti-
inflammatory.
• Ginger: carminative, anti emetic, treatment of dizziness.
• Ginseng: Adaptogen
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Health drinks of natural origin
• Green tea: antioxidant, reduce risk of CVD, enhance humoral and cell
mediated immunity.
• Aloe vera juice: act as anti-inflammatory, wound healing, emollient.
• Different natural juices: gives different types of nutrients and prevents
from various diseases.
• Example:
• wheat grass juice
• Various Vegetable juices
• Various Fruit juices
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SPIRULINA
What is Spirulina?
 It is blue green algae.
 It is a simple, one-celled from of algae, that thrives in
warm, alkaline fresh water bodies.
 The name Spirulina was derived from Latin word for helix
or spiral.
 Commercially produced from two species of cyanobacteria.
 Arthospira platensis & Arthospira maxicana.
 There are more than 39 species but for its composition
stability and balance of nutrients, Arthospira spirulina
platensis is the species most used in developing countries
cultures.
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INTRODUCTION
 Spirulina are multicellular and filamentous blue green algae that has
gained considerable popularity in the health food industry and
increasingly as a protein and vitamin supplement to aquacultures diets. It
grows in water, can be harvested and processed easily and has very high
macro and micro nutrient contents.
 Spirulina platensis has been used as food for centuries by different
populations and only rediscovered in recent years. Once classified as the
“blue-green algae’’, it does not strictly speaking belong to the algae, even
though for convenience it continues to be referred to in that way. It
grows naturally in the alkaline waters of lakes in warm regions.
Measuring about 0.1mm across, it generally takes the form of tiny green
filaments coiled in spirals of varying tightness and number, depending on
the strain. Its impressive protein content and its rapid growth of usage are
the major attention it seeks.
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Sources from where spirulina can be obtained
 Spirulina platensis is naturally found in tropical regions
inhabiting alkaline lakes (pH 11) with high concentration of
NaCl and bicarbonates. These limiting conditions for other
microorganism allow cultivation of microalgae in opened
reactors.
 Spirulina platensis are also found in aquatic ecosystems like
ponds and lakes, from where they are collected , washed, and
dried.
 Finally communized to powdered form and stored in suitable
containers.
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BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION
The basic biochemical composition of Spirulina can be summarized as follows,
 Protein:
Spirulina contains unusually high amounts of protein between 55 and 70
per cent by dry weight. It is a complete protein, containing all essential
amino acids.
 Essential fatty acids.
Spirulina has a high amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids, 1.5-2.0 per
cent of 5-6 per cent total lipid. Spirulina is rich in linolenic acid,
stearidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and
arachidonic acid.
 Vitamins:
Spirulina contains vitamin B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, vitamin C, vitamin D and
vitamin E.
Photosynthetic pigments:
Spirulina contains many pigments including chlorophyll-a,
xanthophylls, β-carotene, echinenone, myxoxanthophyll, etc.
And the phycobiliproteins C-phycocyanin and
allophycocyanin.
Minerals:
Spirulina is a rich source of potassium, calcium,
chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese,
phosphorous, selenium, sodium and zinc.
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HEATH BENEFITS OF SPIRULINA
1. Aids Depression system.
2. Reduces pain sensitivity.
3. Blood purifier.
4. Boost immune system.
5. Increases metabolism.
6. Reduces anxiety and stress naturally.
7. Prevent heart disease.
8. Great source for proteins.
9. Improve digestion.
10.Lowers cholesterol level.
11.Purifies the liver.
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MARKET FORMULATIONS
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SOYA BEAN
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INTRODUCTION
• The soybean or soya bean is a species of legume native to
East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has
numerous uses. Traditional unfermented food uses of
soybeans include soy milk, from which tofu and tofu skin are
made. Fermented soy foods include soy sauce, fermented
bean paste, natto, and tempeh.
• It has become the current market trend and have shown
remarkable success in enduring and enhancing the body
system in accordance with the environmental needs.
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SOURCES
• Considering India, it has been cultivated well in the
northeastern region and as well as some part of the northern
region.
• It has been an exotic food for some tribals, where they
fermented it and utilize in the most suitable way.
• In market, soya chunks are sold, or some have the seeds
preparing in their own traditional way.
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COMPOSTION OF SOYBEAN
• The mature soybean is about 38% protein, 30%
carbohydrate, 18% oil, and 14% moisture, ash, and hull.
Soybeans contain all three of the macro-nutrients required
for good nutrition: complete protein, carbohydrate and fat,
as well as vitamins and minerals, including calcium, folic acid,
and iron.
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SOME OF THE MARKETED PRODUCTS
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HEALTH BENEFITS OF SOYABEAN
1. As anticancer
 Soyabean has been extensively investigated for its ability to treat
and prevent a variety of chronic diseases including cancer.
 Genestein which is found as one of the chemical constituent of
soya, is reported to be a potent and specific inhibitor of protein
tyrosine kinase.
 Genestein also inhibits DNA topoisomerase II activity , alter cell
cycle specific events, include apoptosis and inhibits angiogenetic
process which is essential for Tumor growth.
2. Boost heart health
Soybeans are a source of healthy, unsaturated fat, which
helps you lower your total cholesterol, specifically LDL
cholesterol levels. This allows you to prevent conditions like
atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, which can easily
lead to heart attack and stroke.
