SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Unit-2
Foreign Exchange Rate:
Foreign exchange rate refers to the rate at which one country’s currency is
converted into another country’s currency.
In other words, it is the rate at which one currency is exchanged for another
currency. Thus, the rate of exchange between the Indian rupee and the U.S dollar is
$1 = ₹70, It means that we have to pay ₹ 70 to obtain $1.
Hence, the rate of exchange expresses the external purchasing power of a
currency.
In the foreign exchange market, the exchange rate of a currency is determined
by the forces of demand for and the supply of foreign exchange.
The demand for foreign exchange arises from the following:
1. Import of goods and services.
2. Foreign exchange is needed to meet expenditure incurred in foreign tours
3. Foreign exchanged is required for making unilateral transfers like sending gifts to
other countries.
4. Investment in foreign countries. It includes, purchase of assets like, land, shares,
bonds etc in the foreign countries.
Supply of foreign exchange is determined by the following factors:
1. Export of goods and services.
2. Foreign investments in the country.
3. Remittances from abroad.
4. Speculation.
Equilibrium rate of exchange:
In a free foreign exchange market, the equilibrium rate of exchange is
determined by the market forces the demand for and supply of the currencies
concerned.
The determination of exchange rate with the help of following diagram
𝑃2
P
𝑃1
𝑆1
𝑆1
S D
D
𝐷1
𝐷1
M 𝑀1 𝑀2
𝑁1
N
𝑁2
S
Demand and supply of Foreign currency
Rate of exchange
y
x
o
In the above diagram DD represents the demand curve for foreign
exchange, SS represents the supply curve of foreign exchange.
At point ‘P’, the demand for foreign exchange is equal to it’s supply. ON is
equilibrium rate of exchange. If the demand for foreign exchange increases
the new demand curve will D1D1, assuming that there is no change in the
supply of foreign exchange, rate increase to ON2
Similarly, if the supply of foreign exchange remain the same, a fall in the
demand for foreign exchange will reduce the exchange rate
On the other hand, assuming that the demand for foreign exchange remains
the same if its supply increase , the new supply curve will be S1S1. This will
lead to a fall in exchange rate from ON to ON1 . It the supply of foreign
exchange decreases there will be raise in the exchange rate
Purchasing Power parity theory of exchange rate:
The purchase power parity theory try to explain the determination of the
exchange rate between the currencies of two countries under the system of
inconvertible paper currency standard.
This theory was originally stated by Prof Wheatle, but it was popularized and
developed by Swedish economist Gustav Cassel.
According to this theory “The price level and the change in the price level in
different countries determine the exchange rate of those countries currencies”
According to Cassel, “The rate of exchange between two currencies must stand
essentially on the quotient of the internal purchasing powers of these currencies”.
The theory state that, under the system of inconvertible paper currency
standard, the exchange rate between the currencies of two countries reflects the
parity or equality of the purchasing power of respective currencies.
There are two version of the P.P.P theory, they are
1. Absolute version:
According to this version, exchange rate is determined at that point at which
the internal purchasing power of currencies of two countries are equal.
For eg: If a particular commodity calculator costs $10 in USA and ₹100 in India
The exchange rate between US dollar and Indian rupee will be:
$1=10
At this rate, exchange rate will be in equilibrium. It can be stated as follows:
R=
𝑃𝑏.𝑄𝑜
𝑃𝑎.𝑄𝑜
Where, R= Rate of exchange
Pa= Prices in country ‘a’
Pb = Prices in country ‘b’
Qo = Corresponding weights
2. Relative version:
The relative version of the theory says that changes in the exchange rate
are due to the changes in the purchasing powers of the currencies.
In other words, changes in the internal value of money bring about changes
in the external value of the currencies concerned
In the relative version, some past exchange rate is assumed to be the
equilibrium rate and it adopted as the base rate. As changes in the purchasing
power can be measured by changes in the indices of domestic prices of the
countries concerned.
Changes in the equilibrium rate can be measured by the ratios of prices
indices of the respective countries.
Changes in exchange rate can be calculated by using the following formula:
New Exchange Rate = Old Exchange Rate
𝑅1 = 𝑅0 ×
𝑃𝑎0
𝑃𝑎1
×
𝑃𝑏1
𝑃𝑏0
Suppose, old exchange rate between India and USA was $1=₹10, if the price index
increases to 150 in India and 300 in USA the new exchange rate will be
𝑅1 = 10 ×
100
150
×
300
100
$1 = ₹20 (𝑅1=20)
Domestic price index (In base period)
Domestic price index (In current period)
X
X Foreign price Index(In current period)
Foreign price Index(In base period
The purchase power parity theory can be explained with the help of
following diagram
𝐷1
𝐷1
D
D
S
𝑆1
𝑆1
S
Commodity export point
Purchasing power parity
Amount of foreign Exchange
Commodity import point
Exchange
Rate
R
Y
O Q
X
It is clear form the above diagram the P.P.P curve is fluctuating in
character. In addition the curves the commodity exports and commodity
import points also fluctuates.
DD is the demand curve of foreign exchange and SS is the supply of
foreign exchange. The interaction of these two curves determined the market
rate of exchange. OR is the market rate of exchange and OQ represents the
quantity of foreign exchange demanded and supplied curves.
𝐷1𝐷1 and S1S1 shows shifts in demand and supply curves respectively due to
changes in the quantity demanded and supplied. This will leads to fluctuations
in the market rate of exchange around the normal rate of exchange.
The normal rate of exchange is determined by the purchasing power
parity.
Limitations:
1. One sided:
This theory is one sided because it considers supply of foreign exchange only.
In the process it ignores completely the demand side of the theory.
2. Ignores capital Movements:
The theory considers the movements of goods only and neglected capital
movements.
3. Ignores quality of goods:
This theory does not considered differences in quality of goods between the
different countries.
4. Neglect of invisible goods:
The theory does not take into account trade in invisible goods, which also forms
a part of international trade.
5. Difficulties of Index Number:
In order to measure purchasing power, price index numbers are used. But
there are many conceptual and practical difficulties in the construction of
price index numbers.
6. Long Run theory only:
The PPP theory applicable only for a long run. It is unsuitable to explain
short term changes in the exchange rate.
7. Narrow view:
This theory does not consider the price of commodities in international
market which are determined on the basis of the cost of production, the cost
of transportation, speculation, tariff duties etc
8. Static theory:
This PPP theory seeks to determine the equilibrium rate of exchange under
static conditions. Hence, it fails in the real dynamic nature.
Balance of Payment Theory of exchange rate:
The balance of payment theory of exchange rate is also known as the General
equilibrium theory of exchange rate. It is also called as demand and supply theory
of exchange rate.
According to this theory, “the exchange rate of a countries currency is
determined by it’s balance of payment situation or position.
According to this theory, In a free market situation, the exchange rates are
determined by the market forces, demand and supply of foreign exchange.
The theory states that, the rate of exchange basically relates to the position
of balance of payments of the country.
A fabourable balance of payments leads to an appreciation in the external value
of the currency of the country.
Unfavourable balance of payments causes a depreciation of the external value
of the currency of the country.
Balance of payment is a systematic record of all international payments to
