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Animal biotech


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Animal biotech

  1. 1. Animal Biotechnology VM 506 Lecture 2
  2. 2. Animal Biotech <ul><li>Animals provide a number of products we use in every day life. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Milk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leather </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eggs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meat </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Roles of Animals in Biotech <ul><li>Animals are involved in lab experiments. </li></ul><ul><li>Without the use of animals humans might be in danger. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Animal Models <ul><li>4 models apply for the use of animals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Living animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Living animal tissues or systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Living systems </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Animal Models <ul><li>Computer and Mathematical approaches </li></ul>
  6. 6. Living Animals <ul><li>These animals are living and usually have no threat to their well being. </li></ul><ul><li>Such animals may be known as laboratory or scientific animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Research often uses experimental groups of animals. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Living animal tissues or systems <ul><li>Animal tissues can be cultured in a lab. </li></ul><ul><li>This saves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the use of animals as well as the expense of feeding, housing, and cleaning up after the animals. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Non-Living Systems <ul><li>Involves using non living mechanical models that reflect animal activity. </li></ul><ul><li>These often relate to skeletal movement and locomotion </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial replacement parts, such as hip joints can be studied using non living systems. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Computer and mathematical approaches <ul><li>Computer simulations with virtual reality and other uses help in biotechnology. </li></ul><ul><li>Computer modeling may be done with a propose biotechnology practice before it is tested with animals. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Laboratory animals <ul><li>A laboratory animal is an animal used for laboratory or research purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Good tending is needed to assume that the research is properly carried out. </li></ul><ul><li>Without research involving animals, scientists would not have a base. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Animal Species <ul><li>Most animals are subjects of study at one time or another. </li></ul><ul><li>Most common species used in research laboratories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mice, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rats, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hamsters. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A primate </li></ul>
  12. 12. Animal Reproduction <ul><li>Reproduction is a process by which offspring are produced. </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual Reproduction is the union of a sperm and egg to ultimately produce a new individual. </li></ul><ul><li>The union of the sperm and egg is called fertilization. </li></ul><ul><li>Semen- the fluid produced by the male reproductive organs, contains sperm. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Animal Reproduction <ul><li>Copulation- is the sexual uniting of animals so the male can ejaculate semen near the eggs in the reproductive tract of the female. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Reproductive Development <ul><li>Puberty-is the time at which an animal is capable of reproduction. </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilization- union of the sperm and egg results in the formation of a zygote </li></ul><ul><li>Gestation- is the period of pregnancy in animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Parturition- is the birthing process. </li></ul><ul><li>Lactation- is the secretion of milk by the mammary glands. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Reproductive Development <ul><li>Dry time is a time when mammals are not lactating. </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Estrous Cycle <ul><li>Estrous is a time when a female is fertile and receptive to a male. </li></ul><ul><li>The estrous cycle is the time between the estrous. </li></ul><ul><li>The three periods in the estrous cycle that follow estrous are metestrus, diestrus, and proestrus. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Artificial Insemination <ul><li>Artificial insemination is the transfer if collected semen to a recipient female. </li></ul><ul><li>It is used with sheep, beef cattle, turkeys, and swine. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally female estrous cycles are regulated with hormone injections. </li></ul><ul><li>Sperm are collected from males by artificially promoting ejaculation. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Gender Preselection <ul><li>Gender preselection is choosing the gender of a potential offspring. </li></ul><ul><li>Gender preselection may be done by sorting sperm. </li></ul><ul><li>The DNA content of sperm varies slightly based on the gender of the offspring that would result from conception. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Embryo Transfer <ul><li>Embryo transfer is the harvesting of fertilized ova from a donor and implanting them into a recipient. </li></ul><ul><li>The harvested embyros are transferred to a recipient. </li></ul><ul><li>Non surgical transfer involves flushing the embryos from the uterine horn. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Bovine Somatotropin <ul><li>Bovine somatotropin is a natural occurring growth hormone produced in the pituitary gland in the endocrine system. </li></ul><ul><li>By treating dairy cattle with the hormone, milk production is increased approximately 15%. </li></ul><ul><li>Some small dairy producers do not use BST and incorporate that fact in their advertising. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Transgenic Animals and Products <ul><li>Pigs- have been used to manufacture human hemoglobin. </li></ul><ul><li>A xenograft is the practice of grafting an organ or a tissue from one species into another. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Transgenic Animals and Products <ul><li>Mice- transgenetic mice have been used in several ways. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the best known is to produce human antibodies. </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle- are used to control disease such as mastitis in dairy cows. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Methods of creating transgenetic animals <ul><li>Step One- collect embryos </li></ul><ul><li>With proper stimulation far more embryos can be obtained than would be the natural result of the reproductive process. </li></ul><ul><li>Step Two- Inject embyros. </li></ul><ul><li>A pro nucleus is the haploid nucleus of the sperm or ovum that have united in fertilization to form a zygote. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Methods of creating transgenetic animals <ul><li>Step Three- Zygote Culture </li></ul><ul><li>The zygotes are placed in the oviduct of a recipient female. </li></ul>