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Google for Life Science Researchers: Searching Power* and More Patricia F. Anderson [email_address] http://www.umich.edu/~pfa/pro/8fold/ © 2008 Regents of the University of Michigan. All rights reserved. * more of what you want, less of what you don’t
Content Part 1: Power searching FRIAR Levels of Evidence 8-Fold Path Part 2: Google tools  Productivity Communication Collaboration
Searching: FRIAR FRIAR model for systematic review searching F =  frame  your question (usually PICO format) R = what are the 3-4 most  relevant  concepts I = what part of the question is  irrelevant  to search process A = find  alternate  terms and  aliases  for the most important concepts R =  revise, review, repeat
Searching: Levels of Evidence
Searching: Tips Quotation marks OR  Parentheses Limit by site Limit by filetype + (plus sign) - (minus sign) ~ (tilde sign)
Searching: Tips Quotation marks = Phrase searching OR = Concept groupings Parentheses = Multiple concept groups Limit by site Limit by filetype + (plus sign) = Stopword searching - (minus sign) = Exclude ~ (tilde sign) = Thesaurus or synonym searching
Tip 1: Quotation marks for Phrase Searching Increases specificity and relevancy, reduces numbers. This is most useful when the words to be searched are ambiguous, have different meanings in various subject areas, when having the words adjacent to each other changes the meaning, or when it is important that the same word is repeated within a phrase.
Tip 1: Phrase Searching Which works best? Gehrig disease > 279,000 “ Gehrig disease” > 267,000 Which works best? Guam form > 20,400,000  “ Guam form” > 401 Which works best? Cell cycle analysis > 1,860,000 “ Cell cycle analysis” > 178,000
Tip 1: Phrase Searching  Results have fewer false positives.
Tip 2: OR Increases sensitivity, increases numbers, improves results ranking (quality sorting). Use this when you want  any  of the terms, not  all  of the terms. Be sure to capitalize the word “OR” so Google does not ignore it. Include British and alternate spellings. NOTE: Tools to aid in term discovery discussed later in this presentation
Tip 2: OR (Example One) ALS > 1,030,000,000 ALS OR “amyotrophic lateral sclerosis” > 1,030,000,000 ALS OR “amyotrophic lateral sclerosis” OR “Gehrig disease” OR  “Gehrig’s disease” OR “Charcot disease” OR “Charcot's disease” OR “motor neuron disease” OR “motor neurone disease” >
Tip 2: OR (Example One) Improved results ranking
Tip 2: OR (Example Two) ectoenzyme > 48,300 ectoenzyme OR ectoenzymes OR ecto-enzyme OR ecto-enzymes > 52,600 ectoenzyme OR ectoenzymes OR ecto-enzyme OR ecto-enzymes OR NTPDase OR ATPDase OR CD39 OR "nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase" OR "adenosine triphosphate diphosphohydrolase” > 586,000
Tip 2: Boolean OR  Results have fewer false negatives.
Tip 3: Concept group searching with parentheses Useful to group terms that should be processed together, at the same time and in the same way in the search, but which you want to combine with another concept or term.   Advantages : Combines increased sensitivity and specificity for maximum efficiency in searching
Tip 3: Concept group searching with parentheses Question: Is there a training manual online for stem cell methods or protocols? Concept 1 = “stem cells” Concept 2 = “methods or protocols” Concept 3 = “training” Note:  This is most useful with complex questions, questions with many separate concepts, for which initial simple searches provide erratic quality results.
Tip 3: Concept group searching with parentheses Question: Is there a training manual online for stem cell methods or protocols? Concept 1 = "stem cell" OR “stem cells” OR ESC OR mESC Concept 2 = methods OR methodology OR protocols OR assay Concept 3 = training OR “how to” OR howto OR tutorials OR curriculum OR manual
Tip 3: Concept group searching with parentheses Question: Is there a training manual online for stem cell methods or protocols? Concept 1 = "stem cell" OR “stem cells” OR ESC OR mESC Concept 2 = methods OR methodology OR protocols OR assay Concept 3 = training OR “how to” OR howto OR tutorials OR curriculum OR manual Can you put all those terms on one line like this? "stem cell" OR “stem cells” OR ESC OR mESC methods OR methodology OR protocols OR assay training OR “how to” OR howto OR tutorials OR curriculum OR manual NO!!! There are three different ideas here. If you try this, you will get strange (& probably useless) results because Google won’t be able to tell them apart. Can you search each group separately, and then tell Google to mix and match the results of the 3 searches? I wish, but not yet.
