SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 116
Europe between Mythology, Modernity and
Multiculturalism
Erasmus+ KA1 Training course
Paris
25 - 30 July 2016
The Myth of Europe
The Myth of Europe
two meanings:
-from eu-rope, eυ-ρώπη, ”well irrigated”
-from ε ρύς (ὐ eurus), ”wide” + ψ/ π-/ πτ- (ὤ ὠ ὀ ōps/ōp-/opt-), “eye, face ” - Eur pēṓ , ”wide
gaze", ”wide look", synonymous full moon, name of the goddess.
Europe - Europa is a feature of the Greek mythology.
The name Europe derives from ancient Greek Ευρώπη
In the Myth Europa was a Phoenician woman of high lignage from whom the name of the
continent has been taken.
ORIGINS
Very popular Myth in western culture represented in literature and art:
First written signs are to find back in Homer’s and Hesiod, but an oral tradition refers to
events connected to the Myth in XIX - XV c. BC.
Quite complex and differing interpretation:
Europa's earliest literary reference is in the Iliad, Homer (8th c. BC).
Another early reference is in the Hesiodic Catalogue of Women, Hesiod (650-750 BC)
LITERATURE SOURCES
There were two competing myths relating how Europa came into the Hellenic world, but
they agreed that she came to Crete, where the sacred bull was paramount.
In the more familiar telling (Hesiod) the name Europa occurs in the long list of daughters of
Oceanus and Tethys and is the object of the seduction by the god Zeus in the form of a bull,
who breathed from his mouth a saffron crocus and carried her away to Crete.
Herodotus (484 – 425 BC) provided a more literal version beginning the account of
Persian-Hellene confrontations telling how she was kidnapped by Minoans, who were said
to have taken her to Crete.
As a further proof of Europa's Phoenician origin in 2012, an archaeological mission of the
British Museum, discovered in Sidon ancient currency that depicts Europa riding the bull
with her veil flying all over like a bow – recurring element in iconography.
Moreover the mythical Europa cannot be separated from the mythology of the sacred
bull, which had been worshipped in the Levant.
The story of her abduction by Zeus in the form of a white bull was a Cretan story;
It’s to frame among "most of the love-stories concerning Zeus originated from more ancient
tales describing his marriages with goddesses” (Kerényi ).
The daughter of the earth-giant Tityas and mother of Euphemus by Poseidon was also
named Europa.
After reaching the beach Jupiter reveals his real identity and lives with her giving birth to
three children Minos (future King of Crete), Radamanto and Sarpèdone;
finally Jupiter gives Europa as a wife to the king of the island, Asteria, who adopts the
children.
Europa, Phoenician Princess (from present Lebanon territory, cities of Tyre and Sido), is
picking flowers by the sea with girl-friends, where she is spotted and desired by Jupiter-Zeus
Main features of the Myth (in different versions, most popular by Ovidius-Ovid):
- to seduce her he turns into a white bull and make Mercury be the leader of a proper herd
towards the girls to gets closer;
- the girl is fascinated by the beautiful and gentle animal, she caress it, put a crown on it and
finally she climbs on its back;
- the bull dives into the sea and swims towards the island of Crete bringing her along;
The Myth continues with the stories of Europa’s brothers, travelling to different directions
in search of their sister: among them Cadmo who, reaching eastern Greece, founded Tebe;
THE MYTH
The image of the girl travelling by sea on the back of a lover bull,
a bull in love suspended between delight and fear, has been a main subject of
inspiration for several artists (sculptors, painters, mosaic and textile makers) through
centuries.
Europa does not seem to have been venerated directly in cult anywhere in classical
Greece, but at Lebadaea in Boeotia. Pausanias, a Greek traveller and geographer of the II
c. AD (who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius) noted that
Europa was the epithet of Demeter—"Demeter whom they surname Europa …."
Generally the Myth represents a movement of civilization from East to West and the
name Europa, given to western territories, witnesses this movement.
The degree of respect of ancient sources is very varied, from total adhesion to vague
inspiration and the feeling of continuity is illusory.
The dissemination of the Myth in the Middle Age belongs to illustrated Ovid’s Metamorphoses.
From XIVc. the version of the Ovide moralisé, informed by Ovid, the Christian Bible and other
Latin and vernacular authorities, from Plato to Chrétien de Troyes, written by an anonymous
Franciscan friar was very popular. Allegorical meaning: Europa represents the human soul and
the bull is Christ, as a redeemer moving Europa from Earth (desires and misguided affections to
which many of Ovid's protagonists succumb) to Paradise (Img11).
At least 200 images of the Myth are known to be produced in ancient times. The earliest
vase-painting with subject securely identifiable as Europa, dates from mid-7th century BC,
Here to follow a very partial but meaningful idea of the richness of the production through
the centuries – representation of different moments of the Myth:
In some periods as in ‘600-’700, the Myth seems often to be without any deep
meaning more used as an ornamental motif to reproduce even on different objects or
tapestry.On the other hand during the ‘500 and onwards great representation of the Myth recalling
the theme with all its dramatic features.
Tiziano Vecellio or Paul Rubens among the most significant: two images showing an
extraordinary mixture of creativity and repetition as a “duel” in a 70 years period gap (Img 25-
31a).
In the contemporary age the Myth has been again modified and adapted to times,
reflecting political and cultural changes of the continent (Img 40 onwards).
There have been also plenty of engraving representations for printed books (e.g.Img 24,
30a)
Title: Europe on the bull Author: /
Date: Half VII BC.
Location: Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale
Type: fragment of phitos beota
Img 1
This fragment of PHITOS BEOTA is the most ancient
representation of the Myth of Europe known.
