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Course Erasmus Plus KA1
Paris
25-30/ 07 / 2016
Europe
EUROPE: born of an idea.
Rethink how the idea of Europe was formed is now
essential to look ahead, with foresight, as well as with
courage and determination.
We have to rethink the history of this long historical
process outside prejudices and nationalist visions,
outside rhetorical representations and sweeteners, but
also free from pessimism and defeatism. The millennial
history of the idea of Europe helps us to take this path
because it is made of rapid changes and long-term
persistence's, great innovations and discoveries, new
achievements and ideal strongholds, of inclusion, of
commingling, of integration, but also of intolerance, of
crisis, of war and subjugation. There is in this story,
which is the history of individual characters, of
populations and states, the path of ideas and there are
concrete changes, religious reforms, political
revolutions and economic crises; there is the language
of art and philosophy, that of weapons and
obscurantism of religious persecution.
There is a Europe built through the treaties but there is
also a Europe of high ideals; there are, to define its vast
geographical and cultural boundaries, the language of
science and that of weapons, but, to prove its
civilization, there is the defense of individual rights
against arbitrary power and the struggle for the
extension of social rights.
In the idea of Europe there is our past, but above all
there is our future.
EUROPE: Naissance d'une idée
Repenser la façon dont est l'idée de l'Europe est
maintenant essentiel pour regarder vers l'avenir, avec
prévoyance, et aussi courage et détermination. Nous
devons repenser l'histoire de ce long processus
historique en dehors des préjugés et des visions
nationalistes, des représentations de la parole et des
édulcorants, mais aussi libre de pessimisme et de
défaitisme. L'histoire millénaire de l'idée de l'Europe
nous aide à prendre ce chemin parce qu'elle est faite de
changements rapides et de périodes à long terme, de
grandes innovations et découvertes, nouvelles
réalisations et forts idéaux d’inclusion, de compromis,
d'intégration, mais aussi d'intolérance, crise, guerres et
oppression. Il ya dans cette histoire, histoires de
caractères individuels, des peuples et des Etats, la voie
d'idées et il ya des changements concrets, les réformes
religieuses, les révolutions politiques et les crises
économiques; est le langage de l'art et de la
philosophie, celle des armes et l'obscurantisme de la
persécution religieuse. Il y a une Europe construite par
les traités, mais il ya aussi une Europe des idéaux élevés;
Il ya, pour définir ses vastes frontières géographiques et
culturelles, la langue de la science et celui des armes,
mais la preuve de sa civilisation est la défense des droits
individuels contre l'arbitraire et la lutte pour l'extension
de droits sociaux.
L'idée de l'Europe est notre passé, mais surtout il est
notre avenir.
Les premières traces de l'Europe
XIII siècle av. J.C. Le nom de Europe
Le nom de l'Europe en tant que territoire
apparaît pour la première fois dans Homère,
dans l'Iliade, fournir des orientations sur la
princesse phénicienne, mais sans engager
dans une relation explicite avec le
représentant du nom territoriale. La zone
géographique, l'Europe est mentionné dans
l'Hymne à Apollon 7 sec. Indique une zone
autour de la Grèce pour indiquer la Grèce
continentale en opposition avec le
Péloponnèse et les îles de la mer Égée.
Environ 500 A.C. Hécatée de Milet parle de
deux grandes divisions, l'Europe et l'Asie
(avec la Libye qui fait partie de la deuxième).
Une génération plus tard, Hérodote définit le
monde habitable en Europe et le barbare du
monde en Asie. Alors la vieille Europe est déjà
identifié dans le bassin de Méditerranée.
First traces of Europe
VII Century a.C. The name of Europe
The name of Europe as land appears for the
first time in Homer and is Homer himself, in
truth, in the Iliad, to provide guidance on the
Phoenician princess, but without engaging in
explicit relationship with the representative of
the name of the land. As geographical area,
Europe is mentioned in the Hymn to Apollo 7
sec. A.C. and indicates an area around the
Greece, the Greek mainland in opposition to
the Peloponnese and the Aegean islands.
Around 500 A.C. Hecataeus of Miletus speaks
of two great divisions, Europe and Asia (with
Libya which is part of the second). A
generation later, Herodotus sets the habitable
world in Europe and the barbarian world in
Asia. So the old Europe is already identified in
the basin of Mediterranean Sea.
THE MYTH OF EUROPA
The first written records of the myth of Europa date back to the times of Homer and Hesiod,
around the 8th century BC. In the Iliad Zeus evokes, among his many loves, the one with Europa,
while in the Theogony Hesiod mentions Europa daughter of Tethys, one of the sea goddesses.
We know that myths, before being written, were handed down orally for a long time; in fact a
tradition situates the events to which the myth alludes between 19th and 15th century BC.
The mythological story
The myth tells of the princess Europa, daughter of the king
of Phoenicians (whose kingdom extended on the territory of
Lebanon and included the flourishing cities of Tyre and Sidon),
which gone to the sea with the maids met on the beach a white
bull of so much beauty and mildness, to get her to ride him.
But the bull rushed through the sea carrying the
girl to the island of Crete, where he assumed the guise of Zeus
and gave birth to her three children, among them Minos, king
of Crete, and Rhadamanthus, judge of the underworld.
The myth continues with the story about Europa's brothers, which set off in different directions
to look for their sister: among them Cadmus who arrived on the Greek mainland where he
founded Thebes; he is credited with the transmission of the alphabet from Phoenicia to Greece.
In general, the myth represents a civilization movement from East to West and the name
Europe, given to the western territories, reflects this shift. According to recent studies, the
overshadowed cults of bovines and the moon in the myth of Europa (the bull's horns have the
same shape of the crescent moon and the two symbols were connected in religious rites) were
transmitted through the migrations from the Middle East and Africa to Greece. According
already to Herodotus (fifth century BC), the myth of Europa was referring to the custom of
kidnapping girls for the purpose of forced marriage, another example of which was- in a
specular way- the story of Paris and Helen.
Art and poetry to pass the myth
The myth was handed down over the centuries through
art, which includes various representations of the girl on
the bull, and through poetry. In particular, the
transmission in the Middle Ages was given by Ovid's
Metamorphoses, accompanied by illustrations.