Furthermore, there are some specific fatty acids that are
necessary for a healthy system. Two of those fatty acids are
linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Two of those fatty acids are
linolenic acid, known as omega 6 and alpha-linolenic acid,
known as omega 3 fatty acids . Omega 3 fatty acids have anti-
inflammatory effects and have a very important role in vision
and brain health. 42
 Omega 6 fatty acids are also known to provide energy for
the body. Finally, the fibre in soybeans has actually been
shown to reduce cholesterol levels in the body by scraping
excess cholesterol off the walls of blood vessels and
arteries.
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3. Relieving of menopausal symptoms
• Soybeans are a very good source of isoflavones, which are
essential components of the female reproductive system.
During menopause, estrogen levels drop significantly.
• Isoflavones are able to bind to estrogen receptor cells, so
the body doesn’t feel as though it is going through such a
dramatic change. This can ease many of the symptoms of
menopause such as mood swings, hot flashes, and hunger
pains.
• Menopause can be a traumatic time of life for many women
and soybeans are a great way to ease that major life
transition.
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4. Boost Digestion.
• One of the most common elements lacking in many people’s diet is
dietary fiber, which is present in high quantities in soybeans.
• Fiber is an essential part of a healthy body, particularly in terms of the
digestive system. Fiber bulks up your stool, making it move through
your digestive system smoothly.
• Furthermore, it stimulates peristaltic motion, which is the contraction
of the smooth muscles that push food through your system. It is vital
also because constipation can be a very serious condition that can lead
to serious conditions, including colorectal cancer.
• Soybeans also contain the carbohydrate known as oligosaccharides
known to stimulate the production of healthy bacteria in the
intestines, thus serving as a great source of prebiotics.
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5. Improve bone health.
• Soybeans have a high vitamin and mineral content and the impressive
levels of calcium, magnesium, copper, selenium, and zinc in them are also
very important for healthy bones.
• All of these elements are essential for promoting osteotropic activity,
which allows for new bones to grow and also speeds up the bone healing
process.
• Eating soybeans can be a long-term solution for problems like
osteoporosis, which commonly occurs as we age.
6. Prevent birth defects.
• The high levels of vitamin B complex and folic acid in soybeans are very
important for pregnant women.
• Folic acid ensures the prevention of neural tube defects in infants, which
ensures a happy and healthy baby.
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7. Control diabetes.
• Soybeans are an effective method of prevention and management of
diabetes, primarily because they have shown an ability to increase insulin
receptors in the body, thereby helping manage the disease effectively or
prevent it from occurring in the first place.
• Additionally, soybeans have a lower carbohydrate content which makes it
a great addition to diabetic friendly meals.
8. Relieve sleep disorders.
• Soybeans help in reducing sleep disorders and the occurrence of
insomnia.
• They also have a high content of magnesium, as highlighted by
researchers of the University of Kentucky in their study published in the
Plant Physiology journal.
• Magnesium is directly linked to increasing the quality, duration, and
restfulness of your sleep.
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SIDE EFFECTS OF SOYABEAN
• Although, soyabean has a numerous of health benefits
however it is contraindicated in some of the diseases like
Thyroid disorders like hyperthyroidism, during pregnancy,
which is recently reported.
• Some of the reports says that some people are allergic to the
soymilk, and some itself with the beans.
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G a r l i c
50
Introduction
• Garlic is a fresh or dried bulbs obtained from Allium Sativum,
family- Liliaceae.
• In India , it is used as a source of spices and aid to many masalas
and beverages.
• Commonly known as Lassan, besides used as spice and flavours, it
has been used as an medicinal aid.
• It has a hypoglycaemic, hypolipidemic , antiseptic and antiulcer
property.
• Generally one of its preparation ; Garlic oil, is used as an element
in hair treatment.
51
Sources
• It is mostly grown in areas with humid conditions, optimum
rainfall, sandy and loamy soils.
• It is cultivated in many parts of India ; Uttar Pradesh, Kerala,
Gujarat and some northern parts of the country.
• Like every plant, it has its own unique environmental
requirements such as climate, soil, temperature and other
external factors.
52
Chemical Composition of Garlic
• Allium sativum, consist of Sulphur containing compounds.
• Garlic contains at least 33 sulfur compounds like aliin, allicin,
ajoene, allylpropl, diallyl, trisulfide, sallylcysteine, vinyldithiines,
allylmercaptocystein, and others. Besides sulfure compounds
garlic contains 17 amino acids and their glycosides, arginine and
others.
53
Here in following table , it highlights the comparative nutritional elements
between Allium cepa (onion) and allium Sativum( garlic)
54
Health benefits of Garlic
• Diabetes: Diabetes can harm the kidneys, inhibit nervous system
functions, cause heart disorders, and even lead to poor eyesight. The oil
extracted from garlic may protect diabetic patients from these side
effects.
• High Cholesterol Levels: Of the two kinds of cholesterol –LDL and HDL, the
former is bad for human health. Garlic, rich in the allicin compound,
effectively prevents LDL cholesterol from oxidizing. All those who have
high cholesterol levels should include this herb in their daily diet.
• Hypertension: Garlic is an herbal ingredient for curing hypertension.
