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GLOBAL WARMING
BY:- MEENAKSHI &
MEHAKPREET KAUR
WHAT IS GLOBAL WARMING ?
Global warming refers to the long-term increase in Earth's average
surface temperature, primarily due to human activities like burning
fossil fuels, deforestation, and industrial processes. This leads to
the release of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane,
and nitrous oxide, which trap heat in the atmosphere, causing the
planet to warm. This warming can have significant impacts on the
environment, including melting ice caps, rising sea levels, more
extreme weather events, and disruptions to ecosystems and
wildlife.As the human population has inclined,so has the volume of
fossilfuels burned.
TYPES OF GLOBAL WARMING :-
Global warming can manifest in various ways, affecting different aspects of the Earth's
systems. Some types of global warming include:
1.Temperature Increase: This is the most widely recognized form, where the average
global temperature rises over time.
2. Glacial Melting: Warming temperatures lead to the melting of glaciers and ice caps,
contributing to sea level rise.
3. Ocean Warming: Heat from global warming is absorbed by the oceans, leading to warmer
ocean temperatures, which can disrupt marine ecosystems and weather patterns.
4. Extreme Weather Events: Global warming can intensify and increase the frequency of
extreme weather events such as hurricanes, droughts, heatwaves, and heavy rainfall.
5.Sea Level Rise: As ice caps and glaciers melt and ocean waters expand due to
warming, sea levels rise, threatening coastal communities and ecosystems.
6.Acidification: Increased carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere lead to
higher levels of CO2 being absorbed by the oceans, causing them to become
more acidic, which can harm marine life.
7.Shifts in Ecosystems: Warming temperatures can cause shifts in ecosystems
and habitats, affecting plant and animal species distribution and biodiversity.
GREEN HOUSE EFFECT:-
The greenhouse effect refers to the process by which
certain gases in the Earth's atmosphere trap heat from
the sun, preventing it from escaping back into space.
These gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane
(CH4), and water vapor, act like a blanket, allowing
sunlight to enter and warm the Earth's surface while
trapping some of the heat, which keeps the planet's
temperature suitable for life. However, human
activities, such as burning fossil fuels and
deforestation, have increased the concentration of
these greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, enhancing
the greenhouse effect and leading to global warming
and climate change.
CAUSES OF GLOBAL WARMING:-
● Deforestation:-
Deforestation is the process of clearing, removing, or destroying forests or
wooded areas, often for purposes such as agricultural expansion, logging,
urbanization, or infrastructure development. It involves the permanent or
temporary removal of trees and vegetation, leading to the loss of forest cover and
the conversion of forested land into non-forest uses. Deforestation is a significant
environmental issue with wide-ranging impacts on biodiversity, climate change,
soil erosion, water cycle, and ecosystem services.
Use of vehicles:-
The use of vehicles is essential for transportation, providing mobility and
accessibility for individuals and goods. Vehicles serve various purposes, including
commuting to work, transporting goods and services, emergency response, and
leisure activities. They offer convenience and efficiency in travel, allowing people
to cover long distances relatively quickly compared to other modes of
transportation like walking or cycling.
Urbanization and industrial development:-
The expansion of cities, roads, highways, and other infrastructure projects often
involves clearing forests. Urban sprawl and the construction of dams, mines, and
hydroelectric projects also contribute to deforestation.
Agriculture:
Clearing land for agriculture, including commercial farming and subsistence
agriculture, is one of the primary drivers of deforestation. Large-scale agriculture, such
as cattle ranching, soybean cultivation, and palm oil production, often involves clearing
large areas of forests.
Overpopulation:-
Overpopulation refers to a situation in which the number of people in a specific
area exceeds the carrying capacity of that area, meaning there are more individuals
than the resources and infrastructure can sustainably support. This can lead to
various social, economic, and environmental challenges, including resource
shortages, environmental degradation, pressure on infrastructure, and social and
economic inequality.
Volcanoes:-
Volcanoes are natural geological features on the Earth's surface that form when magma (molten rock),
gas, and ash erupt from beneath the Earth's crust through openings or vents called vents. These
eruptions can produce various volcanic landforms, including mountains, craters, calderas, and lava
flows. Volcanoes can be active, dormant, or extinct, and they are often associated with tectonic plate
boundaries, such as divergent or convergent boundaries, as well as hotspots. Eruptions can vary in
intensity, from gentle lava flows to explosive eruptions ejecting ash and volcanic debris into the
atmosphere.
Melting permafrost:-
Melting permafrost refers to the process in which the permanently frozen ground, known as
permafrost, thaws and transitions into a liquid state. Permafrost is soil, rock, or sediment that
remains at or below the freezing point of water (0°C or 32°F) for two or more consecutive years.
The melting of permafrost occurs when temperatures rise above freezing, causing the ice within
the permafrost to melt and the ground to become unstable. This process can have significant
environmental, social, and economic consequences, including the release of greenhouse gases,
changes to ecosystems, and damage to infrastructure built on permafrost.