From the fourteenth century the Christianized version
of moralized Ovid spred, which attributed to the myth
an allegory, according to which Europa is the human
soul and the bull is the Christ who redeems it carrying it
from Earth to Heaven.
The myth of Europa has undergone many changes over
time, and the impression of continuity is only apparent,
while its versatility and polyvalence accentuates.
At certain times - as in the 17th and 18th centuries -
it seemed sometimes emptied of deep meanings, being
used as a decorative element repeated endlessly on
snuff boxes, tapestries, storages.
Europa and the contemporary
In the contemporary era, the myth underwent further
metamorphoses, reflecting the political and cultural changes
of the continent. In the period between the wars the myth
came to mean denunciation of fascism and an attempt to a
rape of Europa, seen as the continent's bloody conquest and
an expropriation of its symbols in an interpretation of the
myth in an 'Aryan' way, exaltation of Europe white purebred.
To this were opposed representations of artists like Max
Beckmann, who in 1933 introduced an overturned Europa on
a bull, this time brown as Nazis' shirts: she is a young woman
with the short hair of the ongoing era and the scream of
violence on her face, while the animal is represented in all
the arrogance and power of Nazism.
The 1933 was the same year of the seizure of power in Germany by Hitler, and soon Beckmann was
classified as a 'degenerate artist' and forced to leave the post of art teacher. In more recent times the myth
represented the new European unity and the construction of a Union that is able to integrate eastern and
western parts of the continent, separated by the Cold War of the fifties. Europa appear that exhibit the sign
of the stars in circle, the flag of the European Union, or stand out against a background
representing many nations and different flags.
The great social and cultural transformations in Europe nowadays have prompted depictions of the myth in
which the female figure is no longer a victim, nor acquiescent, but instead assumes a dominant position.
The German painter Ursula has well expressed this change of costume and mentality in his painting of 1987,
in which Europa stands triumphantly in the center of the picture. Her hairstyle, as well as the bull's coat and
the images in the background, evoke a world where the exotic has blended in a global manner and at the
same time Europe does not represent any longer the center of the world.
Europe in the encounter between different cultures
At the same cultural movement we can assign a
tendency to portray the myth by artists of different
traditions from Japan to Latin America. Thus the myth
acquires a new meaning of universality, not imposed by
a single European mark, but reworked freely in cultural
heritage of various countries, reaching multicultural
hybrids of great interest to the actuality. In a world
crossed by large migrations of people, often in the
direction of Europe, as in the past many European
workers had to emigrate to find better living conditions
and work in other continents, the myth of Europa
assumes particular significance. Europa is a traveler
who is not afraid to give up everything to move from
East to West, to discover new worlds and bring the
contribution of another culture. It reminds us that
peoples have always transmigrated and that these
population movements bring important cultural and
social innovations.
732 AD Charles Martel and the enigma of Poitiers
The battle in 732 AD halted Islam has become a founding
moment of European identity. Debut of "Europenses".
The word, in latin, it is used for the first time in the
chronicle of a Christian Andalusian chronicler.
The Franks under the command of Charles Martel,
grandfather of Charlemagne, defeated an Arab army under
the command of the governor of the Arab Spain, Abd el-
Rahman, who died on the battlefield.
But there is a chronicler of that most of all he helped to
create the myth of Poitiers. It is an anonymous chronicler,
Christian, who wrote in Latin in the Spain ruled by Arabs. It
is the only one to relate in detail the clash, coining an image
remained famous: the men of the North, "gentes
Septentrionales" repulsed the assault remain motionless
like a wall, impenetrable as the polar ice.
The term used twice by the Spanish chronicler to indicate
the winners: they are the "Europenses" and was the first
time that this adjective appear, in latin, to indicate the
inhabitants of the West.
The appearance of those Europenses under the pen of the
Mozarabic reporter is not at all so inexplicable; rather it is
the logical outcome of a centuries-long process that saw
the Latin civilization retreating more and more to the West
and to the North, under the protection of the "barbarians".
A process enshrined in the year 800 from the coronation of
Charlemagne, who transform the Roman Emperor King in
the King the Franks; but even before that fateful day many
associated the idea of Europe with the name of
Charlemagne.
La bataille de Poitiers ou bataille de Tours oppose, en 732
ou 733, une coalition composée principalement de
combattants des Royaumes francs et des duchés
d'Aquitaine et de Vasconie au gouvernorat omeyyade. Les
Francs, les Vascons et les Aquitains, menés respectivement
par le maire du palais Charles Martel et le duc d'Aquitaine et
de Vasconie Eudes, y obtiennent une victoire décisive face
aux Omeyyades, menés par le gouverneur d'Al-Andalus Abd
al-Rahmân, qui meurt lors du combat. Les détails de la
bataille, notamment sa localisation et sa date exactes, ainsi
que le nombre de combattants, ne peuvent être déterminés.
Cette victoire importante des chrétiens sur les musulmans a
un retentissement immédiat des deux côtés, la technique de
combat de Charles, élevé au rang de champion de la
chrétienté, lui valant son surnom de Martel (Marteau) de la
part des chroniqueurs du ixe
siècle, qui voient en cette
victoire un jugement de Dieu en sa faveur. La bataille devient
à partir du xvie
siècle un symbole de la lutte de
l'Europe chrétienne face aux musulmans, événement qui
marque un tournant dans l'Histoire avec le début du recul de
l'islam face au christianisme en Europe. Les historiens
contemporains sont divisés quant à l'importance réelle de la
bataille de Poitiers et son rôle dans le maintien du
christianisme en Europe. Les avis sont moins divergents en ce
qui concerne le poids qu'a la bataille dans l'établissement de
la domination franque en Europe de l'Ouest pendant le siècle
suivant, et l'émergence de l'Empire carolingien.
La bataille de Poitiers est devenu, depuis les années suivants,
l'un des grands mythes de l'histoire médiévale, est significatif
que le mot "européens" (europeenses) apparaît pour la
première fois dans un texte VIIIe siècle pour indiquer les
gagnants de l'affrontement avec les Arabes.