Tip 3: Concept group searching with parentheses So what can you do? This -- collect each group of terms by placing parentheses around them to show the beginning and end of a single concept group. Question: Is there a training manual online for stem cell methods or protocols? Concept 1 = "stem cell" OR “stem cells” OR ESC OR mESC Concept 2 = methods OR methodology OR protocols OR assay Concept 3 = training OR “how to” OR howto OR tutorials OR curriculum OR manual Becomes this: ( "stem cell" OR “stem cells” OR ESC OR mESC) (methods OR methodology OR protocols OR assay) (training OR “how to” OR howto OR tutorials OR curriculum OR manual)
Tip 3: Concept group searching with parentheses ("stem cell" OR “stem cells” OR ESC OR mESC) (methods OR methodology OR protocols OR assay) (training OR “how to” OR howto OR tutorials OR curriculum OR manual)
Tip 3: Concept group searching with parentheses Note:  You can use parentheses embedded within parentheses to describe complex concepts or streamline the use of repeated terms.   ("stem cell" OR “stem cells” OR (stem (ESC OR mESC))) (methods OR methodology OR protocols OR assay) (training OR howto OR tutorials OR curriculum OR manual)
Tip 4: Limit by site This is useful when you want to control the quality of the search results, when you know a site that is likely to have what you need, and also when you want to find again a known document.
Tip 4: Limit by site - inurl variant ("flow cytometry" OR FCM) (inurl:protocol OR inurl:lab OR inurl:cyto) site:edu
Tip 5: Limit by filetype Especially useful when you have reason to suspect that the answer you need will be in a certain format white papers presentations technical standards scholarly articles.
Tip 5: Limit by filetype ("stem cells" OR "stem cell" OR (stem (ESC OR mESC)) filetype:ppt
Tip 5: Limit by filetype immunoglobulin filetype:mov  DMEM MSDS filetype:pdf
Tip 5: Limit by filetype FACS protocol filetype:pdf
Tip 6: + (plus sign) = stopword search Use the  plus sign  to force the inclusion of stop words. Which works best? type i diabetes  type +i diabetes  "type i diabetes"  "diabetes type i" Use this to search foreign words with diacritics exactly as spelled. É mail fragile compared to +émail fragile
Tip 6: + (plus sign) = stopword search Émail fragile compared to +émail fragile (phrase means “fragile enamel” in French)
Tip 7: - (minus sign) Use the  minus sign  (-) to exclude terms from results when there is a clustering of irrelevant results.  Most useful when you are new to searching a topic. Also useful to isolate identity of a specific individual with a common or shared name.
Tip 7: - (minus sign) ("david pinsky" OR "david j pinsky" OR "pinsky david" OR "pinsky d" OR "pinsky dj") -beastie -lawyer -litigation -glaad -music
Tip 7: - (minus sign)  Demo of effectiveness of quick and dirty porn filter: Deaf ears -xxx -porn -pornography -paid Results without filter = 1,320,000; with filter = 881,000
Tip 8: ~ (tilde sign) Searches the selected term in thesaurus-mode (Google only). Results include a variety of related terms. ~standard
Tip 8: ~ (tilde sign) Searches the selected term in thesaurus-mode (Google only). Results include a variety of related terms. cancer survivor  or  ~cancer survivor
More Search Strategy Tips Compare results from multiple search engines Use advanced search features Use concept and term suggestions Use reviewed search results/links Use special search engine features
Tools for Term Discovery Just because you don’t find what you want, doesn’t mean it isn’t there. Often it means that whoever wrote about it used different words to describe the idea than the words you have chosen. Note : Tools following may also be useful for developing a systematic review search in MEDLINE. For these and more, see :   http://www-personal.umich.edu/~pfa/pro/8fold/refine3.html Image: The Pathology Blues:  http://www.pathguy.com/lectures/bluesget.htm
Tools for Term Discovery  Google Suggest
Tools for Term Discovery  Grokker
Tools for Term Discovery  Soovle
Tools for Term Discovery  Kartoo
Tools for Term Discovery  Kosmix
Tools for Term Discovery  CureHunter.com
Tools for Term Discovery  MedStory
Tools for Term Discovery  eMedicine
Tools for Term Discovery  GoPubMed (screenshot)
Tools for Term Discovery  GoPubMed (menu view - granular display of groupings)
More Google Google More Includes images, news, blogs, video, maps, patents, and a lot more. Complex searches done in main Google will usually repeat if you click on the button for the other service. For special attention: Google Scholar: http://scholar.google.com Google Reader: http://reader.google.com Google Alerts: http://www.google.com/alerts Find more: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Google_products http://www.google.com/intl/en/options/ http://www.google.com/intl/en/help/features.html