various international transactions such as imports, exports, investment and other
commercial and speculative transactions.
The balance of payments includes all payments made by the foreigners to the
country as well as all payment made by a country to the foreigners
The incoming payments are credits and outgoing payments are debits.
The credits in balance of the payments or the export items constitute the
supply of foreign exchange. The supply of foreign exchange is made by the
exporting countries.
On the other hand, the debits in the balance of payments or import items
constitute the demand for foreign exchange. The demand for foreign exchange
arise from the importing countries.
According to this theory, The balance of payment situation of a country
determined the demand for and supply of foreign exchange in the country.
A surplus or favourable balance of payment increases supply of foreign
exchange and decreases demand for it. This increases the value of domestic
currency against foreign currency.
On the other hand, a deficit or unfavourable balance of payments decrease
the supply of foreign exchange and increases demand currency against foreign
currency.
Suppose, the country experience deficit in its balance of payments,
demand for foreign exchange increases and supply of foreign exchange decrease
This leads to an increase in the exchange rate.
This can be shown in the following diagram
In the above diagram increase in demand for foreign exchange is shown
by shift in demand curve to the right from DD to D1D1 and decrease in the
supply of foreign exchange is shown by a shift in the supply curve to the left.
The new demand curve D1 D1 and new supply curve interest at point E1,
then the new equilibrium exchange rate will be R1.
S1
S1
S
S
E1
E
R1
R
D1
D1
D
D
x
y
o
Demand and Supply of foreign exchange
Foreign
Exchange
rate
Deficit Balance of payment
On the other hand, if the country experiences a surplus in its
balance payments, exchange rate will decreases. Demand for foreign
exchange decreases and supply of foreign exchange increase this leads
to a decrease in exchange rate.
This can be shown in following diagram.
In the above diagram, decrease in the demand for foreign exchange is shown by
a shift in the demand curve to the left and increase in the supply of foreign
exchange is shown by a shift in supply curve to the right.
The new demand curve D2D2 and the new supply curve S2S2 intersect at point E2
then the new equilibrium exchange rate will be R2.
D
D2
S
S
S2
S2
D
D2
E
E2
R
R2
X
Y
O
Demand and supply of foreign exchange
Foreign
Exchange
Rate
Thus, According to the balance of payment theory of exchange rate, exchange
rate is influenced by the balance payment position of the country.
A deficit in balance of payment leads to increase in exchange rate ( depreciation
of the currency)
A surplus in balance of payment leads to decrease in exchange ( appreciation of
the currency)
Merits:
1. This theory is wider in scope because, it takes into account all the items that
enter into balance of payment of a country.
2. It is similar to the general theory of value because it considered the market
forces demand and supply.
3. This theory suggest that the disequilibrium in the balance of payments of a
country can be corrected by making appropriate adjustments in the rate of
exchange.
4. This theory is more realistic because, the domestic price of foreign currency is
a function of many variables.
Limitations:
1. It has been argued that exchange rate also influence the balance of payments.
2. It is based on the realistic assumption of the existence of perfect competition.
3. It wrongly assumes that the demand for imports is perfectly price inelastic.
4. It assumes that there is no connection between rate of exchange and internal
price level.
5. This theory fails to explain the basic value incorporated currencies
Indian Rupee 1.00 INR 1.00 INR
US Dollar 0.014142 70.709408
Euro 0.012675 78.898454
British Pound 0.010859 92.086394
Australian Dollar 0.020462 48.872223
Canadian Dollar 0.018446 54.213097
Singapore Dollar 0.019036 52.531886
Swiss Franc 0.013628 73.376111
Malaysian Ringgit 0.057589 17.364407
Japanese Yen
0.643035 1.555126
Chinese Yuan Renminbi 0.097450 10.261684
INDIAN RUPEE EXCHANGE RATES
TABLE
Argentine Peso 0.846821 1.180887
Australian Dollar 0.020462 48.872223
Bahraini Dinar 0.005318 188.056935
Botswana Pula 0.151336 6.607833
Brazilian Real 0.059084 16.925114
British Pound 0.010859 92.086394
Bruneian Dollar 0.019036 52.531886
Bulgarian Lev 0.024789 40.340139
Canadian Dollar 0.018446 54.213097
Chilean Peso 10.970861 0.091151
Chinese Yuan Renminbi 0.097450 10.261684
Colombian Peso 46.686972 0.021419
Croatian Kuna 0.094372 10.596355
Czech Koruna 0.318099 3.143676
Danish Krone 0.094717 10.557724
Emirati Dirham 0.051938 19.253753
Euro 0.012675 78.898454
Hong Kong Dollar 0.109897 9.099406
Hungarian Forint 4.220304 0.236950
Icelandic Krona 1.734368 0.576579
Indonesian Rupiah 193.534778 0.005167
Causes of fluctuation in exchange rate:
1. Balance of payment position:
Foreign exchange rate is determined by countries balance of payment position.
If exports are more than imports than demand for foreign exchange will be less
than supply of foreign exchange. As a result, domestic currency will be appreciate
against foreign currencies.
On the other hand, if imports are more than export, then demand for foreign
exchange more than supply of foreign exchange. Hence domestic currency will
depreciate against foreign currency.
2. Inflation:
The rate of inflation in the country also influences the exchange rate. A high rate
of inflation in the country makes its goods costlier to the foreigners, as a result its
exports decline. But foreign goods became cheaper to the domestic people, Hence
import increases. This increases the demand for foreign exchange and decreases its
supply and leads to the depreciation of the currency.
3. Interest rates:
The rate of interest also effects on exchange rate. If the rate of interest
increases in a country, there will be an inflow of capital into the country. This
increases the demand for it’s currency. As a result, the domestic currency will
appreciate.
On the other hand, a low rate of interest in the country, will leads to outflow of
capital and the domestic currency will depreciate.
4. Capital movement:
The inflow and outflow of capital will bring about changes in the exchange rate.
The foreign direct investment, port folio investment, lending and borrowing etc.
will influence the rate of exchange.
An inflow of foreign capital strengthen the domestic currency and an outflow of
capital weakens the currency.
5. Changes in Money supply:
When the supply of money in a country increases, it leads to a rise in the price
level and therefore it creates inflation. As a result the exports of a country
decreases and increase in it’s exchange rate.
The excess supply of money in the economy will lead to outflow of money and
this directly influence the exchange rate.
6. National income:
Change in the national income of country will have effects on the exchange
rate. It national income increases, the purchasing power of the people increases,
leading to an increase in the demand for goods. Its domestic supply of goods is not
adequate, imports increases and an increase in the rate of exchange.
7. Political Factors:
It also cause changes in exchange rates. Existence of peace and security, law
and order, political stability etc will induce confidence in the investors and
encourage inflow of capital. This will have favourable effect on the exchange rate.
On the other hand, political instability changes in govt or leadership,
unfavourable law and order, civil war etc. will lead to outflow of capital. This will
have negative effect on exchange rate.
8. Speculation:
It also influence on the exchange rate. A large scale purchase or sale of foreign
exchange by speculators with the expectations of a fall or rise in exchange rate
causes the exchange rate to fluctuate. If a country’s currency value is expected to
rise, investors will demand more of that currency in order to make profit in near
future.
As a result, the value of the currency will rise due to the increase in the