PHITOS: ancient Greek word for a large storage jar of a
characteristic bombed shape
BEOTA, from Beotia, part of present Central Greece region
facing the Gulf of Corinth and of Ancient Greece with the
most important city Thebes
References to Beotia:
-As already told, Pausanias, in his Description of Greece, a crucial link between classical
literature and modern archaeology, tells about the archaic story of Labadea, beotian city
where is recorded a particular form of worshipping of goddess Demeter, who presided over
harvest and fertility, there called also Europe
-Cadmius, brother of Europe, well represents a link to Beotia because there, searching for
the sister, he founds Thebe and brings the alphabet from East to West, from Phoenicia to
Greece.
Typical archaic iconography for the representation of the Myth: very simple scene and
characters superimposed, Europe on the running bull, from right to left
Details:
-a very thin bull more similar to a
horse , but with a bull tail, different
iconography from others
-the paws very apart to represent the
extended running movement through
the sea to the island of Crete
- the decorated dress and Assyrian
jewel to characterise the Princess
(similar to other representations of
bulls in minoan-mycenean culture of
Crete, see Img 3)
Title: Europe on the bull
Author: /
Date: 580–560 BC.
Location: Palermo, Museo
Archeologico “Antonio Salinas”
(Selinunte, tempio Y)
Typology: Sculpture in tuff
Img 2
One of the most significant ancient
representation of the Myth renowned.
Found in the 10th February 1892 by
Antonio Salinas together with three
other metopes belonging to a tower of
the city wall of Selinunte (around V c.
BC.)
Originally it had to be polychrome, some traces of blue colour where found.
Carved in tuff stone it presents a bas-relief.
Simple graphic but detailed:
Europe shows her face in profile;
her hands are resting, one on the horn, the other
in the back of the animal, legs are both to the
right – main motif recurrent through centuries.
She’s wearing a long chitone (long tunic) and the
hair is gathered and dispersed on her body.
Arching front paws accentuate the idea of
movement in the water.
Two dolphins under the bull paws represent the
sea that is one of main the subjects of the Myth
(see also e.g. Img 10a).
The bull has its muzzle facing the viewer .
Bull’s hair in the forehead is well kept as well as
Europa’s one,
even the bull’s tail is combed in a tress.
Europa’s attitude is serene, still far from the poetic tradition from I c. AC. onwards – Ovid
version tells about a playful and sensual relation but at some point terrified (see also
Horace, Carmina, book II, XXV 9.
OVID Bk II:833-875, Jupiter’s abduction of Europa
…. Mercury “There his father calls him aside, and without revealing love as the reason, says
‘Son, faithful worker of my commands, go, quickly in your usual way, fly down to where, in an
eastern land, they observe your mother’s star, among the Pleiades, (the inhabitants give it the
name of Sidon). There drive the herd of royal cattle, that you will see some distance off,
grazing the mountain grass, towards the sea shore!’
He spoke, and immediately, as he commanded, the cattle, driven from the mountain, headed
for the shore, where the great king’s daughter, Europa, used to play together with the Tyrian
virgins. Royalty and love do not sit well together, nor stay long in the same house. So the
father and ruler of the gods, who is armed with the three-forked lightning in his right hand,
whose nod shakes the world, setting aside his royal sceptre, took on the shape of a bull,
lowed among the other cattle, and, beautiful to look at, wandered in the tender grass….”
continues nxt page
” … In colour he was white as the snow that rough feet have not trampled and the rain-
filled south wind has not melted. The muscles rounded out his neck, the dewlaps hung down
in front, the horns were twisted, but one might argue they were made by hand, purer and
brighter than pearl. His forehead was not fearful, his eyes were not formidable, and his
expression was peaceful. Agenor’s daughter marvelled at how beautiful he was and how
unthreatening.
But though he seemed so gentle she was afraid at first to touch him. Soon she drew close and
held flowers out to his glistening mouth. The lover was joyful and while he waited for his
hoped-for pleasure he kissed her hands. He could scarcely separate then from now. At one
moment he frolics and runs riot in the grass, at another he lies down, white as snow on the
yellow sands.
When her fear has gradually lessened he offers his chest now for virgin hands to pat and now
his horns to twine with fresh wreaths of flowers. The royal virgin even dares to sit on the bull’s
back, not realising whom she presses on, while the god, first from dry land and then from the
shoreline, gradually slips his deceitful hooves into the waves. Then he goes further out and
carries his prize over the mid-surface of the sea.
” … In colour he was white as the snow that rough feet have not trampled and the rain-
filled south wind has not melted. The muscles rounded out his neck, the dewlaps hung down
in front, the horns were twisted, but one might argue they were made by hand, purer and
brighter than pearl. His forehead was not fearful, his eyes were not formidable, and his
expression was peaceful. Agenor’s daughter marvelled at how beautiful he was and how
unthreatening.
But though he seemed so gentle she was afraid at first to touch him. Soon she drew close and
held flowers out to his glistening mouth. The lover was joyful and while he waited for his
hoped-for pleasure he kissed her hands. He could scarcely separate then from now. At one
moment he frolics and runs riot in the grass, at another he lies down, white as snow on the
yellow sands.
She is terrified and looks back at the abandoned shore she has been stolen from and her right
hand grips a horn, the other his back, her clothes fluttering, winding, behind her in the breeze.“
OVID Bk II:833-875, Jupiter’s abduction of Europa
Title: Rape of Europe
Author: /
Date: 500 BC.
Location: Providence, Rhode Island School of
Design, Museum of Art
Typology: Attic vase (lekythos)
Img 3
The decoration develops all around the geometry of
the vase, from left to right up to the neck of the
vase with a flower motif.
“these garlands are usually associated with Dyonisos
and the Maenads. Here there might be a minor
motif contamination, as can be seen on numerous
vases”
Presumably , according to the position and attitude of the
subjects, Europe and the bull are still standing out of the
water, the one moment before the proper rape, as soon as the
bull has just arched his back and the girl gets surprised.
The God is perhaps forced to lift his muzzle responding to the
attitude of Europa who, scared by the risk to fall, grabs one
horn and try to hold herself.