Get More Google Screenshot of results page, with arrows pointing to “More” Menu, and embedded results displays for “Scholarly articles” and “News results”
Get More Google Navigating the menu
Get More Google (Tip 2: Example Two, rev.) CD39 OR apyrase OR "Ecto-Apyrase" OR NTPDase OR "NTPDase-1" OR NTPDase1 OR ATPDase OR "Ecto-ATPase" OR EC3.6.1.5 OR ENTPD1 OR "ENTPD-1" OR "ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase" OR "nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase" OR "adenosine triphosphate diphosphohydrolase" OR "ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase" OR "vascular ATP diphosphohydrolase” Google Web: 838,000 (vs 684,000 for CD39 alone) Google Scholar: 15,500 Google Books: 938
Get More Google: CD39 (Web)
Get More Google: CD39 (Scholar)
Get More Google: CD39 (Books)
Get More Google: CD39 (Images)
Google Scholar Screenshot of Google Scholar homepage
Google Scholar: Preferences Remember to customize your Google Scholar preferences.
Google Scholar: Preferences: Libraries Set your preferences to find out if something is in the UM Libraries.
Google Scholar: PubMed …  but often the results are still from PubMed, but won’t let you at our journal articles then.
Google Books Screenshot from Encyclopedia of Stem Cell Research
Google Books Screenshot from Encyclopedia of Stem Cell Research showing search in book results
Google Alerts Screenshot of alerts page: send updates form simple Google searches to your email account
Google Alerts Create an alert
iGoogle Sample tab: Research Tools Beta:  http://tinyurl.com/5tepgz
RSS Feed Readers: Google Reader Google Reader: http://www.google.com/reader/ Easy, free RSS reader application Must have or create a Google e-mail account Uses a web interface
RSS Feed Readers: Google Reader The basics: new, add, groups, newest on top, limited listings of new …
RSS Feed Readers: Google Reader Adding your “subscription” to the feed (in this case, your PubMed search).
RSS Feed Readers: Google Reader Read the feed
RSS Feed Readers: Google Reader Settings (or “Manage Subscriptions”)
RSS Feed Readers: Google Reader Choose options from tabs (defaults to Subscriptions)
RSS Feed Readers: Google Reader Group your feeds in folders. NOTE: “New folder” is at bottom of list.
RSS Feeds from Google Searches Only from Google News
RSS Feeds from Google Searches Looks like this:
RSS Feeds from PubMed Searches PubMed menus “Send to” includes option for RSS Feed
RSS Feeds from PubMed Searches Instructions page for creating RSS feed
RSS Feeds from PubMed Searches How to find the XML button
RSS Feeds from PubMed Searches What the feed looks like
Google Apps For communication and collaboration
Google Docs For collaboration
Google Talk An IM snd SMS client that includes chat, voice and video options
Contact information Patricia F. Anderson Emerging Technologies Librarian Health Sciences Libraries [email_address] Follow me: http://friendfeed.com/pfanderson/ These slides will be at: http://www.slideshare.net/umhealthscienceslibraries

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Google for Life Science Researchers

  • 1. Google for Life Science Researchers: Searching Power* and More Patricia F. Anderson [email_address] http://www.umich.edu/~pfa/pro/8fold/ © 2008 Regents of the University of Michigan. All rights reserved. * more of what you want, less of what you don’t
  • 2. Content Part 1: Power searching FRIAR Levels of Evidence 8-Fold Path Part 2: Google tools Productivity Communication Collaboration
  • 3. Searching: FRIAR FRIAR model for systematic review searching F = frame your question (usually PICO format) R = what are the 3-4 most relevant concepts I = what part of the question is irrelevant to search process A = find alternate terms and aliases for the most important concepts R = revise, review, repeat
  • 5. Searching: Tips Quotation marks OR Parentheses Limit by site Limit by filetype + (plus sign) - (minus sign) ~ (tilde sign)
  • 6. Searching: Tips Quotation marks = Phrase searching OR = Concept groupings Parentheses = Multiple concept groups Limit by site Limit by filetype + (plus sign) = Stopword searching - (minus sign) = Exclude ~ (tilde sign) = Thesaurus or synonym searching
  • 7. Tip 1: Quotation marks for Phrase Searching Increases specificity and relevancy, reduces numbers. This is most useful when the words to be searched are ambiguous, have different meanings in various subject areas, when having the words adjacent to each other changes the meaning, or when it is important that the same word is repeated within a phrase.