demand. With this increase in currency value leads to rise in exchange rate.
Thus, speculative activity bring about wide fluctuations in rechange rate
9. Government Intervention:
When the market forces do not influence the exchange rate in country’s favour,
then its monetary authorities intervene in the foreign exchange market through
buying and selling of foreign currency and influence the exchange rate.
********** ********* ************
Fixed Exchange Rate System:
Under this system, countries keep their currencies at a fixed rate and change
their value only when the economic situation requires.
In this system, govt or the central bank keeps the exchange rate of its currency
fixed through a policy of intervention in the foreign exchange market. Govt have to
maintain sufficient reserves of foreign exchange.
Under the gold standard, the value of the currency was fixed as the value of gold
of definite weight and fineness.
Under the paper currency system, the exchange rate was determined by relative
purchasing power of the currencies.
Arguments for Fixed exchange rate system.
1. Promotion of International Trade.
A system of fixed exchange rates contributes to the promotion of international
trade. This is because of the certainty associated with the exchange rate. Exporters
and importers will have a correct knowledge of amount they will receive or they
will have to pay in terms of home currency.
2. Encouragement to International investment:
Under this system , international investment will be promoted because investors will
be free from uncertainty and risk of fluctuation in exchange rate
3. Correction of balance of payment disequilibrium (deficit) :
Fixed exchange rates help the less-developed countries to correct the deficits in their
balance of payments.
This exchange rate help to prevent continuous depreciation of the external value of
the currencies.
4. Prevention of the outflow of capital:
Stability in exchange rate will helps to prevent the outflow of capital from the
country. Frequent flow of capital will have destabilizing effects of in exchange rate.
5. Prevention of speculation:
A stable exchange rate system eliminates speculation in the foreign exchange
market. It avoids the speculation and helps in orderly growth of international trade.
6. Development and growth:
Exchange rate stability is necessary for development and growth of foreign trade.
If exchange rate stability is not assured, exporter will be uncertain about the
amount they will receive and importers will be uncertain about the amount they will
have to pay.
7. Growth of international financial markets:
A stable exchange rate system is also necessary for the growth of international
money and capital market. Due to uncertainties in the exchange market,
individuals, Firms and institutions may not involved in lending and borrowing
activities in the money and capital market
Arguments against Fixed exchange rate system:
1. Sacrifice of Independent economic policy:
Fixed exchange rate policy implies the abandonment of independent domestic
economic policy aimed at price stability, full employment, etc. This policy does
not indicate the real economic condition of the economy.
2. Need to maintain huge foreign exchange resources:
In this system, the govt has to maintain large reserves of foreign currencies. This
imposes heavy burden on the monetary authorities for managing foreign exchange
reserves.
3. Needs for exchange control measures:
The success of a fixed exchange rate system requires the existence of an
efficient exchange control mechanism. The central bank of a country adopt
various exchange control measures to stablise the rate of exchange. But exchange
controls have their own adverse effects.
4. Unsuitable for long-run:
A policy of a fixed exchange rate system cannot be pursued for long-period of
time. This is due to the changing international economic conditions.
5. Cost price relationship:
It has been argued that, a system of fixed exchange rates doesn't reflects the
present and true cost-price relationship between countries because they are based
on past rates.
6. Difficult in the adjustments of balance of payments:
Adjustments in the balance of payment of the country are difficult because there
is less scope for changes in the exchange rate system.
7. Not permanently fixed:
Pegged exchange rate system are not permanently fixed . Hence, they may not
promote long-term international investment.
Flexible exchange rate system: [Floating Exchange rate system]
Under this system, exchange rates are freely determined in open foreign
exchange market on the basis of the interaction of the market forces the demand
for and supply of foreign exchange.
In this system, exchange rates are determined on the basis of balance of payment
position.
A surplus in the balance of payment will create an excess demand for the
country’s currencies and exchange rate will tend to raise.
On the other hand, a deficit in the balance of the payments, will create excess
supply of the country’s currency and the exchange rate will tend to decrease.
Case for flexible exchange rates (Merits):
1. Smooth adjustment in balance of payment:
Under this system, the adjustment in the balance of payments are easier as
compared with the fixed exchange rate system.
In this system exchange rates are based on the market forces demand and supply of
foreign exchange.
2. Independent Economic policy:
A flexible exchange rate system provide larger degree of autonomy in respects of
domestic economic policy. So that, it is easy to adjust with the domestic problems.
This policy pursue independent economic policy.
3. No trade restrictions and exchange controls measures:
A system of flexible exchange rates does not require the introduction of
complicated and expensive trade restrictions and exchange measures.
4. Better liquidity:
In this system, there is no need for the country to maintain huge foreign exchange
reserves. There is no need for the central bank to interfere in the foreign exchange market.
5. Gains from free-trade:
The advantages of free trade could be realized under a system of flexible exchange rates.
This is because, there is no need for the imposition of trade restrictions and exchange
controls.
6. Better Confidence:
Under this system, any adverse situation in the balance of payment is corrected
automatically. It increases the confidence of international investors.
7. Cost price-relationship:
This system reflect the true cost price relationship between two countries. It facilitates
automatic adjustment of the BOP disequilibrium. It establishes the true cost price
relationship.
8. Simple System:
A system of flexible exchange rates is very simple in it’s working. In this system, there is no
govt intervention in the foreign exchange market. Exchange rates are adjusted automatically
on the basis of demand and supply.
Argument (case) against Flexible exchange rate system:
1 Uncertainty and Risk:
In this policy, there will be uncertainty in the exchange rates. The rate of
exchange is vary from time to time. Hence, It leads to much risk to the investors.
2. Encourages Speculation:
A serious drawback of flexible exchange rate system is the wide spread
speculation. Speculation will have a destabilizing effect on international financial
system.
3. Inflationary pressure:
A system of flexible exchange rates has a inflationary pressure on the economy.
When the currency depreciates due to a deficit in the balace of payments, imports
will be costlier and leading to inflation.
4. Adverse effects on foreign trade:
In this system, the exporters and importers will not be certain about the
exchange rate. This will have discouraging effect on international trade.
5. Competitive exchange depreciation:
Under this, there is a possibility of countries engaging in competitive depreciation
of their currency to capture world market.
6. Absence of stable medium of exchange:
A drawbacks of flexible exchange rates is that, it effects the world economy of a
stable medium of exchange, unit of account, store of value and standard of
deferred payments. It leads to adverse effect on world trade and welfare of the
people.
****** ******** ******* ********

