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ANTI-DIABETICS
P r e p a r e d B y : M s . D i v y a K a n o j i y a
A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r i n P h a r m a c o g n o s y
D e p a r t m e n t o f P h a r m a c y, S u m a n d e e p V i d y a p e e t h
D e e m e d t o b e U n i v e r s i t y, P i p a r i a , Va d o d a r a .
1
Content:
 B i o l o g i c a l s o u r c e , C h e m i c a l c o n s t i t u e n t s a n d
T h e ra p e u t i c e f f i c a c y o f t h e fo l l o w i n g
c a t e g o r y o f c r u d e d r u g s :
 P t e r o c a r p u s
 G y m n e m a
2
P T E R O C A R P U S
 Synonyms: Bijasal, Indian kino tree, Malbar kino.
 Biological source: It consists of dried juice obtained by making vertical
incisions to the stem bark of the plant Pterocarpus marsupium Linn.,
belonging to family Leguminosae.
 Geographical source: It is found in hilly regions of Gujarat, Madhya
Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Orissa. It is also found in forests of
Karnal, Kerala, West Bengal, and Assam.
3
Morphology:
 Size: 3 to 5 to 10 mm granules
 Shape: Angular grains
 Colour: Ruby-red
 Odour: Odourless
 Taste: Astringent
 Solubility: It is partly soluble in water (about 80—90%),
completely soluble in alcohol (90%).
 Extra features: The pieces of kino are angular, glistening,
transparent, breaking with vitreous fracture.
4
 Kino contains about 70–80% of
kinotannic acid, kino-red, k-
pyrocatechin (catechol), resin and
gallic acid. Kinotannic acid is
glucosidal tannin, whereas kino-
red is anhydride of kinoin.
 Kinoin is an insoluble phlobaphene
and is produced by the action of
oxydase enzyme. It is darker in
colour than kinotannic acid.
Chemical constituents:
Figure: Gallic acid
5
 Kino is used as powerful astringent and also in the treatment
of diarrhoea and dysentery, passive haemorrhage, toothache,
and in diabetes.
 It is used in dyeing, tanning, and printing.
 The aqueous infusion of the wood is considered to be of
much use in diabetes.
 The alcoholic, as well as, aqueous extracts of heartwood are
known to possess hypoglycaemic action.
 The cups made of wood are available with Khadi and
Gramodyog commission for treatment of diabetes.
Uses:
6
 It is the one of the components of the preparation known as Gludibit
(Lupin Herbal Laboratory) and Diabecon (Himalaya Drug Company)
for diabetes mellitus.
Marketed products:
7
G Y M N E M A
 Synonyms: Gurmar, Gurmar-booti, merasingi
 Biological source: It is consists of dried flowers and leaves of Gymnema sylvestre
belonging to family Asclepiadaceae.
 Geographical source: The plant is native to Central and western India, Tropical
Africa and Australia.
8
 Gymnema stylvestra is a large, more or less pubescent,
woody climber.
 Leaves are opposite, usually elliptic or ovate (1.25-2.0 inch ×
0.5-1.25 inch).
 Flowers are small, yellow, in umbellate cymes.
 Follicles are terete, lanceolate, upto 3 inches in length.
Morphology:
9
 It contains triterpene saponins belonging to oleanane
and dammaene classes.
 Oleanane saponins are:
 1. Gymnemic acid 2. Gymnemagasaponin
 Dammarene saponins are:
 1. Gymnestrogen 2. Gurmarine 3. Gymnemasies
 Besides this other plant constituents are:
 1. Flavone 2. Trimethylamine 3. Hentriacontane
 4. Pentatriacontane 5. Phytin 6. Tartaric acid
 7. Formic acid 8. Anthraquinone derivates 9. d-quercitol
 10. Beta-chlorophyllus
Chemical constituents:
10
1. Anti-diabetic
2. For weight loss
3. In asthma
4. In snake bite
5. As anti-inflammatory
6. Anti-hypercholesterol
7. In constipation
8. In arthritis
9. In cardiopathy
10. In microbial infection
11. In some respiratory problems like cough
12. In cancer treatment
Uses:
11
Marketed products:
12
T h a n k y o u !
Be the change that you wish to
see in the world!