Forest blazes:-
Forest blazes refer to large, intense fires that occur in forested areas, often spreading rapidly and causing significant
damage to trees, vegetation, wildlife, and property. These fires can be natural or human-caused and are
characterized by their ability to quickly engulf large areas of forest, driven by factors such as dry conditions, high
temperatures, strong winds, and flammable vegetation. Forest blazes can have severe ecological and environmental
impacts, including habitat destruction, soil erosion, loss of biodiversity, and air pollution. They also pose risks to
human safety and health, requiring coordinated efforts from firefighting agencies to contain and extinguish them.
Water vapour:-
Water vapor is the gaseous form of water. It is an invisible, odorless gas that forms when liquid
water evaporates or when ice sublimates directly into the atmosphere. Water vapor is the most
abundant greenhouse gas in the Earth's atmosphere and plays a crucial role in the Earth's climate
system, contributing to the greenhouse effect and regulating the planet's temperature. It is
constantly cycling through the atmosphere via processes such as evaporation, condensation, and
precipitation, and it plays a key role in weather patterns and the hydrological cycle.
The effects of global warming, resulting from the increase in Earth's average
surface temperature primarily due to human activities, include:
Rising temperatures: Global warming leads to higher average temperatures
worldwide, resulting in heatwaves and extreme heat events, particularly in
urban areas.
Melting ice and rising sea levels: Warming temperatures cause glaciers, ice
caps, and polar ice sheets to melt, contributing to rising sea levels. This leads
to coastal erosion, flooding, and loss of habitat for coastal communities and
wildlife.
Changes in precipitation patterns: Global warming alters precipitation
patterns, leading to more intense rainfall events, droughts, and changes in the
frequency and intensity of storms, hurricanes, and typhoons.
Ocean warming and acidification: Warming temperatures lead to higher ocean
temperatures, disrupting marine ecosystems, coral bleaching, and affecting marine
species' distribution. Additionally, increased CO2 absorption by oceans leads to ocean
acidification, harming marine life such as coral reefs, shellfish, and plankton.
Loss of biodiversity: Global warming threatens biodiversity by disrupting
ecosystems, altering habitats, and accelerating species extinction rates. Many species
are unable to adapt or migrate quickly enough to survive in rapidly changing
environments.
Negative impacts on agriculture: Changes in temperature and precipitation
patterns affect agricultural productivity, leading to crop failures, reduced yields, and
changes in crop distribution. This can result in food shortages, price fluctuations, and
economic instability, particularly in developing countries.
Global warming, Types, Causes and Effects.

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Global warming, Types, Causes and Effects.

  • 1. GLOBAL WARMING BY:- MEENAKSHI & MEHAKPREET KAUR
  • 2. WHAT IS GLOBAL WARMING ? Global warming refers to the long-term increase in Earth's average surface temperature, primarily due to human activities like burning fossil fuels, deforestation, and industrial processes. This leads to the release of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, which trap heat in the atmosphere, causing the planet to warm. This warming can have significant impacts on the environment, including melting ice caps, rising sea levels, more extreme weather events, and disruptions to ecosystems and wildlife.As the human population has inclined,so has the volume of fossilfuels burned.
  • 3. TYPES OF GLOBAL WARMING :- Global warming can manifest in various ways, affecting different aspects of the Earth's systems. Some types of global warming include: 1.Temperature Increase: This is the most widely recognized form, where the average global temperature rises over time. 2. Glacial Melting: Warming temperatures lead to the melting of glaciers and ice caps, contributing to sea level rise. 3. Ocean Warming: Heat from global warming is absorbed by the oceans, leading to warmer ocean temperatures, which can disrupt marine ecosystems and weather patterns. 4. Extreme Weather Events: Global warming can intensify and increase the frequency of extreme weather events such as hurricanes, droughts, heatwaves, and heavy rainfall.
  • 4. 5.Sea Level Rise: As ice caps and glaciers melt and ocean waters expand due to warming, sea levels rise, threatening coastal communities and ecosystems. 6.Acidification: Increased carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere lead to higher levels of CO2 being absorbed by the oceans, causing them to become more acidic, which can harm marine life. 7.Shifts in Ecosystems: Warming temperatures can cause shifts in ecosystems and habitats, affecting plant and animal species distribution and biodiversity.
  • 5. GREEN HOUSE EFFECT:- The greenhouse effect refers to the process by which certain gases in the Earth's atmosphere trap heat from the sun, preventing it from escaping back into space. These gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and water vapor, act like a blanket, allowing sunlight to enter and warm the Earth's surface while trapping some of the heat, which keeps the planet's temperature suitable for life. However, human activities, such as burning fossil fuels and deforestation, have increased the concentration of these greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, enhancing the greenhouse effect and leading to global warming and climate change.