The girl is wearing as a Princess: a long elegant multi-folded
decorated chitone and a nice hair band
More clear the other figures to the side : Afrodite (with a
mirror) and Hermes.
Possibly representing two divinities: on one side love, good
premonition for the union of Jupiter and Europa and the trip
(Hermes, messenger of gods and god of commerce) to Crete
where Europe will give birth to three children and be a Queen .
Title: Rape of Europe
Author/ Artist: Painter from
Berlino (Beazley)
Date: 480 BC.
Location: Tarquinia, Museo
Nazionale
Typology: Attic vase
Img 4
The crater is a funerary urn
containing the ashes of a woman
according to a small golden ring
found inside.
Europe is richly dressed as a Princess.
Even here the more common
iconography, is abandoned:
the scene is depicting the previous
moment to the proper rape, when
Europa is behind the bull still not on
his back holding him by a horn.
Title: Juppiter and Europe
Author: /
Date: 470-450 BC.
Location: Parigi, Musée du
Louvre
Typology: Boeotian terracotta
sculpture
Img 5
The work is a sculpture in the
round with a rough surface
and archaic forms:
figures features appear rigid
and approximately described,
the low detailing would
suggest a worshipping
function.
Title: Jupiter and Europe
Author/Artist: Assteas
Date: 350-330 B.C.
Location: before in Los Angeles,
Malibu, J. Paul Getty Museum,
recently got back to Italy,
now under control by Carabinieri
del Nucleo Tutela Patrimonio
Culturale- Heritage Care
Typology: Vase in the shape of
chalice from Paestum
Img 6
Found in a black excavation in
Sant’Agata dei Goti (BN) and
illegally exported abroad in
1973 to be sold.
It was bought by the Paul Getty
Museum in Malibu where it has
been until 2009, when
recognized and given back to
Italy together with other
masterpieces.
It’s a rare example of work with the
signature of the author. It shows the
decoration on the front with the
narration from right to left.
Img 6
The bull is moving to the left but
looking to the front. Classical
iconography: Europa is sitting to a
side looking forward, her hair down
on her shoulders with a beautifully
embroidered dress, one hand on a
horn the other one keeping her veil
blowing in the wind.
The central group of Europa sitting
on the back of the bull presents
elements connected to a marine
landscape: fishes on the bottom and
sea divinities with long tails, the bull
also has curved legs as if he was
swimming in the water.
Title: The rape of Europe
Author: /
Date: I c. AD.
Location: Paris, Musèe de Guimet, from Begram
(Afghanistan)
Typology: Glass vase
Img 7
Part of a rich treasure found in one of the four
afghani sites - Begram - discovered during the
first half of XX c.
discovered by the Mission Hackin around 1939,
a wide variety of priceless historical and artistic
value painted glasses.
The most common shape is elongated and
conical, typical of Alexandria of Egypt
hellenistic age painting ((332 -30 b.C.).
Img 7
Begram glasses were decorated, as showed
here, with a peculiar style with a prevailing
black sign to define shapes and shadows.
The veil blowing in the wind shaped in an arch
is a recurrent element as well in the figurative
tradition as in the literary one.
The bull is red because of the white
background.
Title: The rape of Europe
Author: anonymous
Date: End of I Century B.C.- beginning of
Ist
Century A.D.
Location: Aquileia, Archaeological
Museum
Typology: Mosaic
Img 8
Fine Hellenistic craftsmanship, was
part of the pavement in a roman house
room in Aquileia (north-eastern border
of Italy with Slovenia) situated in the
northern part of the main Piazza
Capitolo.
Made in calcareous stones and green
and blue glass paste it was found in
1845 during an excavation made to
the north of Aquileia Basilica (public
building for meetings and justice).
Img 8
Young Europa is here completely
naked without any traditional
attribute seen so far
(only the fact she’s sitting on a side,
the hair in the wind and the position
of the hands).
This character could refer to another
tradition recognizing in Europa a
Nereide, as told by Esiodo in his
Teogonia where Europa is mentioned
as daughter of Nereo (ancient God,
symbol of a calm and good sea) .
Title: Europe and the bull
Author: anonymous
Date: 50 AD.
Location: Napoli, National
Archaelogical Museum, corridor I
(from Pompei, House of Giasone (IX,
5, 18), west wall of cubiculum g)
Typology: wall painting, Fresco
Img 9
In the museum collection since
1878 following the excavation
wanted by king Ferdinando IV
Borbone in 1787.
The painting is ascribable to the IV
Pompeian style (mural painting
styles by archaeologist August
Mau, 1840 – 1909).
Img 9
Scenae frontes are inserted in
aedicules decorated with rectangles
and losenges, transposition on fresco
of an easel painting.
The scene represents the moment
when Europe is sitting on the bull
dressed in a veil leaving the body
naked and covering the legs.
The girl has an absent gaze, again
holding with a hand one of the horns
and with the other the veil (or the back
of the animal - Ovid) (Img 2, 7,8)
More complex and real scene: three
maids are helping her.
Title: The rape of Europe
Author: anonymous
Date: 330-360 AD.
Location: Kent, Lullingstone
Villa
Type: floor painting mosaic
Img 10
Situated in the semicircular
triclinium of the Villa.
The construction belongs to
the roman influence period
and was realized in a long
period of time from the I-II c.
to the IV-V sec. AD.
The villa is composed by a series of stratified and superimposed buildings and was used as a
private rural estate or as a sort of farm. It was decorated in the IV c. with floor mosaics, as the
one of Rape of Europa.
The mosaic frames the scene with some aniconic (with no images) motifs.
Europa is represented sitting on a side of the bull – Jupiter: with a hand she’s holding to the neck
and with the other one she keeps the blowing veil, she has a foot lifted not to touch the water.
Title: Rape of Europe
Author: /
Date: III c. AD.
Location: House of Europa
Typology: Mosaic
Img 10a
Serene attitude of Europa
brought away by the bull,
embracing confident the
animal.