When exposed to high levels of pressure, the allicin present in it relaxes
the blood vessels. It also fights against thrombosis by reducing platelet
aggregation.
55
• Eye Care: Garlic is rich in nutrients
like Selenium, Quercetin and Vitamin C, all of which help treat
eye infections and swelling.
• Ear Aches: Garlic is commonly used for curing ear aches, as it
has several antiviral, antifungal and antibiotic properties. Its oil
can be made at home by squeezing the juice of its cloves and
adding it to olive oil. The mixture should be kept at room
temperature for a few days, but shouldn’t be saved indefinitely,
if made at home.
• Intestinal Problems: Garlic clears up most intestinal problems
like dysentery, diarrhea and colitis. Its role in dispelling worms in
phenomenal. It does not affect the functioning of useful
organisms in the intestine, which aid in digestion, but it does
destroy the harmful bacteria present in the intestines.
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• Cold: Raw garlic is used to treat colds and coughs. At the very onset of a
cold, you should eat at least two crushed cloves of it, which will thereby
help in lessening the severity of your cold.
• Infected Wounds: Garlic can be placed on infected wounds as an herbal
treatment. It should be mixed with three drops of water, rather than
using it in raw form, as the undiluted juice can irritate the skin.
• Digestion: Daily inclusion of garlic in your diet aids in eliminating any
digestive problems. The herb assists in the normal functioning of the
intestines for good digestion. Even swelling or irritation of the gastric
canal may be rectified with garlic as a treatment.
• Acne: Half the people in the world suffer from mild to severe forms of
acne. Garlic may be used, along with other ingredients like honey, cream
and turmeric, to treat acne scars and prevent the initial development of
acne. Garlic acts as a cleanser and an antibiotic substance for soothing
skin rashes.
57
• Asthma: Boiled garlic cloves are wonderful as an
alternative asthma treatment. Each night before going
to sleep, a glass of milk with 3 boiled cloves of garlic can
bring subsequent relief for patients with asthma. The asthma
attacks may be brought under control by having crushed
garlic cloves with malt vinegar as well.
• Cancer: The regular intake of garlic reduces the risk of colon,
stomach and esophageal cancer. It aids in reducing the
production of carcinogenic compounds , and also reduces
the occurrence of tumors associated with breast cancer.
58
Omega -3 fatty acids
 Omega – 3 fatty acids are essential acids, a class of nutrients
needed for our body to function normally.
 These are the fats of life which help our cells to function
properly.
 Omega – 3 cannot be produced be our body and should be
supplied through the diet.
 Types of omega – 3 fatty acids:
 1. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)
 2. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
 3. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 59
Alpha-linolenic acid
 Alpha linoleic acid Is an n-3 fatty acid.
 It is one of two essential fatty acids, so called because they are
necessary for health and cannot be produced within the human
body.
 Eicosapentaenoic acid:
 Eicosapentaenoic acid is an omega -3 fatty acid.
 In physiological literature, it is given the name 20:5.
 It also have the trivial name timmodonic acid.
60
 Docosahexaenoic acid
 Docosahexaenoic acid is an omega – 3 fatty acid that is a primary
structural component of the human brain, cerebra; cortex, skin, sperm,
testicles and retina.
 Functions of omega-3 fatty acids:
 Relaxation and contraction of muscles
 Blood clotting
 Digestion
 Fertility
 Cell division
 Growth
 Movement of calcium and other substances in and out of cells.
61
 Sources of omega – 3 fatty acids:
Fish and fish oil: Sardines, Salmon, Tuna, Trout, Cod
Nuts and Seeds: Walnuts, Flaxseed
Veggies: Spinach, cauliflower, brussels sprouts etc.
Oil: Flaxseed oil, soybean oil etc.
Beans: Kidney beans, pinto and mungo beans
Eggs
 Health benefits:
 Reduces cardiovascular risk factors
 Reduces morning stiffness, swollen joints and rheumatoid arthritis
 Lowers the risk of cancer
 Reduces inflammation throughout the body
 Reduces the risk of obesity
 Maintains fluidity of cell membranes.
62
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Carotenoids
 Carotenoid, are the group of non-nitrogenous, yellow, orange, or red
pigments (biochromes) that are almost universally distributed in living
things.
 Carotenoids also called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are
produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria and fungi.
 Are the various yellow, orange, red and green pigments that are found in
many fruits and vegetables.
 There are over 600 known carotenoids;
 They are split into two classes, xanthophylls (which contain oxygen) and
carotenes (which are purely hydrocarbons, and contain no oxygen). All are
derivatives of tetraterpenes, meaning that they are produced from 8
isoprene molecules and contain 40 carbon atoms.
64
 Physical properties:
 All carotenoids are lipophilic compounds and thus are soluble
in oils and organic solvents.
 They can be isomerized by heat, acid, light.
 Many carotenoids exhibit spectral shifts with various reagents
and these spectral changes are used for identification.
 Chemical properties:
 Carotenoids are easily oxidized because of large number of
conjugated double bonds Such reactions cause color loss of
carotenoids in foods.
 Destability of a particular pigment to oxidation is highly
dependent on its environment.
65
 TYPES OF CAROTENOIDS
 Carotenoids classified into two classes:
 Carotenes: (which are purely hydrocarbons, and contain no oxygen)
 Examples - alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene
 Xanthophylls: (which contain oxygen)
 Examples - beta-cryptoxanthin, Lutein, zeaxanthin
 All are derivatives of tetraterpenes, meaning that they are produced
from 8 isoprene molecules and contain 40 carbon atoms.