  • 6. CAUSES OF GLOBAL WARMING:- ● Deforestation:- Deforestation is the process of clearing, removing, or destroying forests or wooded areas, often for purposes such as agricultural expansion, logging, urbanization, or infrastructure development. It involves the permanent or temporary removal of trees and vegetation, leading to the loss of forest cover and the conversion of forested land into non-forest uses. Deforestation is a significant environmental issue with wide-ranging impacts on biodiversity, climate change, soil erosion, water cycle, and ecosystem services.
  • 7. Use of vehicles:- The use of vehicles is essential for transportation, providing mobility and accessibility for individuals and goods. Vehicles serve various purposes, including commuting to work, transporting goods and services, emergency response, and leisure activities. They offer convenience and efficiency in travel, allowing people to cover long distances relatively quickly compared to other modes of transportation like walking or cycling. Urbanization and industrial development:- The expansion of cities, roads, highways, and other infrastructure projects often involves clearing forests. Urban sprawl and the construction of dams, mines, and hydroelectric projects also contribute to deforestation.
  • 8. Agriculture: Clearing land for agriculture, including commercial farming and subsistence agriculture, is one of the primary drivers of deforestation. Large-scale agriculture, such as cattle ranching, soybean cultivation, and palm oil production, often involves clearing large areas of forests. Overpopulation:- Overpopulation refers to a situation in which the number of people in a specific area exceeds the carrying capacity of that area, meaning there are more individuals than the resources and infrastructure can sustainably support. This can lead to various social, economic, and environmental challenges, including resource shortages, environmental degradation, pressure on infrastructure, and social and economic inequality.
  • 9.
  • 10. Volcanoes:- Volcanoes are natural geological features on the Earth's surface that form when magma (molten rock), gas, and ash erupt from beneath the Earth's crust through openings or vents called vents. These eruptions can produce various volcanic landforms, including mountains, craters, calderas, and lava flows. Volcanoes can be active, dormant, or extinct, and they are often associated with tectonic plate boundaries, such as divergent or convergent boundaries, as well as hotspots. Eruptions can vary in intensity, from gentle lava flows to explosive eruptions ejecting ash and volcanic debris into the atmosphere.
  • 11. Melting permafrost:- Melting permafrost refers to the process in which the permanently frozen ground, known as permafrost, thaws and transitions into a liquid state. Permafrost is soil, rock, or sediment that remains at or below the freezing point of water (0°C or 32°F) for two or more consecutive years. The melting of permafrost occurs when temperatures rise above freezing, causing the ice within the permafrost to melt and the ground to become unstable. This process can have significant environmental, social, and economic consequences, including the release of greenhouse gases, changes to ecosystems, and damage to infrastructure built on permafrost.
  • 12. Forest blazes:- Forest blazes refer to large, intense fires that occur in forested areas, often spreading rapidly and causing significant damage to trees, vegetation, wildlife, and property. These fires can be natural or human-caused and are characterized by their ability to quickly engulf large areas of forest, driven by factors such as dry conditions, high temperatures, strong winds, and flammable vegetation. Forest blazes can have severe ecological and environmental impacts, including habitat destruction, soil erosion, loss of biodiversity, and air pollution. They also pose risks to human safety and health, requiring coordinated efforts from firefighting agencies to contain and extinguish them.
  • 13. Water vapour:- Water vapor is the gaseous form of water. It is an invisible, odorless gas that forms when liquid water evaporates or when ice sublimates directly into the atmosphere. Water vapor is the most abundant greenhouse gas in the Earth's atmosphere and plays a crucial role in the Earth's climate system, contributing to the greenhouse effect and regulating the planet's temperature. It is constantly cycling through the atmosphere via processes such as evaporation, condensation, and precipitation, and it plays a key role in weather patterns and the hydrological cycle.
  • 14.
  • 15. The effects of global warming, resulting from the increase in Earth's average surface temperature primarily due to human activities, include: Rising temperatures: Global warming leads to higher average temperatures worldwide, resulting in heatwaves and extreme heat events, particularly in urban areas. Melting ice and rising sea levels: Warming temperatures cause glaciers, ice caps, and polar ice sheets to melt, contributing to rising sea levels. This leads to coastal erosion, flooding, and loss of habitat for coastal communities and wildlife. Changes in precipitation patterns: Global warming alters precipitation patterns, leading to more intense rainfall events, droughts, and changes in the frequency and intensity of storms, hurricanes, and typhoons.
  • 16. Ocean warming and acidification: Warming temperatures lead to higher ocean temperatures, disrupting marine ecosystems, coral bleaching, and affecting marine species' distribution. Additionally, increased CO2 absorption by oceans leads to ocean acidification, harming marine life such as coral reefs, shellfish, and plankton. Loss of biodiversity: Global warming threatens biodiversity by disrupting ecosystems, altering habitats, and accelerating species extinction rates. Many species are unable to adapt or migrate quickly enough to survive in rapidly changing environments. Negative impacts on agriculture: Changes in temperature and precipitation patterns affect agricultural productivity, leading to crop failures, reduced yields, and changes in crop distribution. This can result in food shortages, price fluctuations, and economic instability, particularly in developing countries.