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Nutrceuticals

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Nutraceuticals is a broad umbrella term that is used to describe any product derived from food sources with extra health benefits in addition to the basic nutritional value found in foods.Nutraceutical, a portmanteau of the words “nutrition” and “pharmaceutical”, was coined in 1989 by Stephen L. DeFelice, founder and chairman of the Foundation of Innovation Medicine.[1] The term is applied to products that range from isolated nutrients, dietary supplements and herbal products, specific diets and processed foods such as cereals, soups, and beverages.

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Nutrceuticals

  1. 1. K.Sudheer Kumar, Assistant professor. Dept.of Pharmacognosy Chilkur Balaji college of Pharmacy Hyderabad. E-mail:sudheer.y2k8@gmail.com NUTRACEUTICALS
  2. 2. Nutraceutical, functional food ingredients and dietary supplements are important for health promotion and disease risk reduction. Greek physician HIPPOCRATES KNOWN AS FATHER OF MEDICINES SAID “LET FOOD BE THE MEDICINES” The term “Nutraceutical” was coined from “Nutrition” & “Pharmaceutical” in 1989 by Stephen De Felice,MD, Founder and Chairman of the Foundation for Innovation in Medicine (FIM).
  3. 3. NUTRACEUTICALS Nutrient and non-nutrient compounds in food that have health promoting, disease prevents or medicinal properties are called Nutraceuticals. NUTRACEUTICALS “ A food or part of food or nutrient, that provides health benefits, including the prevention and treatment of a disease.”
  4. 4. According to dietary supplement, health and education act (DSHEA) dietary supplements are products intended to supplement the diet that bears or contains one or more of the following dietary ingredients: a vitamin, a mineral, an herb or other botanical, an amino acid, a dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total daily intake, or a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract, or combinations of these ingredients
  5. 5. Nutraceuticals is a term used to describe any product derived from food sources that provides extra health benefits in addition to the basic nutritional value found in foods. Products typically claim to prevent chronic diseases, improve health, delay the aging process, and increase life expectancy.
  6. 6. Why nutraceuticals……………? The regular consumption of synthetic drug may cause organ failure and so many other after effects. Numerous epidemiological studies suggest that the risks for many chronic diseases are diet related and could be decreased significantly through the change of dietary habits.
  7. 7. Prebiotics Probiotics Dietary fibers Omega 3 fatty acids Antioxidants Nutraceuticals can be classified in to two groups- Potential nutraceuticals. Established nutraceuticals. TYPES  Nutrients: Substances which have established  Nutritional functions e.g. Vitamins, Minerals, Amino Acids, Fatty acids, etc.  Herbals/ Phytochemicals: Herbs or Botanical products Dietary Supplements
  8. 8. Probiotics:-These are living microorganisms, improve intestinal microbial balance, and also involves functioning of large Intestine ex., Lactobacillus species Prebiotics :-These are nutraceuticals which promote the flourishing of probioics.bedore reaching the colonic region,ex.,Inulin it also acts as Dietary fiber Dietary fibers:-Fibers are non- digestible polysaccharides found in plant cell wlls,fibers which we eat in diet are called dietary fibers, insufficient intake of fibers cause Constipation, Colorectal cancer etc.. Omega 3 fatty acids (Poly unsaturated Fatty Acids PUFA) present in various vegetable and marine animals,ex.,mustarad oil, cod liver, fish liver oil, they helps in prevention of cholesterol formation/deposition.(EPA,DHA) Antioxidants :-Most importantly reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other free radicals.These species are continuously produced during physiological cellular metabolism. To counteract the harmful effects of ROS, Vitamin C. Vitamin E (alpha- tocopherol) antioxidant system to maintain equilibrium between the pro-oxidants, or damaging agents,
  9. 9. NUTRIENTS Most common Nutrients used/ supplemented as Nutraceutical are: Minerals and Vitamins. or in combination or in combination with other antioxidants
  10. 10. Fat Soluble Vitamins Vitamin A: Acts as antioxidant, essential for growth and development, maintains healthy vision, skin and mucous membranes,  Vitamin D: Essential for formation of bones and teeth, helps the body to absorb and use calcium  Vitamin E: Antioxidant, helps to form blood cells, boosts immune system  Vitamin K: Essential for blood clotting Water Soluble Vitamins  Vitamin C: Antioxidant, necessary for healthy bones, gums, teeth and skin. Helps in wound healing, prevent from common cold  Vitamin B 1: Helps in carbohydrate metabolism, essential for neurological function.
  11. 11. Vitamin B 2: Energy metabolism, maintain healthy eye, skin and nerve function. • Vitamin B 3: Energy metabolism, brain function • Vitamin B 6: Helps to produce essential proteins, convert proteins to energy • Vitamin B 12: Help in producing genetic material, formation of RBC, maintenance of CNS, synthesis of amino acids, involved in metabolism of protein, fat and carbohydrate. • Folic acid: Helps in RBC formation, formation of genetic material of cell, very much essential during pregnancy • Pantothenic acid: Aids in synthesis of cholesterol, steroids, and fatty acids, crucial for intra neuronal synthesis of acetylcholine