More Related Content

Similar to Foreign Exchange Rate System notes .pptx

Foreign exchange rate and its determination by Ms. Anita Babbar
Foreign exchange rate and its determination by Ms. Anita BabbarForeign exchange rate and its determination by Ms. Anita Babbar
Foreign exchange rate and its determination by Ms. Anita Babbar
kulachihansraj
 
Determination of exchange rate chapter 6
Determination of exchange rate chapter 6Determination of exchange rate chapter 6
Determination of exchange rate chapter 6
Nayan Vaghela
 
Forex Management Chapter - III
Forex Management Chapter - IIIForex Management Chapter - III
Forex Management Chapter - III
Swaminath Sam
 
Balance of payment theory
Balance of payment theoryBalance of payment theory
Balance of payment theory
N A M COLLEGE KALLIKKANDY
 
Fx basics.pptx
Fx basics.pptxFx basics.pptx
Fx basics.pptx
Henri Pramono
 
Presentation1.pptx exchange rate determinations
Presentation1.pptx exchange rate determinationsPresentation1.pptx exchange rate determinations
Presentation1.pptx exchange rate determinations
Govardhan Chellaboyina
 
Exchange rate determination.
Exchange rate determination.Exchange rate determination.
Exchange rate determination.
priyankasahu123
 
Foreign exchange rate determination
Foreign exchange rate determination Foreign exchange rate determination
Foreign exchange rate determination
DAVIS THOMAS
 
11 foreign exchange
11 foreign exchange11 foreign exchange
11 foreign exchange
domsr
 
Chapter 10- Foreign Exchange Market-2020-2021.ppt
Chapter 10- Foreign Exchange Market-2020-2021.pptChapter 10- Foreign Exchange Market-2020-2021.ppt
Chapter 10- Foreign Exchange Market-2020-2021.ppt
ShahinshaHcu1
 
Determination of Exchange Rate in Forward Market
Determination of Exchange Rate in Forward MarketDetermination of Exchange Rate in Forward Market
Determination of Exchange Rate in Forward Market
Sundar B N
 
Balance of Payments and Exchange Rate PPT.pptx
Balance of Payments and Exchange Rate  PPT.pptxBalance of Payments and Exchange Rate  PPT.pptx
Balance of Payments and Exchange Rate PPT.pptx
HimaanHarish1
 
Chapter 13_The Foreign Exchange Market
Chapter 13_The Foreign Exchange MarketChapter 13_The Foreign Exchange Market
Chapter 13_The Foreign Exchange Market
Rusman Mukhlis
 
Fiancial Econometrics Paper - Final Draft
Fiancial Econometrics Paper - Final DraftFiancial Econometrics Paper - Final Draft
Fiancial Econometrics Paper - Final Draft
Francis Saint Clair Dixon
 
Forex
ForexForex
Rates of exchange
Rates of exchangeRates of exchange
Rates of exchange
Karthik Sankar
 
Exchange rate final
Exchange rate finalExchange rate final
Exchange rate final
Mohamed Awad
 
unit-5foreignexchangerate-200516173747.pdf
unit-5foreignexchangerate-200516173747.pdfunit-5foreignexchangerate-200516173747.pdf
unit-5foreignexchangerate-200516173747.pdf
SudhanshuPandey969519
 
Unit 5 Foreign Exchange Rate
Unit 5 Foreign Exchange RateUnit 5 Foreign Exchange Rate
Unit 5 Foreign Exchange Rate
Ritvik Tolumbia
 
Forex ppt
Forex pptForex ppt
Forex ppt
pujachaudhary
 

Similar to Foreign Exchange Rate System notes .pptx (20)

Foreign exchange rate and its determination by Ms. Anita Babbar
Foreign exchange rate and its determination by Ms. Anita BabbarForeign exchange rate and its determination by Ms. Anita Babbar
Foreign exchange rate and its determination by Ms. Anita Babbar
 
Determination of exchange rate chapter 6
Determination of exchange rate chapter 6Determination of exchange rate chapter 6
Determination of exchange rate chapter 6
 
Forex Management Chapter - III
Forex Management Chapter - IIIForex Management Chapter - III
Forex Management Chapter - III
 
Balance of payment theory
Balance of payment theoryBalance of payment theory
Balance of payment theory
 
Fx basics.pptx
Fx basics.pptxFx basics.pptx
Fx basics.pptx
 
Presentation1.pptx exchange rate determinations
Presentation1.pptx exchange rate determinationsPresentation1.pptx exchange rate determinations
Presentation1.pptx exchange rate determinations
 
Exchange rate determination.
Exchange rate determination.Exchange rate determination.
Exchange rate determination.
 
Foreign exchange rate determination
Foreign exchange rate determination Foreign exchange rate determination
Foreign exchange rate determination
 
11 foreign exchange
11 foreign exchange11 foreign exchange
11 foreign exchange
 
Chapter 10- Foreign Exchange Market-2020-2021.ppt
Chapter 10- Foreign Exchange Market-2020-2021.pptChapter 10- Foreign Exchange Market-2020-2021.ppt
Chapter 10- Foreign Exchange Market-2020-2021.ppt
 
Determination of Exchange Rate in Forward Market
Determination of Exchange Rate in Forward MarketDetermination of Exchange Rate in Forward Market
Determination of Exchange Rate in Forward Market
 
Balance of Payments and Exchange Rate PPT.pptx
Balance of Payments and Exchange Rate  PPT.pptxBalance of Payments and Exchange Rate  PPT.pptx
Balance of Payments and Exchange Rate PPT.pptx
 
Chapter 13_The Foreign Exchange Market
Chapter 13_The Foreign Exchange MarketChapter 13_The Foreign Exchange Market
Chapter 13_The Foreign Exchange Market
 
Fiancial Econometrics Paper - Final Draft
Fiancial Econometrics Paper - Final DraftFiancial Econometrics Paper - Final Draft
Fiancial Econometrics Paper - Final Draft
 
Forex
ForexForex
Forex
 
Rates of exchange
Rates of exchangeRates of exchange
Rates of exchange
 
Exchange rate final
Exchange rate finalExchange rate final
Exchange rate final
 
unit-5foreignexchangerate-200516173747.pdf
unit-5foreignexchangerate-200516173747.pdfunit-5foreignexchangerate-200516173747.pdf
unit-5foreignexchangerate-200516173747.pdf
 
Unit 5 Foreign Exchange Rate
Unit 5 Foreign Exchange RateUnit 5 Foreign Exchange Rate
Unit 5 Foreign Exchange Rate
 
Forex ppt
Forex pptForex ppt
Forex ppt
 

More from ran17april2001

FINANCIAL_ACCOUNTING_-_IV study material.ppt
FINANCIAL_ACCOUNTING_-_IV study material.pptFINANCIAL_ACCOUNTING_-_IV study material.ppt
FINANCIAL_ACCOUNTING_-_IV study material.ppt
ran17april2001
 
Language research notes SRM12.10.23.pptx
Language research notes SRM12.10.23.pptxLanguage research notes SRM12.10.23.pptx
Language research notes SRM12.10.23.pptx
ran17april2001
 
BAILMENT & PLEDGE business law notes.pptx
BAILMENT & PLEDGE business law notes.pptxBAILMENT & PLEDGE business law notes.pptx
BAILMENT & PLEDGE business law notes.pptx
ran17april2001
 
Essential_rubrics_for_a_purpose-driven_research.pptx
Essential_rubrics_for_a_purpose-driven_research.pptxEssential_rubrics_for_a_purpose-driven_research.pptx
Essential_rubrics_for_a_purpose-driven_research.pptx
ran17april2001
 
vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.presentation&rendition=1.pptx
vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.presentation&rendition=1.pptxvnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.presentation&rendition=1.pptx
vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.presentation&rendition=1.pptx
ran17april2001
 
Research papers power point material _-SRM.pptx
Research papers power point material _-SRM.pptxResearch papers power point material _-SRM.pptx
Research papers power point material _-SRM.pptx
ran17april2001
 
research_methodology_presentation_final.pptx
research_methodology_presentation_final.pptxresearch_methodology_presentation_final.pptx
research_methodology_presentation_final.pptx
ran17april2001
 

More from ran17april2001 (7)

