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Nutritional supplements and nutraceuticals


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nutraceuticals are substances provides distinct health and medicinal benifits, classification prebiotics.......lycopene.........................................

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Nutritional supplements and nutraceuticals

  1. 1. ∗ ∗ NUTRACEUTICALS lal preethi s.s s3 biochemistry Dept of biochemistry University of kerala
  2. 2. Times are changing….. ∗ 75% of Indians below 40 are stressed ∗ 35% -prone to diseases Lifestyle habits are changing, common lifestyle diseases are sleeping disorders ,stroke heart attack,cancers e.t.c NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS - provid a well rounded health and fitness.
  3. 3. ∗ Greek Physician Hippocrates, Known as father of Medicine. (said several centuries ago) “Let Food be Your Medicine” The Philosophy behind is: “Focus on Prevention”
  4. 4. Nutraceutical can be defined as The term “Nutraceutical” was coined from “Nutrition” & “Pharmaceutical” in 1989 by Stephen DeFelice,MD, Founder and Chairman of the Foundation for Innovation in Medicine (FIM). “A food or part of food or nutrient, that provides health benefits, including the prevention and treatment of a disease.”
  5. 5. Broadly can be defined as: ∗ Nutrients: Substances which have established Nutritional functions e.g. Vitamins, Minerals, Amino Acids, Fatty acids, etc. ∗ Herbals/ Phytochemicals: Herbs or Botanical products ∗ Dietary Supplements: Probiotics, Prebiotics, Antioxidants, Enzymes, etc.
  6. 6. Classification based on the chemical groups
  7. 7. plant Tomato,garlic,momordica animal Shark liver oil,codeliver oil minerals Calcium ,magnesium,phosphorous microorganism Bifidobacterium,Lactobacilli
  8. 8. condition Nutraceuticals Allergy relief Ginkgo biloba Arthritis support glucosamine Cancer prevention Flax seeds ,green tea Cholesterol lowering garlic Digestive support Digestive enzymes Diabetic support Garlic,monordica Female hormone support Black cohosh immunomodulator ginseng Prostate support Tomato lycopenes
  9. 9. ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ Calcium. Magnesium Manganese Boron Copper Zinc Phosphorus
  10. 10. Inorganic mineral supplements  Calcium: essential for bone and teeth, maintaining bone strength, nerve, muscle and glandular function, blood clotting,  Iron: energy production, Hb, oxygen transport.  Magnesium: for healthy nerve and muscle function, bone formation,  Phosphorous: energy production, phosphorylation process, bone and teeth, for genetic material,
  11. 11.  Cobalt: component of Vit. B 12 and B 12 coenzymes,  Copper: Hb and collagen production, function of heart, energy production, absorption of Iron,  Iodine: proper function of Thyroid gland,  Chromium: with insulin it helps in conversion of carbohydrate and fat into energy, treatment of diabetes,
  12. 12.  Selenium: Antioxidant, functioning of heart muscle, part of GPX enzyme,  Zinc: Essential for cell reproduction, for development in Neonates, wound healing, production of sperm and testosterone hormone,
  13. 13.  Vitamins  Fat Soluble Vitamins  Vitamin A: Acts as antioxidant, essential for growth and development, maintains healthy vision, skin and mucous membranes, may aid in the prevention and treatment of certain cancers and in the treatment of certain skin disorders.  Vitamin D: Essential for formation of bones and teeth, helps the body to absorb and use calcium.  Vitamin E: Antioxidant, helps to form blood cells, boosts immune system  Vitamin K: Essential for blood clotting
  14. 14.  Vitamin C: Antioxidant, necessary for healthy bones, gums, teeth and skin. Helps in wound healing, prevent from common cold  Vitamin B 1: Helps in carbohydrate metabolism, essential for neurological function.  Vitamin B 2: Energy metabolism, maintain healthy eye, skin and nerve function. Vitamin B 3: Energy metabolism, brain function  Vitamin B 6: Helps to produce essential proteins, convert proteins to energy  Vitamin B 12: Help in producing genetic material, formation of RBC, maintenance of CNS, synthesis of amino acids,
  15. 15.  Folic acid: Helps in RBC formation, formation of genetic material of cell, very much essential during pregnancy  Pantothenic acid: Aids in synthesis of cholesterol, steroids, and fatty acids, crucial for intraneuronal synthesis of acetylcholine.
  16. 16. probitics Live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host  Species of Lactobacillus  Bifidobacterium  yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  some E. coli and Bacillus species are also used as probiotics
  17. 17. Manage Lactose Intolerance Shorten Duration of Intestinal Infections Potential Benefits of Probiotics Treat Diarrhea Reduce Bladder and Urinary Tract Infections Improve Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome
  18. 18. prebiotics Nondigestible substances that provide a beneficial physiological effect for the host by selectively stimulating the favorable growth of a limited number of indigenous bacteria. Commonly known prebiotics are:  Oligofructose .  Inulin Galacto-oligosaccharides Lactulose