Representation of the sea
with fish (Img2).
New element is the angel
with the torch of love.
Title: Rape of Europe
Author: /
Date: ?
Location: Germany
Typology: Mosaic
Img 10b
Very dynamic scene, three
groups of figures:
the three maids, Europa
and the bull, the shephard
– Mercury.
Beautiful mountain
landscape.
Important roman mosaic discovered in 1676 in Praeneste, Palestrina, left Rome 1941
for Germany and is still there: Hitler wanted it for his museum never born in Linz.
From 1691, it was exposed in Palazzo Barberini; from 1934, in Villa Giulia.
It has been a model for later art.
Title: The rape of Europe
Author: anonymous
Date: 1385
Location: Lyon, Bibliothèque de
la Ville, handbook dell’Ovide
Moralisé, Ms. 742. fol. 40
Typology: Illustation
Tecnique: miniature (67 x 61
mm)
Img 11
The miniature is taken from the
Lyon manuscript translating
l’Ovide Moralisé, from the
Metamorphoses. It represents
the passage of the Ovidian
Myth telling “how Jupiter
raped the beautiful Europa”, as
in the bottom caption in red.
Jupiter is depicted as a white bull transporting Europa
on the sea far from the beach, towards the left to what
we know Sidonia – Crete.
To the right, on the edge of a rock, there are three girls
from the entourage of Europa she was playing with
before the rape.
Img 11 The three are facing Europa, dressing in
the contemporary way according to the
manuscript: one of them, with her hands
open in front of Europa, seems to be
calling her, the other has her hand on
the heart and the third, in the
background, is peacefully looking at the
marine ride.
Europa, represented while riding the bull
with her blond hair blowing in the wind,
is sitting to one side with her feet
together, one hand on her dress the
other lifted to the left. The look is
serene completely dedicated to the
divine animal.
The rape of Europa, is here told according to a Christian interpretation tending to give to the
Myth a new allegorical meaning: the transportation of Europa through the sea made by
Jupiter has here a totally positive connotation, as a symbol of human soul redemption
through the incarnation of God in the body of Christ- the bull.
ROMA
Title: The rape of Europe
Author/ Artist: Antonio di Pietro
Averlino, named “Filarete”
(1400-1469?)
Date: 1433-1445
Location: Città del Vaticano,
Basilica of St. Peter, Bronze door
of St. Peter.
Client: papa Eugenio IV (1431-
1447)
Typology: relief
Img 12
The door is considered one of the first forms of the Renaissance art in Italy;
inaugurated in 1445 to celebrate the church and the Pope Eugenio IV.
A wide frame in acanthus leafs
defines scenes with profane and
mythological character where is
possible to recognize, located in the
six shutters of the door: Emperors’
portraits, historical figures and eastern
and western church reunification
episodes by pope Eugenio IV, Saint
Peter and Paul martyrdom scenes and
other sacred images.
Img 12
ROMA
This representation is a synthesis between ancient images (Byzantine and Classical) and
contemporary ones, intended to stress the passage from Pagan Rome to Christian and
modern Rome.
Title: The rape of Europe
Author/ Artist: artist from Padua
or Venice XV-XVI secolo
Date: 1470-1490
Location: Firenze, Museo
Nazionale del Bargello
Typology: Little bronze (h. 21,5
cm)
Tecnique: in the round bronze
cladded with black laque
Img 13
General sense of classical grace
and majesty (see the classical
clothing of the girl, from the
footwear to the tunic, similar to
a peplum), probably a reference
to the rediscovery of the
classical world by the venetian
art and culture of the time.
Img 13
Europa is sitting on the bull, it
proceeds slowly alluding more
to a classical triumph scene
then to the representation of a
rape.
Title: The rape of
Europe
Author/ Artist:
Albrecht Dürer (1471-
1528)
Date: 1494-1495
Location: Wien,
Albertina
Typology: Drawing
Img 14
The paper belongs to a
notebook that shows
preparatory works
and drafts.
The rape of Europa is represented on half the paper and is separated by a dividing
line from other preparatory works (three lion heads, a statue of Apollo and an
eastern man) as if it was a sketch book.
The representation and the polularization
of the Myth and of the iconography of
Europa are tightly linked to the
rediscovery of the ancient world in
northern Europe from the XV c.
Img 14
The whole artistic style of the time
was affected by these ideas.
Through more frequent commercial
exchanges between North and
South distances are reduced and
cultures contaminate.
The development of the press and the habit of artists to travel through Europe
represent the opportunity to exchange and spread new themes and iconographies.
Very dynamic scene, Europa is sitting with an arm bend on the bull.
Title: The rape of Europe on the
bull
Author/ Artist: Andrea Briosco,
named Riccio – Frizzy? or
somebody of his entourage
Date: 1500
Location: Budapest,
Szépmûvészeti Museum
Type: Bronze Sculpture
Img 15
The fine making of the two figures
(young Europa and Jupiter in form
of bull) composing the sculpture,
separately cast, let think to an
artist with a goldsmith training.
The iconography is a unicum: it’s a
particularly dramatic and violent version of
the Myth.
Img 15
The girl looks very aggressive as in Orazio’s
version in one of his Odi - Carmina (Libro
II, ode XXV 9) (23 BC).
Europa is here represented after the rape in
Crete, very angry and threatening the bull
with a weapon in her hand, that was
originally part of the sculpture and today is
lost.
The author make a personal choice to recall
a literary source and a peculiar very
dynamic instant .
Title: The rape of Europe
Author/ Artist: Francesco
Giovanni Rustici
Date: 1495
Location: London, Victoria and
Albert Museum
Typology: relief
Technique: glazed terracotta
Img 16
Very relaxed Europa on bull-
Jupiter, regarding each other.
She‘s in a playful pose.
Very natural and dynamic
setting, between the waves,
the wind and the clouds.
