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PRESENTED BY: SUMEENA KARKI
FIRST SEMESTER
CDBT,KIRTIPUR
KATHMANDUDATE:31st JULY,2015
1
Organisms (i.e. plants, animals or micro
organisms) in which its genetic material
(mainly DNA) has been changed or altered.
Not naturally by mating and/or
recombination
Selected genes transferred also between non
related species
 also called as “modern biotechnology” or
“gene technology” or “recombinant DNA
technology” or “genetic engineering”
The first GMOs were bacteria in 1973
2
840 m people: surviving on
fewer than 8000 kJ/ Da
1.3 b people earn:
<US$1/day
3
4O
Years by which world’s population is
predicted to double
4O %
Number by which food production
must increase
6
7
Examples
8
 Bacteria and Fungi
 Various vitamins(Vitamin B2 , vitamin C)and
amino acids (glutamate, aspartame ,
cysteine ,etc)
 Numerous enzymes used in foods and
medicinal purposes
 Bioremediation(by Suicidal GEMs )-Exxon Oil
Company to patent an oil-eating
microorganism in 1980.
 Biofuels
 GE drugs(Genentech's Humulin in 1982)
9
bacteria
yeast
Biofuel
• Herbicide resistance
• Now banned
 85% in U.S and 59%
in Europe
10
• Consists vitamin A
• Golden rice2 ( In 2003)-23 times
more
carotenoides
• Yellow color is due to plant
enzyme converts
Lycopene to B- carotenoides
• Began in 2008 in U.S
• Glycophosphate herbicide tolerant
• Restricted for cultivation
11
• Improved rapeseed free of
eonucic acid and glucosinolates
• Raw material for biodiesel,
industrial oils and lubricants
• Grown in Canada and Europe
• New variety contains vitamin A
• GM called as “ Canadian oil”
which is edible
12
• Genes incorporated coding for
Bt toxin(produced by Bacillus
thuringiensis)
• Natural insecticide
• Bt cotton first produced by
China
• India second largest producer of
cotton
13
14
• First commercially granted license
by FDA for human
consumption(1987)
• In 1994, California based company
by adding antisense gene.
• Sort of market in 1997 due to its
delicacy, shipping problem and off
taste
15
•Scorpion poison
•Kills caterpillars
•Toxic modified ,not
harmful for humans
• Mice generated in 1974
• Cats -In 2007 by South
Korean scientists
• Viruses for inserting red
fluorescent protein
• To make animals with
human genetic diseases
• In 1999 by Dr. Zhiyuan and
his colleagues at National
university of Singapore
• Green fluorescent protein
of jelly fish into Zebra fish
• Bioluminescence
• Detect pollution in
presence of toxins
• First GMO animal as pet
publically
16
 University of Alberta
 Bacterium that reduces 25%
methane (methane being 2nd major
contributor of green house effect
after co2)
 Also called Franken swine
 E. coli bacteria and mouse DNA to
pigs embryo
 Decrease output of phosphorous by
70%
17
18
 GE Atlantic salmon
 Gene from ‘ocean pout’
 On switch for the
 hormones
 Nexia biotechnologies in 2000
 Spider’s dragline silk gene
 “Biosteel”-7 to 10 times
strong as steel
 Artificial ligaments, tendons,
jaw repair, bullet proof vests,
car air bags
 30 spider goats present
 Australian pines-freezing
temperature
 Loblolly pines-less lignin
 Colorado pines-change color
to biological/chemical attack
 Poplar trees-Pollution
fighting
(91% of tricycloethane)
 Paper tree
 Land mines detecting plants
(detect nitrogen dioxide)
> Consists of miR24 and human
interferon b-1a
> Malignant melanoma,
arthritis and multiple sclerosis
19
Poplar plant
Paper tree
ArborGen farm
 Altered form of virus
 Cells produce virus
proteins
 Hepatitis B and Cholera
 Seeding cow cartilage
cells into biodegradable
ear-shaped mould
 Dr. Charles Vacanti,
University of
Massachusetts in 1995
 Transplantation into
humans
20
 Controversies of dissecting animals(April 2000, Germany)
 Bared-skinned Chicken as a part of research project
 Hebrew University by Israeli scientist(May22,2002)
21
 Lemurat-cross between Lemur and
Cat
 Dolion- Dog and Lion( Panthera leo)
 Tiglon- Tiger(male) and Lioness
 Liger-Lion and Tigress (P. tigris)
22
TiglonDolion
Liger
 Ponga fern (Cyathea dealbata)
and Italian wolf spider( Lycosa
tarantula)
 Massey University, New Zealand
 Study survival rates(camouflage
v/s natural selection)
 Designed for Practical reason
in Zimbabwe
 Unlock dormant “flying”
strand in DNA
 Believed to lost flying ability
millions years ago
 Till now 6 are produced and
kept separate
23
24
 In 2002 Monsanto company
(US and Canada)-approval
for herbicide resistant GM wheat.
