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PRINCIPLES OF RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY
- Dr. A. Kavitha,
Associate Professor,
PG & Research Department of English,
Ethiraj College for Women, Chennai
What is Research ?
 A scientific systematic search for information on a specific topic
 Presenting new facts in any branch of knowledge
 People consider research to move from the known to unknown
 Sometimes unknown makes us inquisitive to understand and make it known
Why do ‘Research’?
 To find out the hidden truth / to discover hidden fact
 To achieve new insights into it
 To test a hypothesis between variables
 To enrich knowledge advancement through scientific theories, ideas and concepts
Observation
Critical Thinking
Analysis
RESEARCH SKILLS
Research Approaches
Quantitative Research Approach
Qualitative Research Approach
 Later sub classified into :
Inferential Approach
Experimental Approach
Simulation Approach
Places of Research
Librarary Research
Field Research
Laboratory Research
Research Methodology Vs Research
Methods
Research Methodology
 Systematic and theoretical approach
to collect and evaluate data
 Research methodology is detailed
plan that helps researchers on track
 It is concerned with the perspectives
you bring to your research
Research Methods
 Research methods depends upon
how you carry out your research
 Research methods are the strategies,
processes or techniques utilized in
the collection of data or evidence for
analysis in order to uncover new
information
 To discover solution to research
problem
Exploratory Research Explanatory Research Descriptive Research
Intends to explore the research
questions
Tries to identify the causes and
effects of the phenomenon that
the researcher is studying
Helps to provide answers to the
questions of who, what, when,
where and how associated with a
particular research problem
When a researcher undertakes
this kind of research, he/she
should be willing to change
his/her direction when new data
reveals
It is conducted in order to assess
impacts of specific changes on
existing norms, various
processes etc.
To describe “what exists” with
respect to variables or conditions
in a situation
Forms as base for research The presence of cause-and-
effect relationships can be
confirmed only if specific causal
evidence exists
Considered as a pre-cursor to
more quantitatively research
design
Research problem
Stating the research problem
Pose a question in a general manner
Free from Ambiguities
Understand the nature of the problem
Survey the available literature
Develop ideas through discussion in the thesis
How to find a Research Problem?
 Determining the field of research in which a researcher is keen to do the research
work
 The researcher should develop the mastery on the are
 He / She should review the research conducted in area to know the recent trend
and studies are being conducted in the area
 He / She should draw an analogy and insights in identifying a problem. The
researcher shall take help of supervisor or expert of the field
 He / She should identify the specific aspect of the problem that is to be
investigated
Formulation of Hypothesis
 Supposition or possible explanation for a particular situation
 Scientific ally reasonable predictions
 Helps in enhancing the objectivity and purpose of a research work
 Prioritises data collection
Simple
Hypothesis
Alternate
Hypothesis
Null
Hypothesis
Literature Review and where to find them?
Electronic
database
Magazines &
Newspapers
Conference
Papers
Journals
& Books
Research
Reports
Theses
Literature Search Databases
(According to subject areas)
All subject databases URL links
JSTOR https://www.jstor.org/
Scopus https://www.elsevier.com/en-
in/solutions/scopus
Google Scholar https://scholar.google.com/
Embase (Medical Database) https://www.elsevier.com/en-
in/solutions/embase-biomedical-researc
PubMed (Medical Database) https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
INSPIRE-HEP (Engineering Database) https://inspirehep.net/
IEEExplore (Engineering Database) https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/Xplore/home.jsp
Structure of Research Writing
Introduction
Methods
Results
Discussions
What’s known?
What’s unknown?
How do we solve
it?
What are we
solving ?
What did we
solve?