13

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ANTI-DIABETICS DRUGS - PTEROCARPUS AND GYMNEMA

  • 1. ANTI-DIABETICS P r e p a r e d B y : M s . D i v y a K a n o j i y a A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r i n P h a r m a c o g n o s y D e p a r t m e n t o f P h a r m a c y, S u m a n d e e p V i d y a p e e t h D e e m e d t o b e U n i v e r s i t y, P i p a r i a , Va d o d a r a . 1
  • 2. Content:  B i o l o g i c a l s o u r c e , C h e m i c a l c o n s t i t u e n t s a n d T h e ra p e u t i c e f f i c a c y o f t h e fo l l o w i n g c a t e g o r y o f c r u d e d r u g s :  P t e r o c a r p u s  G y m n e m a 2
  • 3. P T E R O C A R P U S  Synonyms: Bijasal, Indian kino tree, Malbar kino.  Biological source: It consists of dried juice obtained by making vertical incisions to the stem bark of the plant Pterocarpus marsupium Linn., belonging to family Leguminosae.  Geographical source: It is found in hilly regions of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Orissa. It is also found in forests of Karnal, Kerala, West Bengal, and Assam. 3
  • 4. Morphology:  Size: 3 to 5 to 10 mm granules  Shape: Angular grains  Colour: Ruby-red  Odour: Odourless  Taste: Astringent  Solubility: It is partly soluble in water (about 80—90%), completely soluble in alcohol (90%).  Extra features: The pieces of kino are angular, glistening, transparent, breaking with vitreous fracture. 4
  • 5.  Kino contains about 70–80% of kinotannic acid, kino-red, k- pyrocatechin (catechol), resin and gallic acid. Kinotannic acid is glucosidal tannin, whereas kino- red is anhydride of kinoin.  Kinoin is an insoluble phlobaphene and is produced by the action of oxydase enzyme. It is darker in colour than kinotannic acid. Chemical constituents: Figure: Gallic acid 5
  • 6.  Kino is used as powerful astringent and also in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery, passive haemorrhage, toothache, and in diabetes.  It is used in dyeing, tanning, and printing.  The aqueous infusion of the wood is considered to be of much use in diabetes.  The alcoholic, as well as, aqueous extracts of heartwood are known to possess hypoglycaemic action.  The cups made of wood are available with Khadi and Gramodyog commission for treatment of diabetes. Uses: 6
  • 7.  It is the one of the components of the preparation known as Gludibit (Lupin Herbal Laboratory) and Diabecon (Himalaya Drug Company) for diabetes mellitus. Marketed products: 7
  • 8. G Y M N E M A  Synonyms: Gurmar, Gurmar-booti, merasingi  Biological source: It is consists of dried flowers and leaves of Gymnema sylvestre belonging to family Asclepiadaceae.  Geographical source: The plant is native to Central and western India, Tropical Africa and Australia. 8
  • 9.  Gymnema stylvestra is a large, more or less pubescent, woody climber.  Leaves are opposite, usually elliptic or ovate (1.25-2.0 inch × 0.5-1.25 inch).  Flowers are small, yellow, in umbellate cymes.  Follicles are terete, lanceolate, upto 3 inches in length. Morphology: 9
  • 10.  It contains triterpene saponins belonging to oleanane and dammaene classes.  Oleanane saponins are:  1. Gymnemic acid 2. Gymnemagasaponin  Dammarene saponins are:  1. Gymnestrogen 2. Gurmarine 3. Gymnemasies  Besides this other plant constituents are:  1. Flavone 2. Trimethylamine 3. Hentriacontane  4. Pentatriacontane 5. Phytin 6. Tartaric acid  7. Formic acid 8. Anthraquinone derivates 9. d-quercitol  10. Beta-chlorophyllus Chemical constituents: 10
  • 11. 1. Anti-diabetic 2. For weight loss 3. In asthma 4. In snake bite 5. As anti-inflammatory 6. Anti-hypercholesterol 7. In constipation 8. In arthritis 9. In cardiopathy 10. In microbial infection 11. In some respiratory problems like cough 12. In cancer treatment Uses: 11
  • 13. T h a n k y o u ! Be the change that you wish to see in the world! 13