66
 Why we do need Carotenoid?
 Diets high in carotenoid- rich fruits and vegetables are
associated with reduced risk of:
 Cardiovascular disease some cancers many other chronic
diseases.
 LYCOPENE
 Lycopene is a member of the carotenoid family, and it is the
naturally occurring compound that gives the characteristic red
color to the tomato, watermelon, pink grapefruit, and orange.
67
 Xanthophylls
 The other type of carotenoid, are oxygen- containing molecules (Xanthophylls)
 Source: Found in dark leafy greens such as spinach and kale, as well as broccoli.
 Uses: Xanthophylls are also antioxidants, and two in particular have great
importance in the health of our eyes. (cataracts and macular degeneration).
 beta-carotene.
 One of the more familiar carotenes is beta-carotene.
 Beta-carotene is known as a provitamin A carotene because it can be converted by
the body to a usable form of vitamin A.
 Source:
 In fact, many of these orange (Carrot) and yellow foods are the primary source of
vitamin
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THANK YOU!
70
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  • 1. HERBS AS HEALTH FOOD 1 P r e p a r e d B y : M s . D i v y a K a n o j i y a A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r i n P h a r m a c o g n o s y D e p a r t m e n t o f P h a r m a c y , S u m a n d e e p V i d y a p e e t h D e e m e d t o b e U n i v e r s i t y , P i p a r i a , V a d o d a r a .
  • 2. CONTENT:  Brief introduction and therapeutic application of:  Nutraceuticals  Antioxidants  Pro-biotics, Pre-biotics  Dietary fibres  Omega-3-fatty acids  Spirulina  Carotenoids  Soya bean  Garlic 2
  • 3. N U T R A C E U T I C A L S 3
  • 4. History • The Greek physicion Hippocrates, often known as “father of medicine” said “lets the food be the medicine, and the medicine be the food” the philosophy behind is : “Focous on prevention’’ • The term “nutraceutical’’ was coined by combining the terms “nutrition’’ and “pharmaceutical” in 1989 by Dr.stephen de felice. Md, founder and chairman of foundation for innovation in medicine (FIM). 4 Definition of nutraceuticals • According to Dr. Defelice, “nutraceutical” is any substance that is a food or a part of food that provides medicinal or health benefits including the prevention and treatment of disease”. • Nutraceutical combines two words “nutrient” (a nourishing food or food component) with “pharmaceutical”(a medical drug). The word “nutraceutical” has been used to describe a broad list of products sold under the premise of being dietary supplements.(i.g. a food), but for the expressed intent of treatment or prevent of disease.
  • 5. 5
  • 6. 6 Current trends and future scope • Herbs are used by the mankind since its origin on earth; to alleviate human illness and for the maintenance of general health. • The products of natural origin for general improvement of the health are referred as the “health food” but not as drug or medicinal agent. Hence the foods may be defined as the food supplemented with herbal ingredients, vitamins, minerals and the nutrients or ingredients isolated from the conventional food. • In recent years there is growing interest of the public in the health benefits of dietary food and personal care products, with the results, more attention is being paid by the pharma industry towards the health food (nutraceutical), herbal cosmetics and personal care products.
  • 7. 7 • In west, the fast growing segment of health food products industry look like a revolution .this is because of the increase awareness of the consumers for health benefits of these products and growing desire for the alternative to conventional pharmaceutical products. • The increasing interest and popularity of the health food products in Asia, Latin America, Africa and middle east countries has opened a new ara of international trade in alternative system of medicine(medical care). • Health foods are termed by different names throughout the world i.e. Functional food in oriental and nutraceuticals in the western region, thus the nutraceuticals and functional foods are synonyms for health food products.
  • 8. 8 Classification 1. Based on their source Source Nutraceuticals Plants Tomato Garlic Momordica Animals Shark liver oil Cod liver oil Minerals Calcium Magnesium Phosphorus Micro-organism Bifidobacterium lactobacilli
  • 9. 9 2.Nutraceuticals used in various disease condition Conditions Nutraceuticals Allergy relief Ginkgo biloba Arthritis support Glucosamine Cancer prevention Flax seed, green tea Cardiac disease Garlic Cholesterol lowering Garlic Digestive support Digestive enzymes Diabetic support Garlic, Momordica Female hormone support False unicorn Immunomodulators Ginseng
  • 10. 10 3. Nutraceuticals as per chemical groupings Class/Chemical groupings Examples Inorganic mineral supplements Minerals Vitamin supplements Vitamins Digestive enzymes Enzymes Probiotics Helpful bacteria Prebiotics Digestive enzymes Dietary fibers Fibers-fruits, cereals Cereals and grains Wheat, Soya bean Health drinks Fruits juice and vitamins Poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) Fish oil
  • 11. 11 Class/Chemical groupings Examples Antioxidants Natural antioxidants Phytochemicals: 1. Flavonoids 2. Isoprenoids 3. Proteins Bioflavonoids Carotenoids Soya proteins
  • 12. 12 Inorganic mineral supplements • Calcium: essential for building bones and teeth and maintaining bone strength, imp. In nerve, mussles and glandular functions. • Iron: helps in energy production, helps to carry and transport oxygen to tissue. • Magnesium:for healthy nerve and mussle function, bone formation. • Phosphorous: energy productiin, phosphorylation process, bone and teeth, for genetic material. • Cobalt, copper, chromium,zinc, selenium.