XI CENTURY
From the VIII Century, the Islamic expansion arrived to the south of
Europe, in Sicily, in the south Spain and then around the Aegean
Sea.
The Crusades, from 1095 to 1291, allowed, in the West Latin
Countries, contacts with the Greek and and Muslims, where a more
advanced civilization had persisted and continued to evolve. Indeed,
for some Byzantine and Muslim scholars, God on the one hand and
science and reason on the other hand are clearly separated, while
Christians of the West, referring to St. Augustine, yet submit any
thought to God: "God is, so I think".
In 1130 the Bishop of Toledo created a school of Arab and Jews
translation.
Westerners are rediscovering so many writings of antiquity,
especially Greek, hitherto forgotten, as a part of the philosophy of
Aristotle, review by Arab philosophers (Averroes...).
In ancient times Greek and Roman authors agreed to oppose their
Mediterranean civilization, called "Imperium" from Augustus, to a
"Barbaricum" populated by Celts, Teutons, of Illyrians, Thracians,
also various Iranian peoples such as the Sarmatians or Scythians,
and in late antiquity, Slavs. The civilizations of these peoples were
initially less urban, legal and scriptural than the Greeks and Romans,
but no less complex religiously, socially and artistically.
The "turn of the year 1000": towards the middle of the tenth
century the European population begins to increase, due to climate
improvement and some technical advances that have applications in
agriculture, like the shoulder collar for horses. Began a period of
two centuries, that of large land clearing. At the same time, "the
white coat of the Curch" covered the entire continent, and the
pilgrimages to San Jaques and Jerusalem became the expression of
the bright medieval piety "qui, du monde extérieur à son lieu de vie,
ne connaît que Dieu ".
La renaissance du xiie
siècle est une période majeure
de renouveau du monde culturel au Moyen Âge.
Stimulée par un contexte de prospérité inédit depuis
le début du Moyen Âge, sur les
plans démographique et économique, mais aussi par
une période de « renaissance politique » et par
la réforme de l'Église, la chrétienté vit une profonde
mutation de ses structures culturelles. Le monde
monastique se recentre sur la fonction méditative, ce
qui profite aux écoles urbaines qui fleurissent dans
les grandes villes. Les disciplines intellectuelles sont
ainsi dynamisées et nourries par l'élan des
traductions depuis le grec et l'arabe en Espagne et
en Italie, qui diffuse de nouveaux textes d'Aristote et
de ses commentateurs musulmans. De là découle un
goût nouveau pour les disciplines scientifiques, pour
la dialectique, la naissance de la théologie
dogmatique et l'esquisse de la scolastique, ou encore
l'essor du droit et de la médecine dans les régions
méditerranéennes.
Siècle de l'essor d'une véritable classe
d'« intellectuels » et de l'épanouissement d'une
culture de cour et de la littérature courtoise,
le xiie
siècle prépare la maturité culturelle du siècle
suivant, qui se révélera dans le cadre des universités.
Renaissance of the 12th century
The Renaissance of the 12th century was a period of
many changes at the outset of the High Middle Ages.
It included social, political
land economic transformations, and an intellectual
revitalization of Western Europe with strong
philosophical and scientific roots.
The 12th century in Europe was in many respects an
age of fresh and vigorous life. The epoch of the
Crusades, of the rise of towns, and of the earliest
bureaucratic states of the West, it saw the
culmination of Romanesque art and the beginnings
of Gothic; the emergence of the vernacular
literatures; the revival of the Latin classics and of
Latin poetry and Roman law; the recovery of Greek
science, with its Arabic additions, and of much
of Greek philosophy; and the origin of the
first European universities. The 12th century left its
signature on higher education, on the scholastic
philosophy, on European systems of law, on
architecture and sculpture, on the liturgical drama,
on Latin and vernacular poetry.
Le xiie
siècle en Europe fut sur bien des plans une
période fraîche et vigoureuse. Outre les Croisades,
l'essor urbain, et les premiers États bureaucratiques
d'Occident, cette époque a aussi permis l'apogée de
l'art roman et les débuts du gothique, l'émergence
des littératures vernaculaires, le renouveau des
classiques latins, de la poésie latine et du droit
romain, la redécouverte de la science grecque avec
ses enrichissements arabes, et de la majeure partie
de la philosophie grecque, et les origines des
premières universités d'Europe. Le douzième siècle a
laissé sa marque sur l'éducation supérieure, sur la
philosophie scolastique, sur les systèmes juridiques
européens, sur l'architecture et la sculpture, sur le
drame liturgique, sur la poésie latine et vernaculaire.
Si l'expression « renaissance du xiie
siècle » désigne
principalement un mouvement intellectuel et
culturel, on peut toutefois la distinguer de
la renaissance carolingienne et de la renaissance
ottonienne en cela que le xiie
siècle connaît, bien
plus que les siècles précédents, un contexte général
de prospérité, et de profondes mutations sociales et
politiques.
After the collapse of the Western Roman
Empire, Western Europe had entered the Middle
Ages with great difficulties. Apart from depopulation
and other factors, most classical scientific treatises
of classical antiquity, written in Greek, had become
unavailable. Philosophical and scientific teaching of
the Early Middle Ages was based upon the few Latin
translations and commentaries on ancient Greek
scientific and philosophical texts that remained in
the Latin West, not to mention that even that
remained at minimal levels.
This scenario changed during the renaissance of the
12th century. The increased contact with the Islamic
world in Muslim-dominated Spain and Sicily,
the Crusades, the Reconquista, as well as increased
contact with Byzantium, allowed Europeans to seek
and translate the works of Hellenic and Islamic
philosophers and scientists, especially the works
of Aristotle. Several translations were made of Euclid
but no true commentary was written until the
middle of the 13th century.