  • 8. Tip 1: Phrase Searching Which works best? Gehrig disease > 279,000 “ Gehrig disease” > 267,000 Which works best? Guam form > 20,400,000 “ Guam form” > 401 Which works best? Cell cycle analysis > 1,860,000 “ Cell cycle analysis” > 178,000
  • 9. Tip 1: Phrase Searching Results have fewer false positives.
  • 10. Tip 2: OR Increases sensitivity, increases numbers, improves results ranking (quality sorting). Use this when you want any of the terms, not all of the terms. Be sure to capitalize the word “OR” so Google does not ignore it. Include British and alternate spellings. NOTE: Tools to aid in term discovery discussed later in this presentation
  • 11. Tip 2: OR (Example One) ALS > 1,030,000,000 ALS OR “amyotrophic lateral sclerosis” > 1,030,000,000 ALS OR “amyotrophic lateral sclerosis” OR “Gehrig disease” OR “Gehrig’s disease” OR “Charcot disease” OR “Charcot's disease” OR “motor neuron disease” OR “motor neurone disease” >
  • 12. Tip 2: OR (Example One) Improved results ranking
  • 13. Tip 2: OR (Example Two) ectoenzyme > 48,300 ectoenzyme OR ectoenzymes OR ecto-enzyme OR ecto-enzymes > 52,600 ectoenzyme OR ectoenzymes OR ecto-enzyme OR ecto-enzymes OR NTPDase OR ATPDase OR CD39 OR "nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase" OR "adenosine triphosphate diphosphohydrolase” > 586,000
  • 14. Tip 2: Boolean OR Results have fewer false negatives.
  • 15. Tip 3: Concept group searching with parentheses Useful to group terms that should be processed together, at the same time and in the same way in the search, but which you want to combine with another concept or term. Advantages : Combines increased sensitivity and specificity for maximum efficiency in searching
  • 16. Tip 3: Concept group searching with parentheses Question: Is there a training manual online for stem cell methods or protocols? Concept 1 = “stem cells” Concept 2 = “methods or protocols” Concept 3 = “training” Note: This is most useful with complex questions, questions with many separate concepts, for which initial simple searches provide erratic quality results.
  • 17. Tip 3: Concept group searching with parentheses Question: Is there a training manual online for stem cell methods or protocols? Concept 1 = "stem cell" OR “stem cells” OR ESC OR mESC Concept 2 = methods OR methodology OR protocols OR assay Concept 3 = training OR “how to” OR howto OR tutorials OR curriculum OR manual
  • 18. Tip 3: Concept group searching with parentheses Question: Is there a training manual online for stem cell methods or protocols? Concept 1 = "stem cell" OR “stem cells” OR ESC OR mESC Concept 2 = methods OR methodology OR protocols OR assay Concept 3 = training OR “how to” OR howto OR tutorials OR curriculum OR manual Can you put all those terms on one line like this? "stem cell" OR “stem cells” OR ESC OR mESC methods OR methodology OR protocols OR assay training OR “how to” OR howto OR tutorials OR curriculum OR manual NO!!! There are three different ideas here. If you try this, you will get strange (& probably useless) results because Google won’t be able to tell them apart. Can you search each group separately, and then tell Google to mix and match the results of the 3 searches? I wish, but not yet.