  • 13. 13 Vitamin supplements 1. Water soluble vitamins: • Vitamin C: necessary for healthy bones, teeth and skin, helps in wound healing, prevent from common cold. • Vitamin B1: helps in carbohydrate metabolism, essential for neurological function. • Vitamin B2: energy metabolism, maintain healthy eye, skin and nerve function. • Vitamin B3: energy metabolism, brain function. • Vitamin B6: helps to produce essential proteins, convert proteins into energy. • Vitamin B12: formation of RBC, prevention of genetic materials, maintenance of CNS, synthesis of amino acids, metabolism of fat, protein & carbohydrase.
  • 14. 14 2. Fat soluble vitamins • Vitamin A: Antioxidant, essential for growth and development, maintains healthy vision, skin and mucous membranes, may aid in the prevention and treatment of certain cancer and in the treatment of certain skin disorders. • Vitamin D: essential for formation of bones and teeth, helps the body to absorb and use the calcium. • Vitamin K: essential for blood clotting. • Vitamin E: antioxidant, helps to form blood cells, boosts immune system.
  • 15. 15 Digestive enzymes Prebiotics • Prebiotics are the substance, which reach to colon in intact form and selectively promote the growth of colonic probiotic bacteria, hence they act as fertilizer for these symbiotic bacteria. • Commonly known prebiotics are: • Oligofructose • Inulin • Lactulose • Galacto – oligosaccharides
  • 16. 16 Probiotics • Probiotics are the living microorganisms, which improves the intestinal microbial balance. • Examples: • Species of lactobacillus • Bifidobacterium • Yeast • Some E.Coli and bacillus species are also used as probiotics.
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  • 18. 18 Dietary fibers • Dietary fibers are used in health food products for the normalization of intestinal transit. • Dietary fibers are generally classified into two groups: 1. Water soluble fibers: they are present in oats, dried beans, legumes, etc. 2. Water insoluble fibers: mainly help in bulking of stool and quick passage through digestive tract. They are present in brown rice, bananas, vegetables and whole grain cereals, like wheat & oat.
  • 19. 19 Antioxidants • Naturally occurring antioxidant which could be of therapeutic use include superoxide dismutase, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, adenosine transferrin, lactoferrin, glutathione and its precursors, carotenoids and other plant pigments. • Antioxidants are of 3 categories: 1. True antioxidants 2. Reducing agents 3. Antioxidant synergists • Deficiency cause disease like cancers, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease.
  • 20. 20 Antioxidants Source VITAMINS Vitamin C Vitamin E Citrus fruits, vegetables Grains, nuts, oils CAROTENOIDS Lycopene Beta carotene Tomatoes Carrots, sweet potato XANTHOPHYLLS Beta cryptoxanthin Mango, papaya, oranges FLAVANOIDS Rutin Luteolin Quercetin Kaempferol Liquiritin Tobacco, eucalyptus species Lemon, red pepper, olive Onion, apple skin, black grapes Grape fruit, tea Liquorice
  • 21. 21 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (pufa) • The natural vegetable oils and marine animal oils containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) belonging to linoleic group, help to reduce cholesterol, formation/deposition and prevent thromboxane formation and thus useful as preventive measure for atherosclerosis. • Examples: sunflower oil, corn oil, soyabean oil, mustard oil and marine fishes.
  • 22. 22 Cereals and grains • Cereal and pulse crops are staple foods that provide essential nutrients to many populations of the world. Traditionally, whole grains were consumed but most current foods are derived from refined fractions of cereal and pulse crops. • Consumption of processed or refined products may reduce the health benefits of food. In wheat-based processed foods, for example, the removed 40% of the grain (mainly the bran and the germ of the wheat grain) contains the majority of the health beneficial components. • Examples: oats, rice, wheat, bran oil, corn, soyabean, commen beans
  • 23. 23 Herbs as a functional food • Aloe vera: anti-inflammatory, emollient, wound healing. • Evening primrose oil: dietary supplement of linoleic acid, treatment of atopic eczema. • Garlic: antibacterial, antifungal, antithrombotic, anti- inflammatory. • Ginger: carminative, anti emetic, treatment of dizziness. • Ginseng: Adaptogen
  • 24. 24 Health drinks of natural origin • Green tea: antioxidant, reduce risk of CVD, enhance humoral and cell mediated immunity. • Aloe vera juice: act as anti-inflammatory, wound healing, emollient. • Different natural juices: gives different types of nutrients and prevents from various diseases. • Example: • wheat grass juice • Various Vegetable juices • Various Fruit juices
  • 26. What is Spirulina?  It is blue green algae.  It is a simple, one-celled from of algae, that thrives in warm, alkaline fresh water bodies.  The name Spirulina was derived from Latin word for helix or spiral.  Commercially produced from two species of cyanobacteria.  Arthospira platensis & Arthospira maxicana.  There are more than 39 species but for its composition stability and balance of nutrients, Arthospira spirulina platensis is the species most used in developing countries cultures. 26
  • 27. 27 INTRODUCTION  Spirulina are multicellular and filamentous blue green algae that has gained considerable popularity in the health food industry and increasingly as a protein and vitamin supplement to aquacultures diets. It grows in water, can be harvested and processed easily and has very high macro and micro nutrient contents.  Spirulina platensis has been used as food for centuries by different populations and only rediscovered in recent years. Once classified as the “blue-green algae’’, it does not strictly speaking belong to the algae, even though for convenience it continues to be referred to in that way. It grows naturally in the alkaline waters of lakes in warm regions. Measuring about 0.1mm across, it generally takes the form of tiny green filaments coiled in spirals of varying tightness and number, depending on the strain. Its impressive protein content and its rapid growth of usage are the major attention it seeks.