L'essor de l'Occident au xiie
siècle résulte de
différents facteurs d'expansion mis en évidence par
les monographies locales, qui se sont multipliées
dans la recherche historique des décennies
récentes : croissance
démographique, défrichements et mise en valeur de
terres nouvelles, essor urbain, progrès des échanges
et de l'économie monétaire, et enfin reprise de
l'extension territoriale de l'Occident, pour la
première fois au Moyen Âge, après des siècles de
repli et d'invasions. Facteurs dont il faut préciser
qu'ils interagissent, et qu'il est donc difficile de les
distinguer ou de les hiérarchiser. Cette société plus
riche devient également une société plus
commerçante, et c'est tout l'Occident chrétien qui
connaît une mobilité géographique accrue. L'essor
économique et la stabilisation politique permettent
d'améliorer les routes, de construire des ponts, et de
rendre le réseau plus sûr par l'entretien des
infrastructures (ponts, hospices) et la conduite des
voyageurs (cols), le tout étant permis par l'essor
d'une fiscalité adaptée (péages). Ces progrès
bénéficient aux marchands qui affluent dans les
foires urbaines comme celles de Champagne, mais
aussi aux pèlerins, les pèlerinages de Saint-Jacques
de Compostelle ou de Rome connaissant alors un
certain apogée. L'économie monétaire remplace
progressivement les pratiques de don et contre-don.
The development of medieval universities allowed
them to aid materially in the translation and
propagation of these texts and started a new
infrastructure which was needed for scientific
communities. In fact, the European university put
many of these texts at the center of its
curriculum, with the result that the "medieval
university laid far greater emphasis on science than
does its modern counterpart and descendent."
The 12th century renaissance saw a revival of
interest in poetry. Writing mostly in Latin,
contemporary poets produced significantly more
work than those of the Carolingian Renaissance. The
subject matter varied wildly across epic, lyric, and
dramatic. Meter was no longer confined to the
classical forms and began to diverge into newer
schemes. Additionally, the division between religious
and secular poetry became smaller. In particular,
the Goliards were noted for profane parodies of
religious texts.
These expansions of poetic form contributed to the
rise of vernacular literature, which tended to prefer
the newer rhythms and structures.
La Reconquista ("reconquête")
Est une période d'environ 781 années dans l'histoire
de la péninsule ibérique, après la conquête islamique
en 711 à la chute de Grenade, le dernier état
islamique sur la péninsule, en 1492. Elle a pris fin
juste avant la découverte du Nouveau Monde et la
période des empires coloniaux portugais et
espagnols qui a suivi.
Traditionnellement, les historiens marquent le début
de la Reconquista à la bataille de Covadonga (718 ou
722) dans lequel une petite armée, dirigée par le
noble Pélage, vaincu une armée Omeyyade dans les
montagnes du nord de Iberia et a établi une petite
principauté chrétienne dans les Asturies.
The intolerance
1492 Granada: Inquisition, Islam, Jews.
A unforgettable year who sign the end of the Middle
Age and the start of the Modern Age. At the centre
Ferdinand King of Aragona and Isabel of Castilla,
already supporters of the Inquisition: it is their work
that was responsible for the surrender of the last
Muslim kingdom, for the Columbus expedition to the
Indies and the expulsion of Jews. For them Baptism
or exile, a tragic alternative. The modern State is
born under the flag of intolerance, creating
categories of "different people" on which they (who
managed the power) practice the mechanisms of
exclusion and exploitation.
The Reconquista (“Reconquest")
Is a period of approximately 781 years in the history
of the Iberian Peninsula, after the Islamic
conquest in 711 to the fall of Granada, the last
Islamic state on the peninsula, in 1492. It ended right
before the discovery of the New World, and the
period of the Portuguese and Spanish colonial
empires which followed.
Traditionally, historians mark the beginning of the
Reconquista with the Battle of Covadonga (718 or
722), in which a small army, led by the
nobleman Pelagius, defeated an Umayyad army in
the mountains of northern Iberia and established a
small Christian principality in Asturias.
L'intolérance
1492 Grenade: Inquisition, l'Islam, les Juifs. Une
année qui marque la fin du Moyen Âge et le début
de l'ère moderne. Au centre, le roi Ferdinand
d'Aragon et Isabelle de Castille, partisans de
l'Inquisition: c'est à eux qu'on doit la
CAPITOLATION du dernier royaume musulman,
l'expédition de Columbus vers les Indes et
l'expulsion des Juifs. Pour eux, ou le baptême ou
l'exil, une alternative dramatique. L'État moderne est
né avec les barrières de l'intolérance et la création
de catégories de «divers». La couple royale
pratiquent les mécanismes d'exclusion et
d'exploitation du nouveau continent.
1555 Carlo V
Entre 1500 et 1700 se sont retrouvés uni sous la
Couronne des Habsbourg beaucoup des régions . La
monarchie inclus la péninsule ibérique, la plupart de
l'Italie, la Sicile, la Sardaigne, les Pays-Bas, l'empire
allemand, et même des Antilles, de sorte que Charles
V pourrait prononcer la fameuse phrase: « Dans mon
royaume le soleil ne se couche jamais" . La réalité
politique prise en examen est pour des décennies le
point d’agrégation possible pour l'unification de
l'Europe, sans passer par l'expérience des États-
nations, dont la destination finale a été le désastre
des deux guerres mondiales.
25 septembre 1555: La paix d'Augsbourg marque la
fin de l'unité religieuse de l'Europe. Réduit le rêve
que l'empereur Charles V a incarné : l'idée d'une
monarchie universelle voulue par Dieu de préserver
et de défendre la paix, l'ordre, la religion et la
civilisation en Europe. Un mois plus tard, Charles V
défait et fatigué descendre les marches du trône,
l'homme le plus puissant dans le monde partage ses
domaines entre le fils et le frère. À la fin des rites de
renonciation au pouvoir, l'ancien empereur se retire
dans un monastère isolé. Dans les trois ans, en
attendant la mort, Charles V survit à la fin de Charles-
Quint. Et une Europe divisée survit au coucher du
soleil du projet d'une Europe unie.
1555 Carlo V
Emperor of the possessions that between 1500 and
1700 were united under the crown of the Habsburg.
The Monarchy included the Iberian Peninsula, most
of the Italian country, Sicily, Sardinia, the
Netherlands, the German empire, and even the West
Indies: so that Charles V could utter the famous
phrase "The Sun Never Sets In My Kingdom". The
political reality under consideration was for decades
the meeting point for the unification of Europe,
without going through the experience of nation
states, whose final destination was the disaster of the
two world wars.