Title: Taurus (Aprile)
Artist: Giovanni Maria Falconetto (1468-
1535)
Date: 1520
Location: Mantova, Palazzo D’Arco, Zodiac
Hall
Client: Giulio dei Gonzaga di Feltrino
(Capodieci-Ilari)
Typology: wall painting
Tecnique: Fresco
Img 17
The context is a frame dedicated to
the astrological sign of the Taurus.
The rape of Europa is on the
background in a complex
interpretation scene where Jupiter is
represented four times.
In the foreground a white haired
figure with the beard on his back, a
small ram identified as a Pan, playing
the flute or syringe, with small horns
on his head, the goat Amaltea with
small Jupiter.
Img 17
The scene according to experts is a
clear reference to fertility and earth
abundance but especially breeding
fertility as Ovid states in the Fasti
regarding the month of April
dedicated to Venus Verticordia
(opening hearts).
Img 17
To the left Jupiter on an arch
identified with the Arch of Augustus
in Fano, is putting the bull in the sky
as a sign of gratitude to have let him
having Europa.
The idea is reinforced because of
different elements:
-the breeding goat,
-the ram drinking to a source with a
Priapus symbol,
-a couple of deers as a symbol of lust
- the same bull in his generative
meaning, often associated to sexual
ardour.
Title: Europa’s life – Europa
sitting on the bull’s back
Artist: Bernardino Luini (1481-
1532)
Date: 1521-1523
Location: Berlin, Staatliche
Museen
Type: wall painting
Tecnique: Fresco
Img 18
Part of a series of thematic frescoes on the Stories of Europa commissioned by
business man Gerolamo Rabia for his residence in Milan by architect Cristoforo
Solari.The frescoes were seriously damaged through the centuries and at the beginning of
the XIX c. it was necessary to detach them. They were then sold.
It is therefore impossible to know the
original location in the building.
Img 18
Luini’s frescoes represent an
extraordinary exception in the pictorial
tradition regarding the Myth of Europa
in the XVI c. as well as in the previous
and following centuries.
It’s one of the first cases of picture of the Myth in a narrative sequence comprehending
more then one episode (see also e.g. Img 21) .
Title: Jupiter and Europa
Artist: Jacopo Robusti named
Tintoretto
Date: 1541
Location: Modena, Galleria Estense
Typology: Painting
Img 19
This oil on wood is part of thirteen
mythological pictures taken from
Ovid’s Metamorphoses during his
young years (1540 – 1541).
These pictures used to decorate the
ceiling of the palace of the client
Vittorio Pisani Earl of San Paterniano,
but in September 1658 Francesco I
d’Este bought them and they were
located in the new gallery.
The representation of the Myth is
reduced to the minimum, as if forced
inside the octagon:
Img 19
the girl is on the back of the bull and
looks at her maid holding in one hand
the crown made with plants.
Europa seems coming forward,
towards the vacuum, as to predict
her destiny .
Title: Rape of Europa
Artist: René Boyvin (1525-1580)
Date: post 1540
Location: Vienna, Albertina
Typology: burin engraving
Img 20
It’s the reproduction of an original fresco by
Rosso Fiorentino (1495-1540) located in the
Francis I Gallery (prototype for the gallery itself
and a showcase for the Renaissance in France)
in Fontainebleau.
The fresco representing the rape is the fresco
twin of Saturn and Filira; the two pictures are
located to the sides of the Elefante Reale,
allegory of strenght and prudence of Francis I.
The three scenes are connected on the idea of
unity between animal and goodness.
All frescoes have a double meaning, at a time
positive and negative: they represent negative
passions, but also positive passions of figures
that once transformed in animals generate
wise people: Europa and Jupiter as a bull
generate Minos, wise King of Crete; Fillira and
Saturn as a horse generate Chirone, centaur
and teacher of Achille .
Img 20
The picture of Europa naked has the most
ancient precedent in the mosaic of Aquileia
(see img 8)
The legs of Europa have a disordered posture,
the right one bend on the back of the bull, the
other one, extended on the side, as in the
precedent in Durer drawing (see img 14).
Title: Europa raped
by Jupiter
Artist: Giulio
Bonasone (1510 -
post 1576)
Date: 1546
Location: New York,
Metropolitan
Museum of Art
Typology: engraving
on wood
Img 21
The subject is taken from a sketch by Raffaello, not recalled among his known
works.
Bonasone accurately duplicates the scene, attaching to it a personal and original
mark due to his manual and creative ability.
Img 21
The scene is defined
simultaneous or
synchronic, because it puts
together on the same
paper different moments of
the Myth (see Img 18).
In the centre the moment when Europa puts a flower crown of the bull, made by
her maids, the animal is lying down to help the girl to climb on him;
to the left the three girls working;
in the back ground the bull swimming towards Crete .
Mercury is in the form of a shepherd and Neptune is in the sea
Title: Rape of Europa
Artist: Andrea Meldolla, called Schiavone (1510/1515–1563) or Lambert Sustris
(1515-1591) Date: Second half of XVI Century
Location: : Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum Type: Oil painting on canvas
Img 22
A small painting originally inserted in a frame together with another canvas depicting the
Myth of Nesso e Deianira (*) represents a very simple scene of Europa who, against her will,
is brought by sea by Jupiter-bull.
(*) dramatic Myth, Nesso is killed by Deianira husband Eracle and kills Eracle through Deianira
with a shirt poisoned with his own blood.
The work presents a typical venetian extraordinary naturalism
e.g. details as the bull’s eye almost human and the light foam of the see waves.
Img 22
The very upset girl looks back towards her friends calling her from the beach. She
holds herself tightly to the bull’s horns while her dress and hair are blowing in the air
because of the rapid movement of the bull, as in Ovid’s Metamorphoses.
Title: Rape of
Europa
Artist: Jean Cousin
il Vecchio (1526-
1593 ca.)