Plan for Research Writing
Brain storm Ideas
Chapter division
 Step by step deadlines to finish chapters
Citations and bibliography to be maintained
Importance of Language in Research
Writing
To ensure clarity and precision (British/American )
Cohesion Coherence
Appropriate linkers
To use the standardized terminology and conventions
To adhere specific writing styles such as MLA, APA,
Chicago Manual style or IEEE depending upon the
discipline
Linkers-Within Sentences & Paragraphs
 Yet
 Although
 Though
 In spite of
 Nevertheless
 On the Contrary
 Thus
 Moreover
 Further
 In Fact
 Accordingly
• To Conclude
• As Mentioned / Stated / Pointed Out Earlier
• Similarly
• Finally
• Hence
• However
• In other words
Tenses – Research Writing
PAPER SECTION RECOMMENDED
TENSES
EXAMPLES
Literature Review Past Scholter (2022) presented
Present Perfect Since then, many investigations have used
Method / while
describing the
procedure
Past Participants completed a survey
Present Perfect Others have used similar approaches
Reporting of Results Past Results were nonsignificant
Scores decreased
Hypotheses were supported
Discussion of
implications of results
Present The results indicate
Presentation of
conclusions, limitations,
future directions
Present We conclude
Limitations of the study are
BIBLIOGRAPHY
References
Appendices
Illustrations
References / Citations
 It is a standardized way of acknowledging the sources of information and ideas
that one has used and which allows sources to be identified
 Used to locate particular sources and combat plagiarism
 The citation style depends on the academic discipline involved such as :
MLA
• Modern Language
Association
• Used by the Humanities
APA
• American Psychological
Association
• Used by Education,
Psychology, Engineering
and Sciences
Chicago / Turabian
• Used by Business,
History and the Fine Arts
Core Elements in Work-Cited List
o Author
o Title of Source
o Title of Container
o Other Contributors
o Version
o Number
o Publisher
o Publication Date
Types of citation
Verbatim
quoting • Copying as such
from the source
• You have to put
the copied content
in double-inverted
commas and
provide in-text
citation
• If the number of
copied goes
beyond 39 words,
it should be
converted as a
block quote with
intext citation Paraphrasing
• Restating the text
giving the
meaning in
another form
• Rewrite the text in
your own words
• In such situation
you have to put
the copied content
with in-text
citation. No need
of inverted
commas
Summarizing
• Focus on the key
points
• You have to put
the copied content
with in-text
citation. No need
of inverted
commas
MLA 9th Edition
Type In-Text Reference List
Book (Alexis 58) Alexis, Andre. Fifteen Dogs:
An Apologue Coach. House
Books, 2015.
Book, Edited (Bartol and Leswig 78) Bartol, Curt R., and Anne
Leswig, editors. Current
Perspectives in Psychology
and Behavior. 4th ed., Sage,
2016.
Book, three or more authors (Guttman et al 77) Guttman, B., et al. Genetics:
A Beginner’s Guide.
Oneworld, 2022.
Journal, Article (Print) (Conatser and Block 177) Conatser, Philip, and Martin
Block. Aquatic Instructor’s
Beliefs Towards Inclusions.
Recreation Journal, vol.35,
no. 2, 2001.
APA 7th Edition
Type In-Text Reference List
Book Parenthetical: (Sapolsky, 2017)
Narrative: Sapolsky, 2017
Sapolsky, R.M. (2017). Behave: The
biology of humans at our best and
worst. Penguin Books.
Book edited Parenthetical: (Aron et al., 2019)
Narrative: Aron et al. (2019)
Aron, L., Botella, M., & Lubart, T.
(2019). Culinary arts: Talent and their
development. In R. F. Subotnik, P.
Kubilius, & F.C. Worrell (Eds.), The
psychology of high performance:
Developing human potential into
domain-specific talent. Emerald. 2019.
Journal article Parenthetical: (Andreff, 2000)
Narrative: Andreff (2000)
Andreff, W. (2000). The evolving
European model of sports finance.
Journal of Sports. 257-276.
Reference Management Software
Zotero Mendeley EndNote
Paper
pile
Refworks
Citation Generator for bibliography
 www.citefast (APA 6, APA 7, MLA 8 )
 www.bibguru ( APA7,MLA 9,CHICAGO 17TH )
 www.citationmachine.net (IEEE referencing style sheet)
 www.scribber.com
 www.mybib.com
 www.scribber.com
 https://typset.io
 https://edubirdie.com (Updated 2023)
Key Takeaways…
 Learn writing tools early
 Read thesis requirements and format guidelines of your University before you start writing your
thesis
 The sooner you start writing, the more time you will have time to edit and revise your thesis
 Set Realistic Goals: Break your writing process into more smaller and more manageable goals
 Take breaks : Take necessary breaks for your mental and physical health and this will help you
to stay on track and avoid procrastination
 Reward yourself for every small progress
 Don’t be afraid to seek help
Thank you!