25th September 1555: The Peace of Augsburg marks
the end of the religious unity of Europe. Collapses the
dream that the Emperor Charles V embodied: the
idea of a universal monarchy, desired by God, to
preserve and defend the peace, order, religion and
civilization in Europe. A month later, Charles V
defeated and tired down the steps of his throne. The
most powerful man in the world shares its domains
between the son and brother. At the end of the rites
of renunciation of power, the former emperor
retreats to a remote monastery.
In the three years, waiting for death, Charles V
survives at the end of Charles V. And a divided
Europe survives the sunset of the project of a united
Europe.

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Europa born of an idea

  • 1. Course Erasmus Plus KA1 Paris 25-30/ 07 / 2016 Europe
  • 2. EUROPE: born of an idea. Rethink how the idea of Europe was formed is now essential to look ahead, with foresight, as well as with courage and determination. We have to rethink the history of this long historical process outside prejudices and nationalist visions, outside rhetorical representations and sweeteners, but also free from pessimism and defeatism. The millennial history of the idea of Europe helps us to take this path because it is made of rapid changes and long-term persistence's, great innovations and discoveries, new achievements and ideal strongholds, of inclusion, of commingling, of integration, but also of intolerance, of crisis, of war and subjugation. There is in this story, which is the history of individual characters, of populations and states, the path of ideas and there are concrete changes, religious reforms, political revolutions and economic crises; there is the language of art and philosophy, that of weapons and obscurantism of religious persecution. There is a Europe built through the treaties but there is also a Europe of high ideals; there are, to define its vast geographical and cultural boundaries, the language of science and that of weapons, but, to prove its civilization, there is the defense of individual rights against arbitrary power and the struggle for the extension of social rights. In the idea of Europe there is our past, but above all there is our future. EUROPE: Naissance d'une idée Repenser la façon dont est l'idée de l'Europe est maintenant essentiel pour regarder vers l'avenir, avec prévoyance, et aussi courage et détermination. Nous devons repenser l'histoire de ce long processus historique en dehors des préjugés et des visions nationalistes, des représentations de la parole et des édulcorants, mais aussi libre de pessimisme et de défaitisme. L'histoire millénaire de l'idée de l'Europe nous aide à prendre ce chemin parce qu'elle est faite de changements rapides et de périodes à long terme, de grandes innovations et découvertes, nouvelles réalisations et forts idéaux d’inclusion, de compromis, d'intégration, mais aussi d'intolérance, crise, guerres et oppression. Il ya dans cette histoire, histoires de caractères individuels, des peuples et des Etats, la voie d'idées et il ya des changements concrets, les réformes religieuses, les révolutions politiques et les crises économiques; est le langage de l'art et de la philosophie, celle des armes et l'obscurantisme de la persécution religieuse. Il y a une Europe construite par les traités, mais il ya aussi une Europe des idéaux élevés; Il ya, pour définir ses vastes frontières géographiques et culturelles, la langue de la science et celui des armes, mais la preuve de sa civilisation est la défense des droits individuels contre l'arbitraire et la lutte pour l'extension de droits sociaux. L'idée de l'Europe est notre passé, mais surtout il est notre avenir.
  • 3. Les premières traces de l'Europe XIII siècle av. J.C. Le nom de Europe Le nom de l'Europe en tant que territoire apparaît pour la première fois dans Homère, dans l'Iliade, fournir des orientations sur la princesse phénicienne, mais sans engager dans une relation explicite avec le représentant du nom territoriale. La zone géographique, l'Europe est mentionné dans l'Hymne à Apollon 7 sec. Indique une zone autour de la Grèce pour indiquer la Grèce continentale en opposition avec le Péloponnèse et les îles de la mer Égée. Environ 500 A.C. Hécatée de Milet parle de deux grandes divisions, l'Europe et l'Asie (avec la Libye qui fait partie de la deuxième). Une génération plus tard, Hérodote définit le monde habitable en Europe et le barbare du monde en Asie. Alors la vieille Europe est déjà identifié dans le bassin de Méditerranée. First traces of Europe VII Century a.C. The name of Europe The name of Europe as land appears for the first time in Homer and is Homer himself, in truth, in the Iliad, to provide guidance on the Phoenician princess, but without engaging in explicit relationship with the representative of the name of the land. As geographical area, Europe is mentioned in the Hymn to Apollo 7 sec. A.C. and indicates an area around the Greece, the Greek mainland in opposition to the Peloponnese and the Aegean islands. Around 500 A.C. Hecataeus of Miletus speaks of two great divisions, Europe and Asia (with Libya which is part of the second). A generation later, Herodotus sets the habitable world in Europe and the barbarian world in Asia. So the old Europe is already identified in the basin of Mediterranean Sea.
  • 4. THE MYTH OF EUROPA The first written records of the myth of Europa date back to the times of Homer and Hesiod, around the 8th century BC. In the Iliad Zeus evokes, among his many loves, the one with Europa, while in the Theogony Hesiod mentions Europa daughter of Tethys, one of the sea goddesses. We know that myths, before being written, were handed down orally for a long time; in fact a tradition situates the events to which the myth alludes between 19th and 15th century BC. The mythological story The myth tells of the princess Europa, daughter of the king of Phoenicians (whose kingdom extended on the territory of Lebanon and included the flourishing cities of Tyre and Sidon), which gone to the sea with the maids met on the beach a white bull of so much beauty and mildness, to get her to ride him. But the bull rushed through the sea carrying the girl to the island of Crete, where he assumed the guise of Zeus and gave birth to her three children, among them Minos, king of Crete, and Rhadamanthus, judge of the underworld.
  • 5. The myth continues with the story about Europa's brothers, which set off in different directions to look for their sister: among them Cadmus who arrived on the Greek mainland where he founded Thebes; he is credited with the transmission of the alphabet from Phoenicia to Greece. In general, the myth represents a civilization movement from East to West and the name Europe, given to the western territories, reflects this shift. According to recent studies, the overshadowed cults of bovines and the moon in the myth of Europa (the bull's horns have the same shape of the crescent moon and the two symbols were connected in religious rites) were transmitted through the migrations from the Middle East and Africa to Greece. According already to Herodotus (fifth century BC), the myth of Europa was referring to the custom of kidnapping girls for the purpose of forced marriage, another example of which was- in a specular way- the story of Paris and Helen.