  • 19. Tip 3: Concept group searching with parentheses So what can you do? This -- collect each group of terms by placing parentheses around them to show the beginning and end of a single concept group. Question: Is there a training manual online for stem cell methods or protocols? Concept 1 = "stem cell" OR “stem cells” OR ESC OR mESC Concept 2 = methods OR methodology OR protocols OR assay Concept 3 = training OR “how to” OR howto OR tutorials OR curriculum OR manual Becomes this: ( "stem cell" OR “stem cells” OR ESC OR mESC) (methods OR methodology OR protocols OR assay) (training OR “how to” OR howto OR tutorials OR curriculum OR manual)
  • 20. Tip 3: Concept group searching with parentheses ("stem cell" OR “stem cells” OR ESC OR mESC) (methods OR methodology OR protocols OR assay) (training OR “how to” OR howto OR tutorials OR curriculum OR manual)
  • 21. Tip 3: Concept group searching with parentheses Note: You can use parentheses embedded within parentheses to describe complex concepts or streamline the use of repeated terms. ("stem cell" OR “stem cells” OR (stem (ESC OR mESC))) (methods OR methodology OR protocols OR assay) (training OR howto OR tutorials OR curriculum OR manual)
  • 22. Tip 4: Limit by site This is useful when you want to control the quality of the search results, when you know a site that is likely to have what you need, and also when you want to find again a known document.
  • 23. Tip 4: Limit by site - inurl variant ("flow cytometry" OR FCM) (inurl:protocol OR inurl:lab OR inurl:cyto) site:edu
  • 24. Tip 5: Limit by filetype Especially useful when you have reason to suspect that the answer you need will be in a certain format white papers presentations technical standards scholarly articles.
  • 25. Tip 5: Limit by filetype ("stem cells" OR "stem cell" OR (stem (ESC OR mESC)) filetype:ppt
  • 26. Tip 5: Limit by filetype immunoglobulin filetype:mov DMEM MSDS filetype:pdf
  • 27. Tip 5: Limit by filetype FACS protocol filetype:pdf
  • 28. Tip 6: + (plus sign) = stopword search Use the plus sign to force the inclusion of stop words. Which works best? type i diabetes type +i diabetes "type i diabetes" "diabetes type i" Use this to search foreign words with diacritics exactly as spelled. É mail fragile compared to +émail fragile
  • 29. Tip 6: + (plus sign) = stopword search Émail fragile compared to +émail fragile (phrase means “fragile enamel” in French)
  • 30. Tip 7: - (minus sign) Use the minus sign (-) to exclude terms from results when there is a clustering of irrelevant results. Most useful when you are new to searching a topic. Also useful to isolate identity of a specific individual with a common or shared name.
  • 31. Tip 7: - (minus sign) ("david pinsky" OR "david j pinsky" OR "pinsky david" OR "pinsky d" OR "pinsky dj") -beastie -lawyer -litigation -glaad -music
  • 32. Tip 7: - (minus sign) Demo of effectiveness of quick and dirty porn filter: Deaf ears -xxx -porn -pornography -paid Results without filter = 1,320,000; with filter = 881,000
  • 33. Tip 8: ~ (tilde sign) Searches the selected term in thesaurus-mode (Google only). Results include a variety of related terms. ~standard
  • 34. Tip 8: ~ (tilde sign) Searches the selected term in thesaurus-mode (Google only). Results include a variety of related terms. cancer survivor or ~cancer survivor
  • 35. More Search Strategy Tips Compare results from multiple search engines Use advanced search features Use concept and term suggestions Use reviewed search results/links Use special search engine features
  • 36. Tools for Term Discovery Just because you don’t find what you want, doesn’t mean it isn’t there. Often it means that whoever wrote about it used different words to describe the idea than the words you have chosen. Note : Tools following may also be useful for developing a systematic review search in MEDLINE. For these and more, see : http://www-personal.umich.edu/~pfa/pro/8fold/refine3.html Image: The Pathology Blues: http://www.pathguy.com/lectures/bluesget.htm
  • 37. Tools for Term Discovery Google Suggest
  • 38. Tools for Term Discovery Grokker