  • 28. 28 Sources from where spirulina can be obtained  Spirulina platensis is naturally found in tropical regions inhabiting alkaline lakes (pH 11) with high concentration of NaCl and bicarbonates. These limiting conditions for other microorganism allow cultivation of microalgae in opened reactors.  Spirulina platensis are also found in aquatic ecosystems like ponds and lakes, from where they are collected , washed, and dried.  Finally communized to powdered form and stored in suitable containers.
  • 29. 29 BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION The basic biochemical composition of Spirulina can be summarized as follows,  Protein: Spirulina contains unusually high amounts of protein between 55 and 70 per cent by dry weight. It is a complete protein, containing all essential amino acids.  Essential fatty acids. Spirulina has a high amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids, 1.5-2.0 per cent of 5-6 per cent total lipid. Spirulina is rich in linolenic acid, stearidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid.  Vitamins: Spirulina contains vitamin B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, vitamin C, vitamin D and vitamin E.
  • 30. Photosynthetic pigments: Spirulina contains many pigments including chlorophyll-a, xanthophylls, β-carotene, echinenone, myxoxanthophyll, etc. And the phycobiliproteins C-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin. Minerals: Spirulina is a rich source of potassium, calcium, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorous, selenium, sodium and zinc. 30
  • 31. 31 HEATH BENEFITS OF SPIRULINA 1. Aids Depression system. 2. Reduces pain sensitivity. 3. Blood purifier. 4. Boost immune system. 5. Increases metabolism. 6. Reduces anxiety and stress naturally. 7. Prevent heart disease. 8. Great source for proteins. 9. Improve digestion. 10.Lowers cholesterol level. 11.Purifies the liver.
  • 34. 34 INTRODUCTION • The soybean or soya bean is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses. Traditional unfermented food uses of soybeans include soy milk, from which tofu and tofu skin are made. Fermented soy foods include soy sauce, fermented bean paste, natto, and tempeh. • It has become the current market trend and have shown remarkable success in enduring and enhancing the body system in accordance with the environmental needs.
  • 35. 35 SOURCES • Considering India, it has been cultivated well in the northeastern region and as well as some part of the northern region. • It has been an exotic food for some tribals, where they fermented it and utilize in the most suitable way. • In market, soya chunks are sold, or some have the seeds preparing in their own traditional way.
  • 36. 36 COMPOSTION OF SOYBEAN • The mature soybean is about 38% protein, 30% carbohydrate, 18% oil, and 14% moisture, ash, and hull. Soybeans contain all three of the macro-nutrients required for good nutrition: complete protein, carbohydrate and fat, as well as vitamins and minerals, including calcium, folic acid, and iron.
  • 37. 37
  • 38. 38
  • 39. 39 SOME OF THE MARKETED PRODUCTS
  • 40. 40
  • 41. 41 HEALTH BENEFITS OF SOYABEAN 1. As anticancer  Soyabean has been extensively investigated for its ability to treat and prevent a variety of chronic diseases including cancer.  Genestein which is found as one of the chemical constituent of soya, is reported to be a potent and specific inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinase.  Genestein also inhibits DNA topoisomerase II activity , alter cell cycle specific events, include apoptosis and inhibits angiogenetic process which is essential for Tumor growth.
  • 42. 2. Boost heart health Soybeans are a source of healthy, unsaturated fat, which helps you lower your total cholesterol, specifically LDL cholesterol levels. This allows you to prevent conditions like atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, which can easily lead to heart attack and stroke. Furthermore, there are some specific fatty acids that are necessary for a healthy system. Two of those fatty acids are linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Two of those fatty acids are linolenic acid, known as omega 6 and alpha-linolenic acid, known as omega 3 fatty acids . Omega 3 fatty acids have anti- inflammatory effects and have a very important role in vision and brain health. 42
  • 43.  Omega 6 fatty acids are also known to provide energy for the body. Finally, the fibre in soybeans has actually been shown to reduce cholesterol levels in the body by scraping excess cholesterol off the walls of blood vessels and arteries. 43
  • 44. 44 3. Relieving of menopausal symptoms • Soybeans are a very good source of isoflavones, which are essential components of the female reproductive system. During menopause, estrogen levels drop significantly. • Isoflavones are able to bind to estrogen receptor cells, so the body doesn’t feel as though it is going through such a dramatic change. This can ease many of the symptoms of menopause such as mood swings, hot flashes, and hunger pains. • Menopause can be a traumatic time of life for many women and soybeans are a great way to ease that major life transition.