  • 6. Art and poetry to pass the myth The myth was handed down over the centuries through art, which includes various representations of the girl on the bull, and through poetry. In particular, the transmission in the Middle Ages was given by Ovid's Metamorphoses, accompanied by illustrations. From the fourteenth century the Christianized version of moralized Ovid spred, which attributed to the myth an allegory, according to which Europa is the human soul and the bull is the Christ who redeems it carrying it from Earth to Heaven. The myth of Europa has undergone many changes over time, and the impression of continuity is only apparent, while its versatility and polyvalence accentuates. At certain times - as in the 17th and 18th centuries - it seemed sometimes emptied of deep meanings, being used as a decorative element repeated endlessly on snuff boxes, tapestries, storages.
  • 7. Europa and the contemporary In the contemporary era, the myth underwent further metamorphoses, reflecting the political and cultural changes of the continent. In the period between the wars the myth came to mean denunciation of fascism and an attempt to a rape of Europa, seen as the continent's bloody conquest and an expropriation of its symbols in an interpretation of the myth in an 'Aryan' way, exaltation of Europe white purebred. To this were opposed representations of artists like Max Beckmann, who in 1933 introduced an overturned Europa on a bull, this time brown as Nazis' shirts: she is a young woman with the short hair of the ongoing era and the scream of violence on her face, while the animal is represented in all the arrogance and power of Nazism. The 1933 was the same year of the seizure of power in Germany by Hitler, and soon Beckmann was classified as a 'degenerate artist' and forced to leave the post of art teacher. In more recent times the myth represented the new European unity and the construction of a Union that is able to integrate eastern and western parts of the continent, separated by the Cold War of the fifties. Europa appear that exhibit the sign of the stars in circle, the flag of the European Union, or stand out against a background representing many nations and different flags. The great social and cultural transformations in Europe nowadays have prompted depictions of the myth in which the female figure is no longer a victim, nor acquiescent, but instead assumes a dominant position. The German painter Ursula has well expressed this change of costume and mentality in his painting of 1987, in which Europa stands triumphantly in the center of the picture. Her hairstyle, as well as the bull's coat and the images in the background, evoke a world where the exotic has blended in a global manner and at the same time Europe does not represent any longer the center of the world.
  • 8. Europe in the encounter between different cultures At the same cultural movement we can assign a tendency to portray the myth by artists of different traditions from Japan to Latin America. Thus the myth acquires a new meaning of universality, not imposed by a single European mark, but reworked freely in cultural heritage of various countries, reaching multicultural hybrids of great interest to the actuality. In a world crossed by large migrations of people, often in the direction of Europe, as in the past many European workers had to emigrate to find better living conditions and work in other continents, the myth of Europa assumes particular significance. Europa is a traveler who is not afraid to give up everything to move from East to West, to discover new worlds and bring the contribution of another culture. It reminds us that peoples have always transmigrated and that these population movements bring important cultural and social innovations.
  • 9. 732 AD Charles Martel and the enigma of Poitiers The battle in 732 AD halted Islam has become a founding moment of European identity. Debut of "Europenses". The word, in latin, it is used for the first time in the chronicle of a Christian Andalusian chronicler. The Franks under the command of Charles Martel, grandfather of Charlemagne, defeated an Arab army under the command of the governor of the Arab Spain, Abd el- Rahman, who died on the battlefield. But there is a chronicler of that most of all he helped to create the myth of Poitiers. It is an anonymous chronicler, Christian, who wrote in Latin in the Spain ruled by Arabs. It is the only one to relate in detail the clash, coining an image remained famous: the men of the North, "gentes Septentrionales" repulsed the assault remain motionless like a wall, impenetrable as the polar ice. The term used twice by the Spanish chronicler to indicate the winners: they are the "Europenses" and was the first time that this adjective appear, in latin, to indicate the inhabitants of the West. The appearance of those Europenses under the pen of the Mozarabic reporter is not at all so inexplicable; rather it is the logical outcome of a centuries-long process that saw the Latin civilization retreating more and more to the West and to the North, under the protection of the "barbarians". A process enshrined in the year 800 from the coronation of Charlemagne, who transform the Roman Emperor King in the King the Franks; but even before that fateful day many associated the idea of Europe with the name of Charlemagne. La bataille de Poitiers ou bataille de Tours oppose, en 732 ou 733, une coalition composée principalement de combattants des Royaumes francs et des duchés d'Aquitaine et de Vasconie au gouvernorat omeyyade. Les Francs, les Vascons et les Aquitains, menés respectivement par le maire du palais Charles Martel et le duc d'Aquitaine et de Vasconie Eudes, y obtiennent une victoire décisive face aux Omeyyades, menés par le gouverneur d'Al-Andalus Abd al-Rahmân, qui meurt lors du combat. Les détails de la bataille, notamment sa localisation et sa date exactes, ainsi que le nombre de combattants, ne peuvent être déterminés. Cette victoire importante des chrétiens sur les musulmans a un retentissement immédiat des deux côtés, la technique de combat de Charles, élevé au rang de champion de la chrétienté, lui valant son surnom de Martel (Marteau) de la part des chroniqueurs du ixe siècle, qui voient en cette victoire un jugement de Dieu en sa faveur. La bataille devient à partir du xvie siècle un symbole de la lutte de l'Europe chrétienne face aux musulmans, événement qui marque un tournant dans l'Histoire avec le début du recul de l'islam face au christianisme en Europe. Les historiens contemporains sont divisés quant à l'importance réelle de la bataille de Poitiers et son rôle dans le maintien du christianisme en Europe. Les avis sont moins divergents en ce qui concerne le poids qu'a la bataille dans l'établissement de la domination franque en Europe de l'Ouest pendant le siècle suivant, et l'émergence de l'Empire carolingien. La bataille de Poitiers est devenu, depuis les années suivants, l'un des grands mythes de l'histoire médiévale, est significatif que le mot "européens" (europeenses) apparaît pour la première fois dans un texte VIIIe siècle pour indiquer les gagnants de l'affrontement avec les Arabes.