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research_methodology_presentation_final.pptx

  • 1. PRINCIPLES OF RESEARCH METHODOLOGY - Dr. A. Kavitha, Associate Professor, PG & Research Department of English, Ethiraj College for Women, Chennai
  • 2. What is Research ?  A scientific systematic search for information on a specific topic  Presenting new facts in any branch of knowledge  People consider research to move from the known to unknown  Sometimes unknown makes us inquisitive to understand and make it known
  • 3. Why do ‘Research’?  To find out the hidden truth / to discover hidden fact  To achieve new insights into it  To test a hypothesis between variables  To enrich knowledge advancement through scientific theories, ideas and concepts
  • 5.
  • 6. Research Approaches Quantitative Research Approach Qualitative Research Approach  Later sub classified into : Inferential Approach Experimental Approach Simulation Approach
  • 7. Places of Research Librarary Research Field Research Laboratory Research
  • 8. Research Methodology Vs Research Methods Research Methodology  Systematic and theoretical approach to collect and evaluate data  Research methodology is detailed plan that helps researchers on track  It is concerned with the perspectives you bring to your research Research Methods  Research methods depends upon how you carry out your research  Research methods are the strategies, processes or techniques utilized in the collection of data or evidence for analysis in order to uncover new information  To discover solution to research problem
  • 9. Exploratory Research Explanatory Research Descriptive Research Intends to explore the research questions Tries to identify the causes and effects of the phenomenon that the researcher is studying Helps to provide answers to the questions of who, what, when, where and how associated with a particular research problem When a researcher undertakes this kind of research, he/she should be willing to change his/her direction when new data reveals It is conducted in order to assess impacts of specific changes on existing norms, various processes etc. To describe “what exists” with respect to variables or conditions in a situation Forms as base for research The presence of cause-and- effect relationships can be confirmed only if specific causal evidence exists Considered as a pre-cursor to more quantitatively research design
  • 10. Research problem Stating the research problem Pose a question in a general manner Free from Ambiguities Understand the nature of the problem Survey the available literature Develop ideas through discussion in the thesis
  • 11. How to find a Research Problem?  Determining the field of research in which a researcher is keen to do the research work  The researcher should develop the mastery on the are  He / She should review the research conducted in area to know the recent trend and studies are being conducted in the area  He / She should draw an analogy and insights in identifying a problem. The researcher shall take help of supervisor or expert of the field  He / She should identify the specific aspect of the problem that is to be investigated
  • 12. Formulation of Hypothesis  Supposition or possible explanation for a particular situation  Scientific ally reasonable predictions  Helps in enhancing the objectivity and purpose of a research work  Prioritises data collection Simple Hypothesis Alternate Hypothesis Null Hypothesis
  • 13. Literature Review and where to find them? Electronic database Magazines & Newspapers Conference Papers Journals & Books Research Reports Theses
  • 14. Literature Search Databases (According to subject areas) All subject databases URL links JSTOR https://www.jstor.org/ Scopus https://www.elsevier.com/en- in/solutions/scopus Google Scholar https://scholar.google.com/ Embase (Medical Database) https://www.elsevier.com/en- in/solutions/embase-biomedical-researc PubMed (Medical Database) https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ INSPIRE-HEP (Engineering Database) https://inspirehep.net/ IEEExplore (Engineering Database) https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/Xplore/home.jsp
  • 15. Structure of Research Writing Introduction Methods Results Discussions What’s known? What’s unknown? How do we solve it? What are we solving ? What did we solve?
  • 16.