FINANCIAL_ACCOUNTING_-_IV study material.ppt
FINANCIAL_ACCOUNTING_-_IV study material.pptFINANCIAL_ACCOUNTING_-_IV study material.ppt
FINANCIAL_ACCOUNTING_-_IV study material.ppt
 
Language research notes SRM12.10.23.pptx
Language research notes SRM12.10.23.pptxLanguage research notes SRM12.10.23.pptx
Language research notes SRM12.10.23.pptx
 
BAILMENT & PLEDGE business law notes.pptx
BAILMENT & PLEDGE business law notes.pptxBAILMENT & PLEDGE business law notes.pptx
BAILMENT & PLEDGE business law notes.pptx
 
Essential_rubrics_for_a_purpose-driven_research.pptx
Essential_rubrics_for_a_purpose-driven_research.pptxEssential_rubrics_for_a_purpose-driven_research.pptx
Essential_rubrics_for_a_purpose-driven_research.pptx
 
vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.presentation&rendition=1.pptx
vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.presentation&rendition=1.pptxvnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.presentation&rendition=1.pptx
vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.presentation&rendition=1.pptx
 
Research papers power point material _-SRM.pptx
Research papers power point material _-SRM.pptxResearch papers power point material _-SRM.pptx
Research papers power point material _-SRM.pptx
 
research_methodology_presentation_final.pptx
research_methodology_presentation_final.pptxresearch_methodology_presentation_final.pptx
research_methodology_presentation_final.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

A Survey of Techniques for Maximizing LLM Performance.pptx
A Survey of Techniques for Maximizing LLM Performance.pptxA Survey of Techniques for Maximizing LLM Performance.pptx
A Survey of Techniques for Maximizing LLM Performance.pptx
thanhdowork
 
Digital Artifact 1 - 10VCD Environments Unit
Digital Artifact 1 - 10VCD Environments UnitDigital Artifact 1 - 10VCD Environments Unit
Digital Artifact 1 - 10VCD Environments Unit
chanes7
 
DRUGS AND ITS classification slide share
DRUGS AND ITS classification slide shareDRUGS AND ITS classification slide share
DRUGS AND ITS classification slide share
taiba qazi
 
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold MethodHow to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
Celine George
 
The History of Stoke Newington Street Names
The History of Stoke Newington Street NamesThe History of Stoke Newington Street Names
The History of Stoke Newington Street Names
History of Stoke Newington
 
Assignment_4_ArianaBusciglio Marvel(1).docx
Assignment_4_ArianaBusciglio Marvel(1).docxAssignment_4_ArianaBusciglio Marvel(1).docx
Assignment_4_ArianaBusciglio Marvel(1).docx
ArianaBusciglio
 
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
ak6969907
 
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdfLiberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
WaniBasim
 
Lapbook sobre os Regimes Totalitários.pdf
Lapbook sobre os Regimes Totalitários.pdfLapbook sobre os Regimes Totalitários.pdf
Lapbook sobre os Regimes Totalitários.pdf
Jean Carlos Nunes Paixão
 
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf IslamabadPIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
AyyanKhan40
 
Group Presentation 2 Economics.Ariana Buscigliopptx
Group Presentation 2 Economics.Ariana BuscigliopptxGroup Presentation 2 Economics.Ariana Buscigliopptx
Group Presentation 2 Economics.Ariana Buscigliopptx
ArianaBusciglio
 
Advantages and Disadvantages of CMS from an SEO Perspective
Advantages and Disadvantages of CMS from an SEO PerspectiveAdvantages and Disadvantages of CMS from an SEO Perspective
Advantages and Disadvantages of CMS from an SEO Perspective
Krisztián Száraz
 
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
Celine George
 
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental DesignDigital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
amberjdewit93
 
Introduction to AI for Nonprofits with Tapp Network
Introduction to AI for Nonprofits with Tapp NetworkIntroduction to AI for Nonprofits with Tapp Network
Introduction to AI for Nonprofits with Tapp Network
TechSoup
 
MATATAG CURRICULUM: ASSESSING THE READINESS OF ELEM. PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS I...
MATATAG CURRICULUM: ASSESSING THE READINESS OF ELEM. PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS I...MATATAG CURRICULUM: ASSESSING THE READINESS OF ELEM. PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS I...
MATATAG CURRICULUM: ASSESSING THE READINESS OF ELEM. PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS I...
NelTorrente
 
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
Dr. Shivangi Singh Parihar
 
S1-Introduction-Biopesticides in ICM.pptx
S1-Introduction-Biopesticides in ICM.pptxS1-Introduction-Biopesticides in ICM.pptx
S1-Introduction-Biopesticides in ICM.pptx
tarandeep35
 
June 3, 2024 Anti-Semitism Letter Sent to MIT President Kornbluth and MIT Cor...
June 3, 2024 Anti-Semitism Letter Sent to MIT President Kornbluth and MIT Cor...June 3, 2024 Anti-Semitism Letter Sent to MIT President Kornbluth and MIT Cor...
June 3, 2024 Anti-Semitism Letter Sent to MIT President Kornbluth and MIT Cor...
Levi Shapiro
 
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdfANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
Priyankaranawat4
 

Recently uploaded (20)

A Survey of Techniques for Maximizing LLM Performance.pptx
A Survey of Techniques for Maximizing LLM Performance.pptxA Survey of Techniques for Maximizing LLM Performance.pptx
A Survey of Techniques for Maximizing LLM Performance.pptx
 
Digital Artifact 1 - 10VCD Environments Unit
Digital Artifact 1 - 10VCD Environments UnitDigital Artifact 1 - 10VCD Environments Unit
Digital Artifact 1 - 10VCD Environments Unit
 
DRUGS AND ITS classification slide share
DRUGS AND ITS classification slide shareDRUGS AND ITS classification slide share
DRUGS AND ITS classification slide share
 
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold MethodHow to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
 
The History of Stoke Newington Street Names
The History of Stoke Newington Street NamesThe History of Stoke Newington Street Names
The History of Stoke Newington Street Names
 
Assignment_4_ArianaBusciglio Marvel(1).docx
Assignment_4_ArianaBusciglio Marvel(1).docxAssignment_4_ArianaBusciglio Marvel(1).docx
Assignment_4_ArianaBusciglio Marvel(1).docx
 
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
 
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdfLiberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
 
Lapbook sobre os Regimes Totalitários.pdf
Lapbook sobre os Regimes Totalitários.pdfLapbook sobre os Regimes Totalitários.pdf
Lapbook sobre os Regimes Totalitários.pdf
 
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf IslamabadPIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
 
Group Presentation 2 Economics.Ariana Buscigliopptx
Group Presentation 2 Economics.Ariana BuscigliopptxGroup Presentation 2 Economics.Ariana Buscigliopptx
Group Presentation 2 Economics.Ariana Buscigliopptx
 
Advantages and Disadvantages of CMS from an SEO Perspective
Advantages and Disadvantages of CMS from an SEO PerspectiveAdvantages and Disadvantages of CMS from an SEO Perspective
Advantages and Disadvantages of CMS from an SEO Perspective
 
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
 
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental DesignDigital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
Digital Artefact 1 - Tiny Home Environmental Design
 
Introduction to AI for Nonprofits with Tapp Network
Introduction to AI for Nonprofits with Tapp NetworkIntroduction to AI for Nonprofits with Tapp Network
Introduction to AI for Nonprofits with Tapp Network
 
MATATAG CURRICULUM: ASSESSING THE READINESS OF ELEM. PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS I...
MATATAG CURRICULUM: ASSESSING THE READINESS OF ELEM. PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS I...MATATAG CURRICULUM: ASSESSING THE READINESS OF ELEM. PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS I...
MATATAG CURRICULUM: ASSESSING THE READINESS OF ELEM. PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS I...
 