  • 45. 45 4. Boost Digestion. • One of the most common elements lacking in many people’s diet is dietary fiber, which is present in high quantities in soybeans. • Fiber is an essential part of a healthy body, particularly in terms of the digestive system. Fiber bulks up your stool, making it move through your digestive system smoothly. • Furthermore, it stimulates peristaltic motion, which is the contraction of the smooth muscles that push food through your system. It is vital also because constipation can be a very serious condition that can lead to serious conditions, including colorectal cancer. • Soybeans also contain the carbohydrate known as oligosaccharides known to stimulate the production of healthy bacteria in the intestines, thus serving as a great source of prebiotics.
  • 46. 46 5. Improve bone health. • Soybeans have a high vitamin and mineral content and the impressive levels of calcium, magnesium, copper, selenium, and zinc in them are also very important for healthy bones. • All of these elements are essential for promoting osteotropic activity, which allows for new bones to grow and also speeds up the bone healing process. • Eating soybeans can be a long-term solution for problems like osteoporosis, which commonly occurs as we age. 6. Prevent birth defects. • The high levels of vitamin B complex and folic acid in soybeans are very important for pregnant women. • Folic acid ensures the prevention of neural tube defects in infants, which ensures a happy and healthy baby.
  • 47. 47 7. Control diabetes. • Soybeans are an effective method of prevention and management of diabetes, primarily because they have shown an ability to increase insulin receptors in the body, thereby helping manage the disease effectively or prevent it from occurring in the first place. • Additionally, soybeans have a lower carbohydrate content which makes it a great addition to diabetic friendly meals. 8. Relieve sleep disorders. • Soybeans help in reducing sleep disorders and the occurrence of insomnia. • They also have a high content of magnesium, as highlighted by researchers of the University of Kentucky in their study published in the Plant Physiology journal. • Magnesium is directly linked to increasing the quality, duration, and restfulness of your sleep.
  • 48. 48 SIDE EFFECTS OF SOYABEAN • Although, soyabean has a numerous of health benefits however it is contraindicated in some of the diseases like Thyroid disorders like hyperthyroidism, during pregnancy, which is recently reported. • Some of the reports says that some people are allergic to the soymilk, and some itself with the beans.
  • 49. 49 G a r l i c
  • 50. 50 Introduction • Garlic is a fresh or dried bulbs obtained from Allium Sativum, family- Liliaceae. • In India , it is used as a source of spices and aid to many masalas and beverages. • Commonly known as Lassan, besides used as spice and flavours, it has been used as an medicinal aid. • It has a hypoglycaemic, hypolipidemic , antiseptic and antiulcer property. • Generally one of its preparation ; Garlic oil, is used as an element in hair treatment.
  • 51. 51 Sources • It is mostly grown in areas with humid conditions, optimum rainfall, sandy and loamy soils. • It is cultivated in many parts of India ; Uttar Pradesh, Kerala, Gujarat and some northern parts of the country. • Like every plant, it has its own unique environmental requirements such as climate, soil, temperature and other external factors.
  • 52. 52 Chemical Composition of Garlic • Allium sativum, consist of Sulphur containing compounds. • Garlic contains at least 33 sulfur compounds like aliin, allicin, ajoene, allylpropl, diallyl, trisulfide, sallylcysteine, vinyldithiines, allylmercaptocystein, and others. Besides sulfure compounds garlic contains 17 amino acids and their glycosides, arginine and others.
  • 53. 53 Here in following table , it highlights the comparative nutritional elements between Allium cepa (onion) and allium Sativum( garlic)
  • 54. 54 Health benefits of Garlic • Diabetes: Diabetes can harm the kidneys, inhibit nervous system functions, cause heart disorders, and even lead to poor eyesight. The oil extracted from garlic may protect diabetic patients from these side effects. • High Cholesterol Levels: Of the two kinds of cholesterol –LDL and HDL, the former is bad for human health. Garlic, rich in the allicin compound, effectively prevents LDL cholesterol from oxidizing. All those who have high cholesterol levels should include this herb in their daily diet. • Hypertension: Garlic is an herbal ingredient for curing hypertension. When exposed to high levels of pressure, the allicin present in it relaxes the blood vessels. It also fights against thrombosis by reducing platelet aggregation.
  • 55. 55 • Eye Care: Garlic is rich in nutrients like Selenium, Quercetin and Vitamin C, all of which help treat eye infections and swelling. • Ear Aches: Garlic is commonly used for curing ear aches, as it has several antiviral, antifungal and antibiotic properties. Its oil can be made at home by squeezing the juice of its cloves and adding it to olive oil. The mixture should be kept at room temperature for a few days, but shouldn’t be saved indefinitely, if made at home. • Intestinal Problems: Garlic clears up most intestinal problems like dysentery, diarrhea and colitis. Its role in dispelling worms in phenomenal. It does not affect the functioning of useful organisms in the intestine, which aid in digestion, but it does destroy the harmful bacteria present in the intestines.