  • 17. Plan for Research Writing Brain storm Ideas Chapter division  Step by step deadlines to finish chapters Citations and bibliography to be maintained
  • 18. Importance of Language in Research Writing To ensure clarity and precision (British/American ) Cohesion Coherence Appropriate linkers To use the standardized terminology and conventions To adhere specific writing styles such as MLA, APA, Chicago Manual style or IEEE depending upon the discipline
  • 19. Linkers-Within Sentences & Paragraphs  Yet  Although  Though  In spite of  Nevertheless  On the Contrary  Thus  Moreover  Further  In Fact  Accordingly • To Conclude • As Mentioned / Stated / Pointed Out Earlier • Similarly • Finally • Hence • However • In other words
  • 20. Tenses – Research Writing PAPER SECTION RECOMMENDED TENSES EXAMPLES Literature Review Past Scholter (2022) presented Present Perfect Since then, many investigations have used Method / while describing the procedure Past Participants completed a survey Present Perfect Others have used similar approaches Reporting of Results Past Results were nonsignificant Scores decreased Hypotheses were supported Discussion of implications of results Present The results indicate Presentation of conclusions, limitations, future directions Present We conclude Limitations of the study are
  • 22. References / Citations  It is a standardized way of acknowledging the sources of information and ideas that one has used and which allows sources to be identified  Used to locate particular sources and combat plagiarism  The citation style depends on the academic discipline involved such as : MLA • Modern Language Association • Used by the Humanities APA • American Psychological Association • Used by Education, Psychology, Engineering and Sciences Chicago / Turabian • Used by Business, History and the Fine Arts
  • 23. Core Elements in Work-Cited List o Author o Title of Source o Title of Container o Other Contributors o Version o Number o Publisher o Publication Date
  • 24. Types of citation Verbatim quoting • Copying as such from the source • You have to put the copied content in double-inverted commas and provide in-text citation • If the number of copied goes beyond 39 words, it should be converted as a block quote with intext citation Paraphrasing • Restating the text giving the meaning in another form • Rewrite the text in your own words • In such situation you have to put the copied content with in-text citation. No need of inverted commas Summarizing • Focus on the key points • You have to put the copied content with in-text citation. No need of inverted commas
  • 25. MLA 9th Edition Type In-Text Reference List Book (Alexis 58) Alexis, Andre. Fifteen Dogs: An Apologue Coach. House Books, 2015. Book, Edited (Bartol and Leswig 78) Bartol, Curt R., and Anne Leswig, editors. Current Perspectives in Psychology and Behavior. 4th ed., Sage, 2016. Book, three or more authors (Guttman et al 77) Guttman, B., et al. Genetics: A Beginner’s Guide. Oneworld, 2022. Journal, Article (Print) (Conatser and Block 177) Conatser, Philip, and Martin Block. Aquatic Instructor’s Beliefs Towards Inclusions. Recreation Journal, vol.35, no. 2, 2001.
  • 26. APA 7th Edition Type In-Text Reference List Book Parenthetical: (Sapolsky, 2017) Narrative: Sapolsky, 2017 Sapolsky, R.M. (2017). Behave: The biology of humans at our best and worst. Penguin Books. Book edited Parenthetical: (Aron et al., 2019) Narrative: Aron et al. (2019) Aron, L., Botella, M., & Lubart, T. (2019). Culinary arts: Talent and their development. In R. F. Subotnik, P. Kubilius, & F.C. Worrell (Eds.), The psychology of high performance: Developing human potential into domain-specific talent. Emerald. 2019. Journal article Parenthetical: (Andreff, 2000) Narrative: Andreff (2000) Andreff, W. (2000). The evolving European model of sports finance. Journal of Sports. 257-276.
  • 27. Reference Management Software Zotero Mendeley EndNote Paper pile Refworks
  • 28. Citation Generator for bibliography  www.citefast (APA 6, APA 7, MLA 8 )  www.bibguru ( APA7,MLA 9,CHICAGO 17TH )  www.citationmachine.net (IEEE referencing style sheet)  www.scribber.com  www.mybib.com  www.scribber.com  https://typset.io  https://edubirdie.com (Updated 2023)
  • 29. Key Takeaways…  Learn writing tools early  Read thesis requirements and format guidelines of your University before you start writing your thesis  The sooner you start writing, the more time you will have time to edit and revise your thesis  Set Realistic Goals: Break your writing process into more smaller and more manageable goals  Take breaks : Take necessary breaks for your mental and physical health and this will help you to stay on track and avoid procrastination  Reward yourself for every small progress  Don’t be afraid to seek help