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
 
S1-Introduction-Biopesticides in ICM.pptx
S1-Introduction-Biopesticides in ICM.pptxS1-Introduction-Biopesticides in ICM.pptx
S1-Introduction-Biopesticides in ICM.pptx
 
June 3, 2024 Anti-Semitism Letter Sent to MIT President Kornbluth and MIT Cor...
June 3, 2024 Anti-Semitism Letter Sent to MIT President Kornbluth and MIT Cor...June 3, 2024 Anti-Semitism Letter Sent to MIT President Kornbluth and MIT Cor...
June 3, 2024 Anti-Semitism Letter Sent to MIT President Kornbluth and MIT Cor...
 
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdfANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
 

Foreign Exchange Rate System notes .pptx

  • 1. Unit-2 Foreign Exchange Rate: Foreign exchange rate refers to the rate at which one country’s currency is converted into another country’s currency. In other words, it is the rate at which one currency is exchanged for another currency. Thus, the rate of exchange between the Indian rupee and the U.S dollar is $1 = ₹70, It means that we have to pay ₹ 70 to obtain $1. Hence, the rate of exchange expresses the external purchasing power of a currency. In the foreign exchange market, the exchange rate of a currency is determined by the forces of demand for and the supply of foreign exchange. The demand for foreign exchange arises from the following: 1. Import of goods and services. 2. Foreign exchange is needed to meet expenditure incurred in foreign tours
  • 2. 3. Foreign exchanged is required for making unilateral transfers like sending gifts to other countries. 4. Investment in foreign countries. It includes, purchase of assets like, land, shares, bonds etc in the foreign countries. Supply of foreign exchange is determined by the following factors: 1. Export of goods and services. 2. Foreign investments in the country. 3. Remittances from abroad. 4. Speculation. Equilibrium rate of exchange: In a free foreign exchange market, the equilibrium rate of exchange is determined by the market forces the demand for and supply of the currencies concerned. The determination of exchange rate with the help of following diagram
  • 3. 𝑃2 P 𝑃1 𝑆1 𝑆1 S D D 𝐷1 𝐷1 M 𝑀1 𝑀2 𝑁1 N 𝑁2 S Demand and supply of Foreign currency Rate of exchange y x o
  • 4. In the above diagram DD represents the demand curve for foreign exchange, SS represents the supply curve of foreign exchange. At point ‘P’, the demand for foreign exchange is equal to it’s supply. ON is equilibrium rate of exchange. If the demand for foreign exchange increases the new demand curve will D1D1, assuming that there is no change in the supply of foreign exchange, rate increase to ON2 Similarly, if the supply of foreign exchange remain the same, a fall in the demand for foreign exchange will reduce the exchange rate On the other hand, assuming that the demand for foreign exchange remains the same if its supply increase , the new supply curve will be S1S1. This will lead to a fall in exchange rate from ON to ON1 . It the supply of foreign exchange decreases there will be raise in the exchange rate
  • 5. Purchasing Power parity theory of exchange rate: The purchase power parity theory try to explain the determination of the exchange rate between the currencies of two countries under the system of inconvertible paper currency standard. This theory was originally stated by Prof Wheatle, but it was popularized and developed by Swedish economist Gustav Cassel. According to this theory “The price level and the change in the price level in different countries determine the exchange rate of those countries currencies” According to Cassel, “The rate of exchange between two currencies must stand essentially on the quotient of the internal purchasing powers of these currencies”. The theory state that, under the system of inconvertible paper currency standard, the exchange rate between the currencies of two countries reflects the parity or equality of the purchasing power of respective currencies. There are two version of the P.P.P theory, they are
  • 6. 1. Absolute version: According to this version, exchange rate is determined at that point at which the internal purchasing power of currencies of two countries are equal. For eg: If a particular commodity calculator costs $10 in USA and ₹100 in India The exchange rate between US dollar and Indian rupee will be: $1=10 At this rate, exchange rate will be in equilibrium. It can be stated as follows: R= 𝑃𝑏.𝑄𝑜 𝑃𝑎.𝑄𝑜 Where, R= Rate of exchange Pa= Prices in country ‘a’ Pb = Prices in country ‘b’ Qo = Corresponding weights
  • 7. 2. Relative version: The relative version of the theory says that changes in the exchange rate are due to the changes in the purchasing powers of the currencies. In other words, changes in the internal value of money bring about changes in the external value of the currencies concerned In the relative version, some past exchange rate is assumed to be the equilibrium rate and it adopted as the base rate. As changes in the purchasing power can be measured by changes in the indices of domestic prices of the countries concerned. Changes in the equilibrium rate can be measured by the ratios of prices indices of the respective countries. Changes in exchange rate can be calculated by using the following formula:
  • 8. New Exchange Rate = Old Exchange Rate 𝑅1 = 𝑅0 × 𝑃𝑎0 𝑃𝑎1 × 𝑃𝑏1 𝑃𝑏0 Suppose, old exchange rate between India and USA was $1=₹10, if the price index increases to 150 in India and 300 in USA the new exchange rate will be 𝑅1 = 10 × 100 150 × 300 100 $1 = ₹20 (𝑅1=20) Domestic price index (In base period) Domestic price index (In current period) X X Foreign price Index(In current period) Foreign price Index(In base period
  • 9. The purchase power parity theory can be explained with the help of following diagram 𝐷1 𝐷1 D D S 𝑆1 𝑆1 S Commodity export point Purchasing power parity Amount of foreign Exchange Commodity import point Exchange Rate R Y O Q X
  • 10. It is clear form the above diagram the P.P.P curve is fluctuating in character. In addition the curves the commodity exports and commodity import points also fluctuates. DD is the demand curve of foreign exchange and SS is the supply of foreign exchange. The interaction of these two curves determined the market rate of exchange. OR is the market rate of exchange and OQ represents the quantity of foreign exchange demanded and supplied curves. 𝐷1𝐷1 and S1S1 shows shifts in demand and supply curves respectively due to changes in the quantity demanded and supplied. This will leads to fluctuations in the market rate of exchange around the normal rate of exchange. The normal rate of exchange is determined by the purchasing power parity.
  • 11. Limitations: 1. One sided: This theory is one sided because it considers supply of foreign exchange only. In the process it ignores completely the demand side of the theory. 2. Ignores capital Movements: The theory considers the movements of goods only and neglected capital movements. 3. Ignores quality of goods: This theory does not considered differences in quality of goods between the different countries. 4. Neglect of invisible goods: The theory does not take into account trade in invisible goods, which also forms a part of international trade.
  • 12. 5. Difficulties of Index Number: In order to measure purchasing power, price index numbers are used. But there are many conceptual and practical difficulties in the construction of price index numbers. 6. Long Run theory only: The PPP theory applicable only for a long run. It is unsuitable to explain short term changes in the exchange rate. 7. Narrow view: This theory does not consider the price of commodities in international market which are determined on the basis of the cost of production, the cost of transportation, speculation, tariff duties etc 8. Static theory: This PPP theory seeks to determine the equilibrium rate of exchange under static conditions. Hence, it fails in the real dynamic nature.
  • 13. Balance of Payment Theory of exchange rate: The balance of payment theory of exchange rate is also known as the General equilibrium theory of exchange rate. It is also called as demand and supply theory of exchange rate. According to this theory, “the exchange rate of a countries currency is determined by it’s balance of payment situation or position. According to this theory, In a free market situation, the exchange rates are determined by the market forces, demand and supply of foreign exchange. The theory states that, the rate of exchange basically relates to the position of balance of payments of the country. A fabourable balance of payments leads to an appreciation in the external value of the currency of the country.