  • 10.
  • 11. XI CENTURY From the VIII Century, the Islamic expansion arrived to the south of Europe, in Sicily, in the south Spain and then around the Aegean Sea. The Crusades, from 1095 to 1291, allowed, in the West Latin Countries, contacts with the Greek and and Muslims, where a more advanced civilization had persisted and continued to evolve. Indeed, for some Byzantine and Muslim scholars, God on the one hand and science and reason on the other hand are clearly separated, while Christians of the West, referring to St. Augustine, yet submit any thought to God: "God is, so I think". In 1130 the Bishop of Toledo created a school of Arab and Jews translation. Westerners are rediscovering so many writings of antiquity, especially Greek, hitherto forgotten, as a part of the philosophy of Aristotle, review by Arab philosophers (Averroes...). In ancient times Greek and Roman authors agreed to oppose their Mediterranean civilization, called "Imperium" from Augustus, to a "Barbaricum" populated by Celts, Teutons, of Illyrians, Thracians, also various Iranian peoples such as the Sarmatians or Scythians, and in late antiquity, Slavs. The civilizations of these peoples were initially less urban, legal and scriptural than the Greeks and Romans, but no less complex religiously, socially and artistically. The "turn of the year 1000": towards the middle of the tenth century the European population begins to increase, due to climate improvement and some technical advances that have applications in agriculture, like the shoulder collar for horses. Began a period of two centuries, that of large land clearing. At the same time, "the white coat of the Curch" covered the entire continent, and the pilgrimages to San Jaques and Jerusalem became the expression of the bright medieval piety "qui, du monde extérieur à son lieu de vie, ne connaît que Dieu ".
  • 12. La renaissance du xiie siècle est une période majeure de renouveau du monde culturel au Moyen Âge. Stimulée par un contexte de prospérité inédit depuis le début du Moyen Âge, sur les plans démographique et économique, mais aussi par une période de « renaissance politique » et par la réforme de l'Église, la chrétienté vit une profonde mutation de ses structures culturelles. Le monde monastique se recentre sur la fonction méditative, ce qui profite aux écoles urbaines qui fleurissent dans les grandes villes. Les disciplines intellectuelles sont ainsi dynamisées et nourries par l'élan des traductions depuis le grec et l'arabe en Espagne et en Italie, qui diffuse de nouveaux textes d'Aristote et de ses commentateurs musulmans. De là découle un goût nouveau pour les disciplines scientifiques, pour la dialectique, la naissance de la théologie dogmatique et l'esquisse de la scolastique, ou encore l'essor du droit et de la médecine dans les régions méditerranéennes. Siècle de l'essor d'une véritable classe d'« intellectuels » et de l'épanouissement d'une culture de cour et de la littérature courtoise, le xiie siècle prépare la maturité culturelle du siècle suivant, qui se révélera dans le cadre des universités. Renaissance of the 12th century The Renaissance of the 12th century was a period of many changes at the outset of the High Middle Ages. It included social, political land economic transformations, and an intellectual revitalization of Western Europe with strong philosophical and scientific roots. The 12th century in Europe was in many respects an age of fresh and vigorous life. The epoch of the Crusades, of the rise of towns, and of the earliest bureaucratic states of the West, it saw the culmination of Romanesque art and the beginnings of Gothic; the emergence of the vernacular literatures; the revival of the Latin classics and of Latin poetry and Roman law; the recovery of Greek science, with its Arabic additions, and of much of Greek philosophy; and the origin of the first European universities. The 12th century left its signature on higher education, on the scholastic philosophy, on European systems of law, on architecture and sculpture, on the liturgical drama, on Latin and vernacular poetry.
  • 13. Le xiie siècle en Europe fut sur bien des plans une période fraîche et vigoureuse. Outre les Croisades, l'essor urbain, et les premiers États bureaucratiques d'Occident, cette époque a aussi permis l'apogée de l'art roman et les débuts du gothique, l'émergence des littératures vernaculaires, le renouveau des classiques latins, de la poésie latine et du droit romain, la redécouverte de la science grecque avec ses enrichissements arabes, et de la majeure partie de la philosophie grecque, et les origines des premières universités d'Europe. Le douzième siècle a laissé sa marque sur l'éducation supérieure, sur la philosophie scolastique, sur les systèmes juridiques européens, sur l'architecture et la sculpture, sur le drame liturgique, sur la poésie latine et vernaculaire. Si l'expression « renaissance du xiie siècle » désigne principalement un mouvement intellectuel et culturel, on peut toutefois la distinguer de la renaissance carolingienne et de la renaissance ottonienne en cela que le xiie siècle connaît, bien plus que les siècles précédents, un contexte général de prospérité, et de profondes mutations sociales et politiques. After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, Western Europe had entered the Middle Ages with great difficulties. Apart from depopulation and other factors, most classical scientific treatises of classical antiquity, written in Greek, had become unavailable. Philosophical and scientific teaching of the Early Middle Ages was based upon the few Latin translations and commentaries on ancient Greek scientific and philosophical texts that remained in the Latin West, not to mention that even that remained at minimal levels. This scenario changed during the renaissance of the 12th century. The increased contact with the Islamic world in Muslim-dominated Spain and Sicily, the Crusades, the Reconquista, as well as increased contact with Byzantium, allowed Europeans to seek and translate the works of Hellenic and Islamic philosophers and scientists, especially the works of Aristotle. Several translations were made of Euclid but no true commentary was written until the middle of the 13th century.