  12. 12. Minerals: • Calcium: essential for bone and teeth, maintaining bone strength, nerve, muscle and glandular function, blood clotting, • Iron: energy production, Hb, oxygen transport, • Magnesium: for healthy nerve and muscle function, bone formation, • Phosphorous: energy production, phosphorylation process, bone and teeth, for genetic material, • Cobalt: component of Vit. B 12 and B 12 coenzymes, • Copper: Hb and collagen production, function of heart, energy production, absorption of Iron, • Iodine: proper function of Thyroid gland, • Chromium: with insulin it helps in conversion of carbohydrate and fat into energy, treatment of diabetes,
  13. 13. Selenium: Antioxidant, functioning of heart muscle, part of GPX enzyme, Zinc: Essential for cell reproduction, for development in Neonates, wound healing, production of sperm and testosterone hormone,
  14. 14. Herbals: • Aloe vera: Anti-inflammatory, emollient, wound healing, • Evening Primrose oil: Dietary supplement of linoleic acid, treatment of atopic eczema, • Garlic: Antibacterial, antifungal, antithrombotic, antiinflammatory, • Ginger: carminative, antiemetic, treatment of dizziness • Ginseng: Adaptogen, • Green tea: Antioxidant, reduces risk of CVD, enhances humoral and cell mediated Immunity, • Vegetables, fruits, whole grain, herbs, nuts and various seeds contain an abundance of phenolic compounds, terpenoids, sulphur compounds, pigments etc.
  15. 15. Phytochemicals could provide health benefits as 1. Substrate for biochemical reactions 2. Cofactors of enzymatic reactions 3. Inhibitors of enzymatic reactions 4. Absorbents that bind to & eliminate undesirable constituent in the intestine 5. Scavengers of reactive or toxic chemicals 6. Enhance the absorption and / or stability of essential nutrients 7. Selective growth factor for beneficial bacteria 8. Fermentation substrate for beneficial bacteria 9. Selective inhibitors of deleterious intestinal bacteria
  16. 16. Various Phytochemicals Phytochemicals Source Role Tocotrienols & tocopherols Grains Suppressed the growth of diverse tumors cell lines via initiation of apoptosis and concomitant arrest of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle Carotenoids Fruits & vegetables Antioxidants, protects against uterine, prostate, colorectal, lung and digestive tract cancers, and protection to other antioxidants. Limonoids Citrus fruits Inhibiting phase I enzymes & inducing phase II detoxification enzymes in liver, provide protection to lung tissue. Phytosterols Various plants Exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-neoplastic, anti-pyretic & immune- modulating activity, decrease cholesterol Phenolic constituents Various plants, wholegrain Antioxidants, lowers the risk of CHD, diabetes, hypertension etc.
  17. 17. Flavanoids Grapes, wines Action against free radicals, free radicals mediated cellular signaling, inflammation, allergies, platelet aggregation, & hepatotoxins Catechin & gallic acids Grapes, berries, cocoa, green tea, acacia spp. Antioxidants, free radical scavenging ability, inhibition of eicosanoid synthesis, reduces CHD Isoflavonoids Soybeans Treating cancers & osteoporosis Anthocyanidins Fruits & flowers Antioxidants & anti-mutagenic properties Glucosinolates Cruciferous Activators of liver detoxification enzymes, inhibit the neoplastic effect of various carcinogens Indoles Reduces estrogen-dependent cancer risk, Fiber Various vegetables, fruits, Protects against colorectal diseases,
  18. 18. EXAMPLES OF FUNCTIONAL COMPONENTS Class / components Source Potential benefit 1. Fatty acids Milk & Meat Improve body composition, reduce cancers n-3 FA(DHA, EPA) Fish oils, berseem & maize fodder,mustard,linseed,rapese ed Reduce CVD & improve mental, visual function 2. Polyphenols Anthocyanidine Fruits Nutralises free radicals, reduce risk of cancerCatechins Tea,babul pods,mustard cake,rape seed,salseed Flavonone Citrus Flavones Fruits, vegetables,soya bean proanthocyanidine Cocoa, chocolate,tea,rape seed Reduce CVD
  19. 19. 3. Saponins Soybeans,GNC,lucerne,chi ck pea Lower cholesterol, anti cancer 4.Probiotics / Prebiotics / Synbiotics Lactobacillus Dahi,yogurt Improve GI health Fructo - oligosaccharides Whole grains, onions, combination of Pro & Prebiotics 5.Phytoestrogen Daidzein , Zenistein Soybean, flax, lentilseed,maize, berseem,lucerne,subabul fodder Reduce menopause symptoms,  bone health Lignans Flax,rye, vegetables Reduce cancer and heart diseases
  20. 20. 6.Caroteinoids - caroteine Berseem,lucerne ,oat & maize fodder, Carrots, vegetabels,fruits Nutralises free radicals Luteine vegetabels Healthy vision Zeoxanthine Eggs,citrus,corn Lycopene Tomatoes Reduce prostate cancer 7.dietary fiber Insoluble fiber Wheat bran Reduce breast, colon cancer -glucan Oats Reduce CVD Whole grain Cereal grains
  21. 21. S.NO NUTRACEUTICAL SOURCE CONSTITUENTS USES 1. Garlic Ripe bulbs of Allium Sativum,Liliaceae Allin,Allicin, Amoebic dysentery,rubefacie nt,condimentexpect orant, 2 Blue green algae Spiruelina platensis Oscillatoriace Protiens,lipids, Carbohydrates,vitamin s Antiviral,Anti- HIV,Anti cancer 3 Soya Seeds of Glycine soja ,Leguminaceae. Protiens ,fats,Omega 3 fatty acids. Soya milk is rich nutrient,used to treat brest and prostate cancers 4 Royal jelly Salivery secretion of Apis mellifera,Apidae Essential amini acids,vitamins, carbohydrates. Antiageing agent, nutrient suppliment, health onic Garlic Blue green algae Soya Royal jelly
  22. 22. THANK YOU

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