lal preethi s.s
Dept of biochemistry
University of kerala
Times are changing…..
∗ 75% of Indians below 40 are stressed
∗ 35% -prone to diseases
Lifestyle habits are changing,
common lifestyle diseases are sleeping disorders ,stroke
heart attack,cancers e.t.c
NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS - provid a well rounded
health and fitness.
∗ Greek Physician Hippocrates,
Known as father of Medicine.
(said several centuries ago)
“Let Food be Your Medicine”
The Philosophy behind is:
“Focus on Prevention”
Nutraceutical can be defined as
The term “Nutraceutical” was coined from
“Nutrition” & “Pharmaceutical” in 1989 by Stephen
DeFelice,MD, Founder and Chairman of the Foundation for
Innovation in Medicine (FIM).
food or part of food or nutrient, that
provides health benefits, including the
prevention and treatment of a disease.”
Broadly can be defined as:
∗ Nutrients: Substances which have established
Nutritional functions e.g. Vitamins, Minerals, Amino
Acids, Fatty acids, etc.
∗ Herbals/ Phytochemicals: Herbs or Botanical products
∗ Dietary Supplements: Probiotics, Prebiotics, Antioxidants,
Inorganic mineral supplements
Calcium: essential for bone and teeth, maintaining bone
strength, nerve, muscle and glandular function, blood
Iron: energy production, Hb, oxygen transport.
Magnesium: for healthy nerve and muscle function, bone
Phosphorous: energy production, phosphorylation
process, bone and teeth, for genetic material,
Cobalt: component of Vit. B 12 and B 12
Copper: Hb and collagen production, function of
heart, energy production, absorption of Iron,
Iodine: proper function of Thyroid gland,
Chromium: with insulin it helps in conversion of
carbohydrate and fat into energy, treatment of
Selenium: Antioxidant, functioning of heart muscle,
part of GPX enzyme,
Zinc: Essential for cell reproduction, for
development in Neonates, wound healing,
production of sperm and testosterone hormone,
Fat Soluble Vitamins
Vitamin A: Acts as antioxidant, essential for growth and
development, maintains healthy vision, skin and mucous
membranes, may aid in the prevention and treatment of certain
cancers and in the treatment of certain skin disorders.
Vitamin D: Essential for formation of bones and teeth, helps the
body to absorb and use calcium.
Vitamin E: Antioxidant, helps to form blood cells, boosts immune
Vitamin K: Essential for blood clotting
Vitamin C: Antioxidant, necessary for healthy bones, gums,
teeth and skin. Helps in wound healing, prevent from
Vitamin B 1: Helps in carbohydrate metabolism, essential for
Vitamin B 2: Energy metabolism, maintain healthy eye, skin
and nerve function.
Vitamin B 3: Energy metabolism, brain function
Vitamin B 6: Helps to produce essential proteins, convert
proteins to energy
Vitamin B 12: Help in producing genetic material, formation of
RBC, maintenance of CNS, synthesis of amino acids,
Folic acid: Helps in RBC formation, formation of
genetic material of cell, very much essential during
Pantothenic acid: Aids in synthesis of cholesterol,
steroids, and fatty acids, crucial for intraneuronal
synthesis of acetylcholine.
Live microorganisms which, when administered
in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on
Species of Lactobacillus
yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
some E. coli and Bacillus species are also used as
Nondigestible substances that provide a
beneficial physiological effect for the host by
selectively stimulating the favorable growth of
a limited number of indigenous bacteria.
Commonly known prebiotics are:
Phytochemicals could provide health benefits as;
Substrate for biochemical reactions
Cofactors of enzymatic reactions
Inhibitors of enzymatic reactions
Absorbents that bind to & eliminate undesirable
constituent in the intestine
Scavengers of reactive or toxic chemicals
Enhance the absorption and / or stability of essential
Selective growth factor for beneficial bacteria
Fermentation substrate for beneficial bacteria
Selective inhibitors of deleterious intestinal bacteria
There are thousands of phytochemicals. But
some of the basic classes of them are found in
Cruciferous vegetables: broccoli, cauliflower,
cabbage, dark leafy greens.
Phytochemicals found are: organosulfur and
glucosinolates and they may help prevent cancer.
Tomatoes and Watermelons
has been found to be 2 times as
powerful as beta carotene (Vitamin A) in the
destruction of free radicals.
∗ Used in the treatment of heart
∗ Prevent diabetes.
∗ Infertility treatment .
May help to prevent cancer.
Phytochemicals in orange
∗ Oranges are well known for their high vitamin c level .
∗ Oranges contain other important phytochemical including
carotenoids,isohesperidin,terpeniol, flavonoids, hesperidin,
∗ Benefits of orange
∗ The orange oil is used to treat chronic bronchitis.
∗ Tea made from dried orange flowers stimulates the nervous system.
Orange peel is traditionally used to treat sleeping problems.
∗ The phytochemicals limonene and flavonoids appear to have anticarcinogenic properties.
∗ They can block the carcinogenesis by acting as a blocking agent.
∗ limonin and limonene can induce the enzyme activity of glutathione Stransferase, which is an important detoxifying enzyme.
∗ Feeding of orange oils, rich in limonene, seemed to inhibit tumors of
forestomach, lung and mammary tumorsa
SOURCE : Rhizomes of Curcuma longa
FAMILY : Zingiberaceae
CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS :
Curcumin, desmethoxy curcumin,
Recent findings indicate
that it has integrase
enzyme inhibitor activity
GRCP( DEPT OF PHARMACOLOGY)
Extract of karela increases
rate of glycogen synthesis
by 4-5 fold in liver.
Trig o ne lla fo e num-g rae cum
FA I Le g umino se ae
CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS :
(gentianine and trigonelline)
steroid saponins. USES :
In treatment of anorexia,
Fenugreek possess laxative, expectorant, demulcent properties.
Shows hypoglycemic and
GRCP( DEPT OF PHARMACOLOGY)
∗ Green tea: Antioxidant, reduces risk of CVD, enhances humoral and
cell mediated Immunity,
∗ Vegetables, fruits, whole grain, herbs, nuts and various seeds contain
an abundance of phenolic compounds, terpenoids, sulphur compounds,
pigments etc. that has been associated with protection / treatment of
certain disease conditions,
∗ Nutraceuticals are present in most of the food ingredients with varying
∗ Concentration, time and duration of supply of nutraceuticals influence
∗ Manipulating the foods, the concentration of active ingredients can be
∗ Diet rich in nutraceuticals along with regular exercise, stress reduction
and maintenance of healthy body weight will maximise health and
reduce disease risk
∗ Advanced Human Nutrition
- Robert E.C