  • 14. Unfavourable balance of payments causes a depreciation of the external value of the currency of the country. Balance of payment is a systematic record of all international payments to various international transactions such as imports, exports, investment and other commercial and speculative transactions. The balance of payments includes all payments made by the foreigners to the country as well as all payment made by a country to the foreigners The incoming payments are credits and outgoing payments are debits. The credits in balance of the payments or the export items constitute the supply of foreign exchange. The supply of foreign exchange is made by the exporting countries. On the other hand, the debits in the balance of payments or import items constitute the demand for foreign exchange. The demand for foreign exchange arise from the importing countries.
  • 15. According to this theory, The balance of payment situation of a country determined the demand for and supply of foreign exchange in the country. A surplus or favourable balance of payment increases supply of foreign exchange and decreases demand for it. This increases the value of domestic currency against foreign currency. On the other hand, a deficit or unfavourable balance of payments decrease the supply of foreign exchange and increases demand currency against foreign currency. Suppose, the country experience deficit in its balance of payments, demand for foreign exchange increases and supply of foreign exchange decrease This leads to an increase in the exchange rate. This can be shown in the following diagram
  • 16. In the above diagram increase in demand for foreign exchange is shown by shift in demand curve to the right from DD to D1D1 and decrease in the supply of foreign exchange is shown by a shift in the supply curve to the left. The new demand curve D1 D1 and new supply curve interest at point E1, then the new equilibrium exchange rate will be R1. S1 S1 S S E1 E R1 R D1 D1 D D x y o Demand and Supply of foreign exchange Foreign Exchange rate Deficit Balance of payment
  • 17. On the other hand, if the country experiences a surplus in its balance payments, exchange rate will decreases. Demand for foreign exchange decreases and supply of foreign exchange increase this leads to a decrease in exchange rate. This can be shown in following diagram.
  • 18. In the above diagram, decrease in the demand for foreign exchange is shown by a shift in the demand curve to the left and increase in the supply of foreign exchange is shown by a shift in supply curve to the right. The new demand curve D2D2 and the new supply curve S2S2 intersect at point E2 then the new equilibrium exchange rate will be R2. D D2 S S S2 S2 D D2 E E2 R R2 X Y O Demand and supply of foreign exchange Foreign Exchange Rate
  • 19. Thus, According to the balance of payment theory of exchange rate, exchange rate is influenced by the balance payment position of the country. A deficit in balance of payment leads to increase in exchange rate ( depreciation of the currency) A surplus in balance of payment leads to decrease in exchange ( appreciation of the currency) Merits: 1. This theory is wider in scope because, it takes into account all the items that enter into balance of payment of a country. 2. It is similar to the general theory of value because it considered the market forces demand and supply. 3. This theory suggest that the disequilibrium in the balance of payments of a country can be corrected by making appropriate adjustments in the rate of exchange. 4. This theory is more realistic because, the domestic price of foreign currency is a function of many variables.
  • 20. Limitations: 1. It has been argued that exchange rate also influence the balance of payments. 2. It is based on the realistic assumption of the existence of perfect competition. 3. It wrongly assumes that the demand for imports is perfectly price inelastic. 4. It assumes that there is no connection between rate of exchange and internal price level. 5. This theory fails to explain the basic value incorporated currencies
  • 21. Indian Rupee 1.00 INR 1.00 INR US Dollar 0.014142 70.709408 Euro 0.012675 78.898454 British Pound 0.010859 92.086394 Australian Dollar 0.020462 48.872223 Canadian Dollar 0.018446 54.213097 Singapore Dollar 0.019036 52.531886 Swiss Franc 0.013628 73.376111 Malaysian Ringgit 0.057589 17.364407 Japanese Yen 0.643035 1.555126 Chinese Yuan Renminbi 0.097450 10.261684 INDIAN RUPEE EXCHANGE RATES TABLE
  • 22. Argentine Peso 0.846821 1.180887 Australian Dollar 0.020462 48.872223 Bahraini Dinar 0.005318 188.056935 Botswana Pula 0.151336 6.607833 Brazilian Real 0.059084 16.925114 British Pound 0.010859 92.086394 Bruneian Dollar 0.019036 52.531886 Bulgarian Lev 0.024789 40.340139 Canadian Dollar 0.018446 54.213097 Chilean Peso 10.970861 0.091151 Chinese Yuan Renminbi 0.097450 10.261684 Colombian Peso 46.686972 0.021419 Croatian Kuna 0.094372 10.596355 Czech Koruna 0.318099 3.143676 Danish Krone 0.094717 10.557724 Emirati Dirham 0.051938 19.253753 Euro 0.012675 78.898454 Hong Kong Dollar 0.109897 9.099406 Hungarian Forint 4.220304 0.236950 Icelandic Krona 1.734368 0.576579 Indonesian Rupiah 193.534778 0.005167
  • 23.
  • 24.
  • 25.
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28.
  • 29. Causes of fluctuation in exchange rate: 1. Balance of payment position: Foreign exchange rate is determined by countries balance of payment position. If exports are more than imports than demand for foreign exchange will be less than supply of foreign exchange. As a result, domestic currency will be appreciate against foreign currencies. On the other hand, if imports are more than export, then demand for foreign exchange more than supply of foreign exchange. Hence domestic currency will depreciate against foreign currency. 2. Inflation: The rate of inflation in the country also influences the exchange rate. A high rate of inflation in the country makes its goods costlier to the foreigners, as a result its exports decline. But foreign goods became cheaper to the domestic people, Hence import increases. This increases the demand for foreign exchange and decreases its supply and leads to the depreciation of the currency.
  • 30. 3. Interest rates: The rate of interest also effects on exchange rate. If the rate of interest increases in a country, there will be an inflow of capital into the country. This increases the demand for it’s currency. As a result, the domestic currency will appreciate. On the other hand, a low rate of interest in the country, will leads to outflow of capital and the domestic currency will depreciate. 4. Capital movement: The inflow and outflow of capital will bring about changes in the exchange rate. The foreign direct investment, port folio investment, lending and borrowing etc. will influence the rate of exchange. An inflow of foreign capital strengthen the domestic currency and an outflow of capital weakens the currency.
  • 31. 5. Changes in Money supply: When the supply of money in a country increases, it leads to a rise in the price level and therefore it creates inflation. As a result the exports of a country decreases and increase in it’s exchange rate. The excess supply of money in the economy will lead to outflow of money and this directly influence the exchange rate. 6. National income: Change in the national income of country will have effects on the exchange rate. It national income increases, the purchasing power of the people increases, leading to an increase in the demand for goods. Its domestic supply of goods is not adequate, imports increases and an increase in the rate of exchange. 7. Political Factors: It also cause changes in exchange rates. Existence of peace and security, law and order, political stability etc will induce confidence in the investors and encourage inflow of capital. This will have favourable effect on the exchange rate.