  19. 19. Phytochemicals could provide health benefits as; • Substrate for biochemical reactions • Cofactors of enzymatic reactions • Inhibitors of enzymatic reactions • Absorbents that bind to & eliminate undesirable constituent in the intestine • Scavengers of reactive or toxic chemicals • Enhance the absorption and / or stability of essential nutrients • Selective growth factor for beneficial bacteria • Fermentation substrate for beneficial bacteria • Selective inhibitors of deleterious intestinal bacteria
  20. 20. There are thousands of phytochemicals. But some of the basic classes of them are found in these foods: Cruciferous vegetables: broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, dark leafy greens. Phytochemicals found are: organosulfur and glucosinolates and they may help prevent cancer.
  21. 21. Phytochemical family Tomatoes and Watermelons Phytochemical Lycopene found: Lycopene has been found to be 2 times as powerful as beta carotene (Vitamin A) in the destruction of free radicals. Cancer prevention..
  22. 22. ∗ Used in the treatment of heart diseases. ∗ Prevent diabetes. ∗ Infertility treatment .
  23. 23. Citrus Fruits Phytochemical found: monoterpenes May help to prevent cancer.
  24. 24. Phytochemicals in orange ∗ Oranges are well known for their high vitamin c level . ∗ Oranges contain other important phytochemical including carotenoids,isohesperidin,terpeniol, flavonoids, hesperidin,  limonene. ∗ Benefits of orange ∗ The orange oil is used to treat chronic bronchitis. ∗ Tea made from dried orange flowers stimulates the nervous system. Orange peel is traditionally used to treat sleeping problems. ∗ The phytochemicals limonene and flavonoids appear to have anticarcinogenic properties. ∗ They can block the carcinogenesis by acting as a blocking agent. ∗ limonin and limonene can induce the enzyme activity of glutathione Stransferase, which is an important detoxifying enzyme. ∗ Feeding of orange oils, rich in limonene, seemed to inhibit tumors of forestomach, lung and mammary tumorsa
  25. 25. Omega 3 and health
  26. 26. Dietary fibre • Structural carbohydrate of plants • Neither digested nor absorbed • Insoluble fibers - Predominant – – – – Absorbs water in gastrointestinal tract Promotes regular elimination Increases stool weight Speeds up digestion/elimination time • Soluble fibers - Health benefits – Lowers serum cholesterol – Regulates blood sugar levels
  27. 27. Intake of Dietary Fiber • Increased fiber intake may reduce risk of: Legumes: 15-19 g/cup – Gastrointestinal diseases – Hypertension – Diabetes – Heart disease – Several types of cancer (Colon) Wheat bran (17 g/cup) • Recommended: 20-35 g daily • Best sources: fruit, vegetables, whole grain breads/cereals, beans, rice, nuts, seeds • Adequate water intake is important
  28. 28. Based on Therapeutic Use: Nutraceuticals • For bone &joint health- fish oils • For Migrane risk reduction- tea • For Cancer risk reduction- soy • For Eye health- leutin • For Diabetes- fenugreek
  29. 29. LEUTIN ∗ Local name : Marigold : Asteraceae ∗ Family : Prevents the cataract, ∗ Uses Protects macula of eye
  30. 30. Herbals ∗ Aloe vera: Anti-inflammatory, emollient, wound healing, ∗ Garlic: Antibacterial, antifungal, antithrombotic, antiinflammatory, ∗ Ginger: carminative, antiemetic, treatment of dizziness
  31. 31. TURMERIC CURCUMINOIDS SOURCE : Rhizomes of Curcuma longa FAMILY : Zingiberaceae CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS : Curcumin, desmethoxy curcumin, bisdesmethoxy curcumin USES :  Antimicrobial activity  Recent findings indicate that it has integrase enzyme inhibitor activity GRCP( DEPT OF PHARMACOLOGY) 38
  32. 32. KARELA SOURCE : Momordica charantia FAMILY : Cucurbitaceae USES : Hypoglycemic effect Extract of karela increases rate of glycogen synthesis by 4-5 fold in liver. 39
  33. 33. FENUGREEK SOURCE : Trig o ne lla fo e num-g rae cum FA I Le g umino se ae M LY: CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS :  Alkaloids (gentianine and trigonelline) flavanoids, coumarins, proteins,amino acids, steroid saponins. USES :  In treatment of anorexia, gastritis.  Fenugreek possess laxative, expectorant, demulcent properties.  Shows hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic properties GRCP( DEPT OF PHARMACOLOGY) 41
  34. 34. ∗ Green tea: Antioxidant, reduces risk of CVD, enhances humoral and cell mediated Immunity, ∗ Vegetables, fruits, whole grain, herbs, nuts and various seeds contain an abundance of phenolic compounds, terpenoids, sulphur compounds, pigments etc. that has been associated with protection / treatment of certain disease conditions,
  35. 35. CONCLUSION ∗ Nutraceuticals are present in most of the food ingredients with varying concentration ∗ Concentration, time and duration of supply of nutraceuticals influence human health ∗ Manipulating the foods, the concentration of active ingredients can be increased ∗ Diet rich in nutraceuticals along with regular exercise, stress reduction and maintenance of healthy body weight will maximise health and reduce disease risk
  36. 36. ∗ Advanced Human Nutrition Wildman wikepedia ∗ - Robert E.C