2 yrs later withdrew application
so now abandoned
 Can cause allergy(400%)
 Can affect food chain
 Emergence of new diseases
 Risk of cross breading(loss of wild species)
25
 www. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/16923539
 www. listverse.com/top-10-bizzare-gmos
 www. ncbi. nlm.nih.gov/genome/doc
 http://americanradioworks.publicradio.org/features/
gmos_india/history.html
26
27
28

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Genetically modified organisms(GMOs)

  • 1. PRESENTED BY: SUMEENA KARKI FIRST SEMESTER CDBT,KIRTIPUR KATHMANDUDATE:31st JULY,2015 1
  • 2. Organisms (i.e. plants, animals or micro organisms) in which its genetic material (mainly DNA) has been changed or altered. Not naturally by mating and/or recombination Selected genes transferred also between non related species  also called as “modern biotechnology” or “gene technology” or “recombinant DNA technology” or “genetic engineering” The first GMOs were bacteria in 1973 2
  • 3. 840 m people: surviving on fewer than 8000 kJ/ Da 1.3 b people earn: <US$1/day 3
  • 4. 4O Years by which world’s population is predicted to double
  • 5. 4O % Number by which food production must increase
  • 6. 6
  • 8. 8
  • 9.  Bacteria and Fungi  Various vitamins(Vitamin B2 , vitamin C)and amino acids (glutamate, aspartame , cysteine ,etc)  Numerous enzymes used in foods and medicinal purposes  Bioremediation(by Suicidal GEMs )-Exxon Oil Company to patent an oil-eating microorganism in 1980.  Biofuels  GE drugs(Genentech's Humulin in 1982) 9 bacteria yeast Biofuel
  • 10. • Herbicide resistance • Now banned  85% in U.S and 59% in Europe 10
  • 11. • Consists vitamin A • Golden rice2 ( In 2003)-23 times more carotenoides • Yellow color is due to plant enzyme converts Lycopene to B- carotenoides • Began in 2008 in U.S • Glycophosphate herbicide tolerant • Restricted for cultivation 11
  • 12. • Improved rapeseed free of eonucic acid and glucosinolates • Raw material for biodiesel, industrial oils and lubricants • Grown in Canada and Europe • New variety contains vitamin A • GM called as “ Canadian oil” which is edible 12
  • 13. • Genes incorporated coding for Bt toxin(produced by Bacillus thuringiensis) • Natural insecticide • Bt cotton first produced by China • India second largest producer of cotton 13
  • 14. 14
  • 15. • First commercially granted license by FDA for human consumption(1987) • In 1994, California based company by adding antisense gene. • Sort of market in 1997 due to its delicacy, shipping problem and off taste 15 •Scorpion poison •Kills caterpillars •Toxic modified ,not harmful for humans
  • 16. • Mice generated in 1974 • Cats -In 2007 by South Korean scientists • Viruses for inserting red fluorescent protein • To make animals with human genetic diseases • In 1999 by Dr. Zhiyuan and his colleagues at National university of Singapore • Green fluorescent protein of jelly fish into Zebra fish • Bioluminescence • Detect pollution in presence of toxins • First GMO animal as pet publically 16
  • 17.  University of Alberta  Bacterium that reduces 25% methane (methane being 2nd major contributor of green house effect after co2)  Also called Franken swine  E. coli bacteria and mouse DNA to pigs embryo  Decrease output of phosphorous by 70% 17
  • 18. 18  GE Atlantic salmon  Gene from ‘ocean pout’  On switch for the  hormones  Nexia biotechnologies in 2000  Spider’s dragline silk gene  “Biosteel”-7 to 10 times strong as steel  Artificial ligaments, tendons, jaw repair, bullet proof vests, car air bags  30 spider goats present
  • 19.  Australian pines-freezing temperature  Loblolly pines-less lignin  Colorado pines-change color to biological/chemical attack  Poplar trees-Pollution fighting (91% of tricycloethane)  Paper tree  Land mines detecting plants (detect nitrogen dioxide) > Consists of miR24 and human interferon b-1a > Malignant melanoma, arthritis and multiple sclerosis 19 Poplar plant Paper tree ArborGen farm
  • 20.  Altered form of virus  Cells produce virus proteins  Hepatitis B and Cholera  Seeding cow cartilage cells into biodegradable ear-shaped mould  Dr. Charles Vacanti, University of Massachusetts in 1995  Transplantation into humans 20
  • 21.  Controversies of dissecting animals(April 2000, Germany)  Bared-skinned Chicken as a part of research project  Hebrew University by Israeli scientist(May22,2002) 21
  • 22.  Lemurat-cross between Lemur and Cat  Dolion- Dog and Lion( Panthera leo)  Tiglon- Tiger(male) and Lioness  Liger-Lion and Tigress (P. tigris) 22 TiglonDolion Liger
  • 23.  Ponga fern (Cyathea dealbata) and Italian wolf spider( Lycosa tarantula)  Massey University, New Zealand  Study survival rates(camouflage v/s natural selection)  Designed for Practical reason in Zimbabwe  Unlock dormant “flying” strand in DNA  Believed to lost flying ability millions years ago  Till now 6 are produced and kept separate 23
  • 24. 24  In 2002 Monsanto company (US and Canada)-approval for herbicide resistant GM wheat. 2 yrs later withdrew application so now abandoned  Can cause allergy(400%)  Can affect food chain  Emergence of new diseases  Risk of cross breading(loss of wild species)
  • 25. 25
  • 26.  www. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/16923539  www. listverse.com/top-10-bizzare-gmos  www. ncbi. nlm.nih.gov/genome/doc  http://americanradioworks.publicradio.org/features/ gmos_india/history.html 26
  • 27. 27
  • 28. 28