  • 32. On the other hand, political instability changes in govt or leadership, unfavourable law and order, civil war etc. will lead to outflow of capital. This will have negative effect on exchange rate. 8. Speculation: It also influence on the exchange rate. A large scale purchase or sale of foreign exchange by speculators with the expectations of a fall or rise in exchange rate causes the exchange rate to fluctuate. If a country’s currency value is expected to rise, investors will demand more of that currency in order to make profit in near future. As a result, the value of the currency will rise due to the increase in the demand. With this increase in currency value leads to rise in exchange rate. Thus, speculative activity bring about wide fluctuations in rechange rate 9. Government Intervention: When the market forces do not influence the exchange rate in country’s favour, then its monetary authorities intervene in the foreign exchange market through buying and selling of foreign currency and influence the exchange rate. ********** ********* ************
  • 33. Fixed Exchange Rate System: Under this system, countries keep their currencies at a fixed rate and change their value only when the economic situation requires. In this system, govt or the central bank keeps the exchange rate of its currency fixed through a policy of intervention in the foreign exchange market. Govt have to maintain sufficient reserves of foreign exchange. Under the gold standard, the value of the currency was fixed as the value of gold of definite weight and fineness. Under the paper currency system, the exchange rate was determined by relative purchasing power of the currencies. Arguments for Fixed exchange rate system. 1. Promotion of International Trade. A system of fixed exchange rates contributes to the promotion of international trade. This is because of the certainty associated with the exchange rate. Exporters and importers will have a correct knowledge of amount they will receive or they will have to pay in terms of home currency.
  • 34. 2. Encouragement to International investment: Under this system , international investment will be promoted because investors will be free from uncertainty and risk of fluctuation in exchange rate 3. Correction of balance of payment disequilibrium (deficit) : Fixed exchange rates help the less-developed countries to correct the deficits in their balance of payments. This exchange rate help to prevent continuous depreciation of the external value of the currencies. 4. Prevention of the outflow of capital: Stability in exchange rate will helps to prevent the outflow of capital from the country. Frequent flow of capital will have destabilizing effects of in exchange rate. 5. Prevention of speculation: A stable exchange rate system eliminates speculation in the foreign exchange market. It avoids the speculation and helps in orderly growth of international trade.
  • 35. 6. Development and growth: Exchange rate stability is necessary for development and growth of foreign trade. If exchange rate stability is not assured, exporter will be uncertain about the amount they will receive and importers will be uncertain about the amount they will have to pay. 7. Growth of international financial markets: A stable exchange rate system is also necessary for the growth of international money and capital market. Due to uncertainties in the exchange market, individuals, Firms and institutions may not involved in lending and borrowing activities in the money and capital market
  • 36. Arguments against Fixed exchange rate system: 1. Sacrifice of Independent economic policy: Fixed exchange rate policy implies the abandonment of independent domestic economic policy aimed at price stability, full employment, etc. This policy does not indicate the real economic condition of the economy. 2. Need to maintain huge foreign exchange resources: In this system, the govt has to maintain large reserves of foreign currencies. This imposes heavy burden on the monetary authorities for managing foreign exchange reserves. 3. Needs for exchange control measures: The success of a fixed exchange rate system requires the existence of an efficient exchange control mechanism. The central bank of a country adopt various exchange control measures to stablise the rate of exchange. But exchange controls have their own adverse effects.
  • 37. 4. Unsuitable for long-run: A policy of a fixed exchange rate system cannot be pursued for long-period of time. This is due to the changing international economic conditions. 5. Cost price relationship: It has been argued that, a system of fixed exchange rates doesn't reflects the present and true cost-price relationship between countries because they are based on past rates. 6. Difficult in the adjustments of balance of payments: Adjustments in the balance of payment of the country are difficult because there is less scope for changes in the exchange rate system. 7. Not permanently fixed: Pegged exchange rate system are not permanently fixed . Hence, they may not promote long-term international investment.
  • 38. Flexible exchange rate system: [Floating Exchange rate system] Under this system, exchange rates are freely determined in open foreign exchange market on the basis of the interaction of the market forces the demand for and supply of foreign exchange. In this system, exchange rates are determined on the basis of balance of payment position. A surplus in the balance of payment will create an excess demand for the country’s currencies and exchange rate will tend to raise. On the other hand, a deficit in the balance of the payments, will create excess supply of the country’s currency and the exchange rate will tend to decrease.
  • 39. Case for flexible exchange rates (Merits): 1. Smooth adjustment in balance of payment: Under this system, the adjustment in the balance of payments are easier as compared with the fixed exchange rate system. In this system exchange rates are based on the market forces demand and supply of foreign exchange. 2. Independent Economic policy: A flexible exchange rate system provide larger degree of autonomy in respects of domestic economic policy. So that, it is easy to adjust with the domestic problems. This policy pursue independent economic policy. 3. No trade restrictions and exchange controls measures: A system of flexible exchange rates does not require the introduction of complicated and expensive trade restrictions and exchange measures.
  • 40. 4. Better liquidity: In this system, there is no need for the country to maintain huge foreign exchange reserves. There is no need for the central bank to interfere in the foreign exchange market. 5. Gains from free-trade: The advantages of free trade could be realized under a system of flexible exchange rates. This is because, there is no need for the imposition of trade restrictions and exchange controls. 6. Better Confidence: Under this system, any adverse situation in the balance of payment is corrected automatically. It increases the confidence of international investors. 7. Cost price-relationship: This system reflect the true cost price relationship between two countries. It facilitates automatic adjustment of the BOP disequilibrium. It establishes the true cost price relationship. 8. Simple System: A system of flexible exchange rates is very simple in it’s working. In this system, there is no govt intervention in the foreign exchange market. Exchange rates are adjusted automatically on the basis of demand and supply.
  • 41. Argument (case) against Flexible exchange rate system: 1 Uncertainty and Risk: In this policy, there will be uncertainty in the exchange rates. The rate of exchange is vary from time to time. Hence, It leads to much risk to the investors. 2. Encourages Speculation: A serious drawback of flexible exchange rate system is the wide spread speculation. Speculation will have a destabilizing effect on international financial system. 3. Inflationary pressure: A system of flexible exchange rates has a inflationary pressure on the economy. When the currency depreciates due to a deficit in the balace of payments, imports will be costlier and leading to inflation. 4. Adverse effects on foreign trade: In this system, the exporters and importers will not be certain about the exchange rate. This will have discouraging effect on international trade.
  • 42. 5. Competitive exchange depreciation: Under this, there is a possibility of countries engaging in competitive depreciation of their currency to capture world market. 6. Absence of stable medium of exchange: A drawbacks of flexible exchange rates is that, it effects the world economy of a stable medium of exchange, unit of account, store of value and standard of deferred payments. It leads to adverse effect on world trade and welfare of the people. ****** ******** ******* ********