  • 39. Tools for Term Discovery Soovle
  • 40. Tools for Term Discovery Kartoo
  • 41. Tools for Term Discovery Kosmix
  • 42. Tools for Term Discovery CureHunter.com
  • 43. Tools for Term Discovery MedStory
  • 44. Tools for Term Discovery eMedicine
  • 45. Tools for Term Discovery GoPubMed (screenshot)
  • 46. Tools for Term Discovery GoPubMed (menu view - granular display of groupings)
  • 47. More Google Google More Includes images, news, blogs, video, maps, patents, and a lot more. Complex searches done in main Google will usually repeat if you click on the button for the other service. For special attention: Google Scholar: http://scholar.google.com Google Reader: http://reader.google.com Google Alerts: http://www.google.com/alerts Find more: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Google_products http://www.google.com/intl/en/options/ http://www.google.com/intl/en/help/features.html
  • 48. Get More Google Screenshot of results page, with arrows pointing to “More” Menu, and embedded results displays for “Scholarly articles” and “News results”
  • 49. Get More Google Navigating the menu
  • 50. Get More Google (Tip 2: Example Two, rev.) CD39 OR apyrase OR "Ecto-Apyrase" OR NTPDase OR "NTPDase-1" OR NTPDase1 OR ATPDase OR "Ecto-ATPase" OR EC3.6.1.5 OR ENTPD1 OR "ENTPD-1" OR "ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase" OR "nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase" OR "adenosine triphosphate diphosphohydrolase" OR "ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase" OR "vascular ATP diphosphohydrolase” Google Web: 838,000 (vs 684,000 for CD39 alone) Google Scholar: 15,500 Google Books: 938
  • 51. Get More Google: CD39 (Web)
  • 52. Get More Google: CD39 (Scholar)
  • 53. Get More Google: CD39 (Books)
  • 54. Get More Google: CD39 (Images)
  • 55. Google Scholar Screenshot of Google Scholar homepage
  • 56. Google Scholar: Preferences Remember to customize your Google Scholar preferences.
  • 57. Google Scholar: Preferences: Libraries Set your preferences to find out if something is in the UM Libraries.
  • 58. Google Scholar: PubMed … but often the results are still from PubMed, but won’t let you at our journal articles then.
  • 59. Google Books Screenshot from Encyclopedia of Stem Cell Research
  • 60. Google Books Screenshot from Encyclopedia of Stem Cell Research showing search in book results
  • 61. Google Alerts Screenshot of alerts page: send updates form simple Google searches to your email account
  • 63. iGoogle Sample tab: Research Tools Beta: http://tinyurl.com/5tepgz
  • 64. RSS Feed Readers: Google Reader Google Reader: http://www.google.com/reader/ Easy, free RSS reader application Must have or create a Google e-mail account Uses a web interface
  • 65. RSS Feed Readers: Google Reader The basics: new, add, groups, newest on top, limited listings of new …
  • 66. RSS Feed Readers: Google Reader Adding your “subscription” to the feed (in this case, your PubMed search).
  • 67. RSS Feed Readers: Google Reader Read the feed
  • 68. RSS Feed Readers: Google Reader Settings (or “Manage Subscriptions”)
  • 69. RSS Feed Readers: Google Reader Choose options from tabs (defaults to Subscriptions)
  • 70. RSS Feed Readers: Google Reader Group your feeds in folders. NOTE: “New folder” is at bottom of list.
  • 71. RSS Feeds from Google Searches Only from Google News
  • 72. RSS Feeds from Google Searches Looks like this:
  • 73. RSS Feeds from PubMed Searches PubMed menus “Send to” includes option for RSS Feed
  • 74. RSS Feeds from PubMed Searches Instructions page for creating RSS feed
  • 75. RSS Feeds from PubMed Searches How to find the XML button
  • 76. RSS Feeds from PubMed Searches What the feed looks like
  • 77. Google Apps For communication and collaboration
  • 78. Google Docs For collaboration
  • 79. Google Talk An IM snd SMS client that includes chat, voice and video options
  • 80. Contact information Patricia F. Anderson Emerging Technologies Librarian Health Sciences Libraries [email_address] Follow me: http://friendfeed.com/pfanderson/ These slides will be at: http://www.slideshare.net/umhealthscienceslibraries