Date: 1550
Location: Blois,
Musée de Beaux-
Arts du Chateau
Type: Oil painting
on canvas
Img 23
Jean Cousin the old was a painter connected to the School of Fontainebleau - Ecole de
Fontainbleu (c.1530–c.1610, late Renaissance Mannerism) specialized in glass and engraving
painting with a very independent way of working – strong decorations and interest for Ancient
Culture.
The artist has always had a deep interest for the tales by Ovid - he was the illustrator of a
whole edition of the Metamorphoses in 1566.
The painting was originally in the Hotel de la Poste in Blois, destroyed in 1940.
Img 23
The episode of the rape is very common in French Renaissance and the landscape on the
background - with monuments inspired to the past.
In the scene, on one side Jupiter turned in bull swims with a garland of flowers, given by
Europa, around his neck; the girl is sitting with the wind blowing her hair, holding both horns.
Around them plenty of Eroti (little angels or winged spirits) (version of Luciano and Achille
Tazio) riding newt holding trumpets, plants and garlands.
Img 23
Such a serene image of the rape is probably due to the original function of the painting as a
decoration of a bedroom in the hotel and therefore celebrating the nuptial life.
Jean Cousin represents the climax of the bull’s ride, with Europa who isn’t scared at all but
very pleased by the Eroti’s parade.
Title: Rape of Europa
Artist: Bernard Salomon
Date: 1557
Location: Bernard Salomon, La
Metamorphose d'Ovide figurée, Lione
1557, 178 p.
Client: Jean de Tournes
Typology: Engraving
Tecnique: blockprint – woodcut
Img 24
The book presents the main episodes of
Ovid Metamorphoses.
Each page is a concluded unity with an
ornamental frame containing an image
and a text:
inscriptio (brief description of the title),
pictura (image of one of the scenes from
the Metamorphosis) and subscriptio
(poetic description of the episode in the
pictura).
There is a very tight relationship
between text and image, a proper Picta
Poesis, where poetry is defined as a
talking painting and painting as a silent
poetry (Guthmuller, 1997).
Img 24
The text was very successful and was re-
edited in a revised and shorten version.
Salomon’s series was often forged in
Paris. The fake molds were reused out of
France as in the Tetraschica by Virgil
Solis (Cappelletti, 1997).
The peculiarity of Salomon depends on
the narrative character based on a single
theme.
Img 24
Europa and the bull are travelling by sea
towards Crete, in the background. On
the left there is Agenore (King of Tyre-
Tiro - Lebanon, Europa’s father) ’s bulls
herd by the beach.
In the foreground the girls of Tyre
worried for the rape.
The rape of Europa is represented
moving from left to right, in the classical
position with a hand on a horn and the
other on the back of the animal with the
dress blowing and the feet suspended
not to wet (e.g.Img 10);
The image matches the description of
the rape in the Metamorphoses, and in
the Ovide figureè.
The girl Europa is represented with a
more melancholic mood, for a not too
dramatic scene – see the veil in an arch.
Title: Rape of Europa
Artist: /
Date: Second half of XVIth
century
Location: Pesaro, Museo della
Ceramica
Typology: Ceramic plate
Tecnique: Majolica (diam. 27,5 cm)
Img 24a
Partially inspired by the engraving
illustrating the Rape of Europa in La
Metamorphose d'Ovide figuré (Img
24), 1557 by B. Salomon,
this ceramic, as well as the other
one kept still in Pesaro (Img 24b),
shows the tight relation between
this type of decorations and the
contemporary print illustrations.
Salomon represents a precedent only
regarding the central figure of Europa
sitting on the bull:
although the bull and Europa are still
not in the water, the pose and some
details, as the blowing veil on the girl’s
head, clearly recall the main group in the
well-known engraving.
Img 24a
On the left there are the maids of
Europa, to the right a shepherd, perhaps
Mercury,
while on the background, far away, the
moment of the proper rape is
represented with Europa brought away
by Jupiter-bull.
Img 24b Title: Rape of Europa
Artist: atelier Fontana
Date: 1560-1570
Location: Pesaro, Museo della
Ceramica
Typology: Ceramic plate
Tecnique: polychrome painting (16,5
cm ø)
The subject of the rape is clearly
written on the back of the plate.
Also this scene presents an
undeniable reliance on the
engraving by Salomon (Img 24)
La Metamorphose d’Ovide figureè,
1557.
The plate dates after 1557, but before
1575 (Polidori, 1956).
Img 24b
The scene develops from left to right
and the composition faithfully recalls
Salomon’s work.
The reproduction of Salomon engraving
highlights once more the luck and
diffusion of it.
To notice the difference compared to
the original is in the more detailed
representation of the city in the
background, the island of Crete.
Title: Rape of Europa
Artist: Tiziano Vecellio (1488/90-
1576)
Date: 1559-1562
Location: Boston, Isabella
Stewart Gardner Museum
Client: Filippo II
Type: Oil painting on canvas
Img 25
Among the works for Filippo II
defined by the painter ''poetry’’,
together with Perseo che libera
Andromeda. Sent to Madrid in
April 1562.
The composition of the canvas is very original: the young Princess is lying down in
an unseemly position while being raped and brought away by the bull in the water;
in the background the maids are crying, on the foreground three angels, two in the
sky with bow and arrows and the third on a dolphin as if chasing the bull.
There are different theories on the sources
used:
Hilliard Goldfarb (1998) sees in Jupiter-bull
king Philip II bringing Europa in the New
World;
Img 25
Karinne Simmoneau (1999) interprets
Europa as the personification of the
Republic of Venice protected by Filippo II
against the Turkish, represented by the fish
among the waves.
Shapiro (1971) quoting the text of Horace
on Europa, mantains that the three angels
and the monstrous fish around the girl
represent passions condemned by stoic
philosophy: happiness (the angel on the
dolphin), desire (the angel with the arrows),
fear (the monstrous fish) and pain (the
angel with the arch, ancient symbol of
torture).