  • 56. 56 • Cold: Raw garlic is used to treat colds and coughs. At the very onset of a cold, you should eat at least two crushed cloves of it, which will thereby help in lessening the severity of your cold. • Infected Wounds: Garlic can be placed on infected wounds as an herbal treatment. It should be mixed with three drops of water, rather than using it in raw form, as the undiluted juice can irritate the skin. • Digestion: Daily inclusion of garlic in your diet aids in eliminating any digestive problems. The herb assists in the normal functioning of the intestines for good digestion. Even swelling or irritation of the gastric canal may be rectified with garlic as a treatment. • Acne: Half the people in the world suffer from mild to severe forms of acne. Garlic may be used, along with other ingredients like honey, cream and turmeric, to treat acne scars and prevent the initial development of acne. Garlic acts as a cleanser and an antibiotic substance for soothing skin rashes.
  • 57. 57 • Asthma: Boiled garlic cloves are wonderful as an alternative asthma treatment. Each night before going to sleep, a glass of milk with 3 boiled cloves of garlic can bring subsequent relief for patients with asthma. The asthma attacks may be brought under control by having crushed garlic cloves with malt vinegar as well. • Cancer: The regular intake of garlic reduces the risk of colon, stomach and esophageal cancer. It aids in reducing the production of carcinogenic compounds , and also reduces the occurrence of tumors associated with breast cancer.
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  • 59. Omega -3 fatty acids  Omega – 3 fatty acids are essential acids, a class of nutrients needed for our body to function normally.  These are the fats of life which help our cells to function properly.  Omega – 3 cannot be produced be our body and should be supplied through the diet.  Types of omega – 3 fatty acids:  1. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)  2. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)  3. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 59
  • 60. Alpha-linolenic acid  Alpha linoleic acid Is an n-3 fatty acid.  It is one of two essential fatty acids, so called because they are necessary for health and cannot be produced within the human body.  Eicosapentaenoic acid:  Eicosapentaenoic acid is an omega -3 fatty acid.  In physiological literature, it is given the name 20:5.  It also have the trivial name timmodonic acid. 60
  • 61.  Docosahexaenoic acid  Docosahexaenoic acid is an omega – 3 fatty acid that is a primary structural component of the human brain, cerebra; cortex, skin, sperm, testicles and retina.  Functions of omega-3 fatty acids:  Relaxation and contraction of muscles  Blood clotting  Digestion  Fertility  Cell division  Growth  Movement of calcium and other substances in and out of cells. 61
  • 62.  Sources of omega – 3 fatty acids: Fish and fish oil: Sardines, Salmon, Tuna, Trout, Cod Nuts and Seeds: Walnuts, Flaxseed Veggies: Spinach, cauliflower, brussels sprouts etc. Oil: Flaxseed oil, soybean oil etc. Beans: Kidney beans, pinto and mungo beans Eggs  Health benefits:  Reduces cardiovascular risk factors  Reduces morning stiffness, swollen joints and rheumatoid arthritis  Lowers the risk of cancer  Reduces inflammation throughout the body  Reduces the risk of obesity  Maintains fluidity of cell membranes. 62
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  • 64. Carotenoids  Carotenoid, are the group of non-nitrogenous, yellow, orange, or red pigments (biochromes) that are almost universally distributed in living things.  Carotenoids also called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria and fungi.  Are the various yellow, orange, red and green pigments that are found in many fruits and vegetables.  There are over 600 known carotenoids;  They are split into two classes, xanthophylls (which contain oxygen) and carotenes (which are purely hydrocarbons, and contain no oxygen). All are derivatives of tetraterpenes, meaning that they are produced from 8 isoprene molecules and contain 40 carbon atoms. 64
  • 65.  Physical properties:  All carotenoids are lipophilic compounds and thus are soluble in oils and organic solvents.  They can be isomerized by heat, acid, light.  Many carotenoids exhibit spectral shifts with various reagents and these spectral changes are used for identification.  Chemical properties:  Carotenoids are easily oxidized because of large number of conjugated double bonds Such reactions cause color loss of carotenoids in foods.  Destability of a particular pigment to oxidation is highly dependent on its environment. 65
  • 66.  TYPES OF CAROTENOIDS  Carotenoids classified into two classes:  Carotenes: (which are purely hydrocarbons, and contain no oxygen)  Examples - alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene  Xanthophylls: (which contain oxygen)  Examples - beta-cryptoxanthin, Lutein, zeaxanthin  All are derivatives of tetraterpenes, meaning that they are produced from 8 isoprene molecules and contain 40 carbon atoms. 66
  • 67.  Why we do need Carotenoid?  Diets high in carotenoid- rich fruits and vegetables are associated with reduced risk of:  Cardiovascular disease some cancers many other chronic diseases.  LYCOPENE  Lycopene is a member of the carotenoid family, and it is the naturally occurring compound that gives the characteristic red color to the tomato, watermelon, pink grapefruit, and orange. 67
  • 68.  Xanthophylls  The other type of carotenoid, are oxygen- containing molecules (Xanthophylls)  Source: Found in dark leafy greens such as spinach and kale, as well as broccoli.  Uses: Xanthophylls are also antioxidants, and two in particular have great importance in the health of our eyes. (cataracts and macular degeneration).  beta-carotene.  One of the more familiar carotenes is beta-carotene.  Beta-carotene is known as a provitamin A carotene because it can be converted by the body to a usable form of vitamin A.  Source:  In fact, many of these orange (Carrot) and yellow foods are the primary source of vitamin 68
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  • 70. THANK YOU! 70 Speak in such a way that others love to listen to you and listen in such a way that others love to talk to you!