  • 14. L'essor de l'Occident au xiie siècle résulte de différents facteurs d'expansion mis en évidence par les monographies locales, qui se sont multipliées dans la recherche historique des décennies récentes : croissance démographique, défrichements et mise en valeur de terres nouvelles, essor urbain, progrès des échanges et de l'économie monétaire, et enfin reprise de l'extension territoriale de l'Occident, pour la première fois au Moyen Âge, après des siècles de repli et d'invasions. Facteurs dont il faut préciser qu'ils interagissent, et qu'il est donc difficile de les distinguer ou de les hiérarchiser. Cette société plus riche devient également une société plus commerçante, et c'est tout l'Occident chrétien qui connaît une mobilité géographique accrue. L'essor économique et la stabilisation politique permettent d'améliorer les routes, de construire des ponts, et de rendre le réseau plus sûr par l'entretien des infrastructures (ponts, hospices) et la conduite des voyageurs (cols), le tout étant permis par l'essor d'une fiscalité adaptée (péages). Ces progrès bénéficient aux marchands qui affluent dans les foires urbaines comme celles de Champagne, mais aussi aux pèlerins, les pèlerinages de Saint-Jacques de Compostelle ou de Rome connaissant alors un certain apogée. L'économie monétaire remplace progressivement les pratiques de don et contre-don. The development of medieval universities allowed them to aid materially in the translation and propagation of these texts and started a new infrastructure which was needed for scientific communities. In fact, the European university put many of these texts at the center of its curriculum, with the result that the "medieval university laid far greater emphasis on science than does its modern counterpart and descendent." The 12th century renaissance saw a revival of interest in poetry. Writing mostly in Latin, contemporary poets produced significantly more work than those of the Carolingian Renaissance. The subject matter varied wildly across epic, lyric, and dramatic. Meter was no longer confined to the classical forms and began to diverge into newer schemes. Additionally, the division between religious and secular poetry became smaller. In particular, the Goliards were noted for profane parodies of religious texts. These expansions of poetic form contributed to the rise of vernacular literature, which tended to prefer the newer rhythms and structures.
  • 15. La Reconquista ("reconquête") Est une période d'environ 781 années dans l'histoire de la péninsule ibérique, après la conquête islamique en 711 à la chute de Grenade, le dernier état islamique sur la péninsule, en 1492. Elle a pris fin juste avant la découverte du Nouveau Monde et la période des empires coloniaux portugais et espagnols qui a suivi. Traditionnellement, les historiens marquent le début de la Reconquista à la bataille de Covadonga (718 ou 722) dans lequel une petite armée, dirigée par le noble Pélage, vaincu une armée Omeyyade dans les montagnes du nord de Iberia et a établi une petite principauté chrétienne dans les Asturies. The intolerance 1492 Granada: Inquisition, Islam, Jews. A unforgettable year who sign the end of the Middle Age and the start of the Modern Age. At the centre Ferdinand King of Aragona and Isabel of Castilla, already supporters of the Inquisition: it is their work that was responsible for the surrender of the last Muslim kingdom, for the Columbus expedition to the Indies and the expulsion of Jews. For them Baptism or exile, a tragic alternative. The modern State is born under the flag of intolerance, creating categories of "different people" on which they (who managed the power) practice the mechanisms of exclusion and exploitation. The Reconquista (“Reconquest") Is a period of approximately 781 years in the history of the Iberian Peninsula, after the Islamic conquest in 711 to the fall of Granada, the last Islamic state on the peninsula, in 1492. It ended right before the discovery of the New World, and the period of the Portuguese and Spanish colonial empires which followed. Traditionally, historians mark the beginning of the Reconquista with the Battle of Covadonga (718 or 722), in which a small army, led by the nobleman Pelagius, defeated an Umayyad army in the mountains of northern Iberia and established a small Christian principality in Asturias. L'intolérance 1492 Grenade: Inquisition, l'Islam, les Juifs. Une année qui marque la fin du Moyen Âge et le début de l'ère moderne. Au centre, le roi Ferdinand d'Aragon et Isabelle de Castille, partisans de l'Inquisition: c'est à eux qu'on doit la CAPITOLATION du dernier royaume musulman, l'expédition de Columbus vers les Indes et l'expulsion des Juifs. Pour eux, ou le baptême ou l'exil, une alternative dramatique. L'État moderne est né avec les barrières de l'intolérance et la création de catégories de «divers». La couple royale pratiquent les mécanismes d'exclusion et d'exploitation du nouveau continent.
  • 16.
  • 17. 1555 Carlo V Entre 1500 et 1700 se sont retrouvés uni sous la Couronne des Habsbourg beaucoup des régions . La monarchie inclus la péninsule ibérique, la plupart de l'Italie, la Sicile, la Sardaigne, les Pays-Bas, l'empire allemand, et même des Antilles, de sorte que Charles V pourrait prononcer la fameuse phrase: « Dans mon royaume le soleil ne se couche jamais" . La réalité politique prise en examen est pour des décennies le point d’agrégation possible pour l'unification de l'Europe, sans passer par l'expérience des États- nations, dont la destination finale a été le désastre des deux guerres mondiales. 25 septembre 1555: La paix d'Augsbourg marque la fin de l'unité religieuse de l'Europe. Réduit le rêve que l'empereur Charles V a incarné : l'idée d'une monarchie universelle voulue par Dieu de préserver et de défendre la paix, l'ordre, la religion et la civilisation en Europe. Un mois plus tard, Charles V défait et fatigué descendre les marches du trône, l'homme le plus puissant dans le monde partage ses domaines entre le fils et le frère. À la fin des rites de renonciation au pouvoir, l'ancien empereur se retire dans un monastère isolé. Dans les trois ans, en attendant la mort, Charles V survit à la fin de Charles- Quint. Et une Europe divisée survit au coucher du soleil du projet d'une Europe unie. 1555 Carlo V Emperor of the possessions that between 1500 and 1700 were united under the crown of the Habsburg. The Monarchy included the Iberian Peninsula, most of the Italian country, Sicily, Sardinia, the Netherlands, the German empire, and even the West Indies: so that Charles V could utter the famous phrase "The Sun Never Sets In My Kingdom". The political reality under consideration was for decades the meeting point for the unification of Europe, without going through the experience of nation states, whose final destination was the disaster of the two world wars. 25th September 1555: The Peace of Augsburg marks the end of the religious unity of Europe. Collapses the dream that the Emperor Charles V embodied: the idea of a universal monarchy, desired by God, to preserve and defend the peace, order, religion and civilization in Europe. A month later, Charles V defeated and tired down the steps of his throne. The most powerful man in the world shares its domains between the son and brother. At the end of the rites of renunciation of power, the former emperor retreats to a remote monastery. In the three years, waiting for death, Charles V survives at the end of Charles V. And a divided Europe survives the sunset of the project of a united Europe.