Title: Rape of Europa
Artist: Taddeo Zuccari (1529-1566)
Date: 1563-1564
Location: Caprarola, Palazzo
Farnese, piano nobile, Winter
apartments
Client: Alessandro Farnese (1520-
1589)
Typology: wall painting
Tecnique: Fresco
Img 26
Future pope Paolo III, buys in 1504
the land of Caprarola as the base of
his ideal family domain.
The palace is by Antonio da Sangallo and Vignola, example of Renaissance
Architecture and the decoration is by the brothers Taddeo and Federico Zuccari,
while the iconographic program was committed to three humanist man, Annibal
Caro, Panvinio and Fulvio Orsini – Full artistic and cultural project.
The Villa is divided in two zones: the Winter
(private life) and Summer (public activities)
apartments.
Img 26
The image is simple and straightforward, without any redundant element – very calm
atmosphere. Important relationship between the Cardinal and Jupiter stories told
in the room frescoes – celebration of Jupiter.
The Summer apartments were decorated in
the '60s of XVI c. with subjects connected to
the single rooms functions;
The Winter one were destined to
representative activities and presents a
topographical iconography connected to the
places where the Farnese family was ruling.
In this part of the Villa there is the Room of
Jupiter where in a fresco two colour medallion
is represented beautiful Europa while putting a
garland on the bull’s horn where she’s nicely
sitting.
Title: Rape of Europa
Artist: Martin de Vos
Date: 1572
Location: Bilbao,
Museo de Bellas Artes
Typology: Marble
sculpture
Tecnique: relief
Img 27
According to Alessandra
Baroni (Il mito di
Europa, 2002, pp. 89-
90) a new wave of nude
figures is more and
more common in the
second half of XVI c. in
the Netherlands.
The nude figures loose their heroic attitude derived from roman sculptures towards
a more soft, languid and sensual line (Img 8, 20).
Europa is not anymore portrayed as
an innocent girl, but more as a
mature woman in her full femininity
and sensuality.
Img 27
The foreground is completely
occupied by Europa raped by the
bull; the girl’s pose, sensually layed
down on the bull, will be recalled
some years later by Jean Boulogne
-Giambologna (Img 28) (Fontana
dell’Oceano, Giardino di Boboli,
Florence) (see also Img 16).
To be noticed the flower garlands
around the bull to recall the
moment previous to the rape,
when Europa adorns the bull’s
muzzle with flowers.
In the background Europa’s maids are desperate, while Mercury, Jupiter accomplice, is in the
sky surrounded by small angels holding darts, Jupiter’s attribute.
ROMA
Title: The rape of Europa
Artist: Jean Boulogne named
Giambologna (1529-1608)
Date: 1600
Location: Roma, Museo di
Palazzo Venezia
Typology: Sculpture (32,6 cm)
Tecnique: Bronze cast
Img 28
The small bronze sculpture is
not registered and there are no
news about the client. Probably
the work is associated to the
group of Nesso and Deianira,
another Myth about the lover
rape.
The event of Europa is not completely extraneous to the Flemish artist.
He already, in 1575, had inserted the subject in a marble bas-relief at the base of
the Fontana di Oceano, in the Giardino di Boboli in Florence.
ROMA
The composition presents
Europa on the back of a
running bull unstable on his
back paws:
the girl holding a horn is
sitting herself in an unstable
pose unbalanced by the
violence of the jump of the
animal, with her head back
and her look to heaven as to
look for salvation.
Img 28
The dramatic pose of the raped Princess and her fight against the kidnapper
recalls many works where she flails and tries to free herself (Img 8, 16, 25, 27).
Title: The rape of Europa
Artist: Paolo Caliari, named
Veronese (1528-1588)
Date: 1580
Location: Venezia, Palazzo
Ducale
Client: Jacopo Contarini
Type: Oil painting on canvas
Img 29
Ordered for the Contarini
family residence Palace in S.
Samuele by Jacopo.
Donated to the Serenissima
at the death of Samuele in
1713, it was placed in one
of the rooms of the Palazzo
Ducale.
In 1797 the painting was moved to Paris by french
troops, and only at the beginning of XIX c. it was
given back to Palazzo Ducale.
The theme is again the one in the
Metamorphoses of Ovid.
The painter has focused on the
courtship of the girl by the bull
differently than usual.
Img 29
Four maids attend to the event,
two are arranging the Princess’s
rich dresses as if she was leaving on
a honey moon, the other two are
picking nuptial garlands given by
the angels; the dog could be
interpreted as a symbol of
marriage loyalty.
The love atmosphere of the scene is stressed by the physical intimacy of the couple: while
Europa is sitting on the bull’s back, the bull is kissing her foot (see Ovid’s text) – richness of
details and complexity of the subject.
ROMA
Title: The rape of Europa
Artist: Paolo Caliari,
named il Veronese (1528-
1588)
Date: 1580
Location: Rome,
Pinacoteca Capitolina
Client: Jacopo Contarini
(1536-1595)
Technique: Oil painting
on canvas
Img 30
Second version of the
same subject.
Three moments of the
Myth are represented (see
also Img 18,21).
On a hillock with trees, and a white Pyramid – classical reference – Europa, in the foreground,
is sitting on the back of the bull gently touching her foot (original iconographic detail,
invented by the artist freely interpreting literary sources: kisses on the girl’s hands by the
ROMA
Around the girl there are
the maids intent to
accomplish activities
related to marriage.
The erotic tension (details
as the naked breast) is
therefore softened.
Img 30
A girl is arranging Europa’s dress, another one is decorating her cleavage with a
jewel, the last two girls are picking flower garlands falling from the angels hands
flying in the upper part of the composition.
ROMA
In the foreground the
presence of the Erote –
Cupid keeping the bull
through the reins and the
small angel with a torch
conducting the bull to the
sea in the second scene,
are clear reference to the
literary source of Amori di
Leucippe e Clitofonte by
Achille Tazio.
Img 30
Finally in the background Europa is represented already in the water with the bull,
turned to her maids asking for help, another .
Title: The rape of Europa
Artist: Hendrick Goltzius
(1558-1617)
Date: 1590
Location: /
Committenza: /
Typology: Print
Technique: Engraving
(168 x 250 mm)
Img 30a
There are three series of engravings: in 1589 by G. own atelier, 1590 (with poetry by Franco
Estius), in 1615.
The engravings were inserted in Bernard Salomon’s Metamorfosi di Ovidio (Strass, 1982).
The picture is very dramatic.
The sea is rough and the
protagonists are excited and
dynamic.
Img 30a
On the background of the
composition a previous moment
of the Myth is represented (Img
30, 21, 18):
Mercury, brings away the bulls
herd to the beach as told by
Jupiter in the Metamorphoses by
Ovid and recalled by other
authors in the Renaissance.
Jupiter is on a cloud together with an eagle, one of his typical attributes.
ROMA
Title: The rape of Europa
Artist: : Giuseppe Cesari, detto il
Cavalier d’Arpino (1568-1640)
Date: 1603-1606 (Röttgen)
Location: Rome, Galleria Borghese
Type: Oil painting on canvas
Img 31
The canvas although dated by Tosini
(Cieri Via, 1996) in the ‘90s of XVI c.,
according to Röttgen (2002), for
stlystic affinity with coeval works,
was probably realized between 1603
and 1606.
It must have been bought or even
ordered (see Mythologica…, 2005)
by Scipione Borghese directly from
the painter.
First certain news about its presence
in the family collection in 1650
(Manilli).
ROMA
The painting depicts the moment of the
rape according to the text by Angelo
Poliziano (1454-1494, poet, humanist
and playwright ).
Img 31
Europa, sitting on a side on the back of
the bull is looking at her scared friends.
She‘s represented with a cloak and the
dress blowing in the wind while holding
herself to a horn of the bull; the other
hand is embracing the neck of the
animal as told in Ovid’s Fasti.
The dark grey colour of the bull is
detaching from Ovid’s description and is
original compared to any other artistic
and literary source.
But the white spot on the muzzle is
mentioned by Mosco (II sec. B.C.).
ROMA
To the top left Cupid, while riding an eagle
and shooting an arrow towards the
protagonists of the Myth: symbolic
allusion to the love of Jupiter for Europa,
but also reference, to the Borghese family
heraldic symbol - the eagle (Kristina
Herrman Fiore, Mythologica…, 2005) - a
reason more to think to a direct order to
the painter by Scipione.
Img 31
In the background to the right, behind the
group of desperate girls, a shepherd,
probably Mercury, walking the herd away.
Patrizia Tosini (Cieri Via, 1996) interprets
as the model of the composition the
engraving by Goltzius, 1590 (Img 30a)
where although Cupid is Jupiter and there
is a general more open composition.
K. Herrman Fiore (2005), sees the
similarity to an ancient relief once inserted
on the façade of the Villa Borghese.
Title: Rape of Europa
Artist: Pieter Paul Rubens (1577-
1640)
Date: 1628-1629
Location: Madrid, Museo del Prado
Client: Filippo IV di Spagna (1605-
1655)
Technique: Oil painting on
canvas(120 x 109 cm)
Img 31a
We know that Rubens 25 yrs before (1603) had seen the canvas of the venetian master
during a period in Spain.
This canvas is the exact copy,
together with the one with of the
one with Diana e Callisto, realized
by Tiziano (Img 25 – 1559) for King
Philip II.
Rubens shows his deep knowledge of Tiziano’s work in each detail.
Img 31a
The flemish painter was also very well
educated on classical culture and had
a direct knowledge of the Classic
Literature, perhaps even the
Metamorphoses.
This helped to face the work on
mythological themes.
Different technical aspects:
-canvas in Flandre fabric
- a clear-grey ground colour giving to
the painting a more background cold
tone in contrast with a series of warm
colours
Img 31a – 25
RUBENS – 1628 TIZIANO – 1559
Title: Rape of Europa
Artist: Erasmus Quellinus (1607-
1678)
Date: 1636-1637
Location: Madrid, Museo del Prado
Client: Filippo IV di Spagna (1605-
1655)
Technique: Oil painting on canvas
Img 32
Erasmus Quellinus was a flemish
painter who worked in Rubens’
atelier.
The painting used to be in the Real
Academia di San Fernando in Madrid
but originally was realized for the
decoration of the Tower of the
Parada, hunting pavillon for Philip IV
of Spain.
Img 32 The ornamental program is centred on
stories on divine love. It was commited
to Rubens who realize mainly drafts
inspiring himself to Ovid’s
Metamorphoses.
The development of the paintings was
made by pupils and partners among the
others Jacob Jordaens, Cornelis de Vos,
Erasmus Quellinus.
The scene represents the moment when
Europa turns back to the beach, the
right hand is on the horn and the dress is
blowing in the wind.
Static pose, except for the wind in the
the dress and hair.
Title: Rape of Europa
Artist: Guido Reni (1575-1642)
Date: 1638-40
Location: London, collezione Denis
Mahon. the National Gallery
Client: Vladislao IV Vasa, king of
Poland
Technique: Oil painting on canvas
Img 33
This is Reni’s third version of the
Rape of Europa
(1632-35 for king Charles I of
England, lost, known only through
engravings;
another one for the collector don
Diego Felipe de Guzman, today in
Milan; the third one is probably a
variation of the second one today in
the Hermitage in S. Petersburg).
Img 33
The work is focused on the central
group, leaving the landscape context
on the far back. The bull, decorated
with a garland, is swimming but
seems lifted up compared to water
level. Europa also looks suspended on
the water.
The central moment of the Myth
had been already repeated and
codified by artistic traditions a very
successful theme among the clients.
The winged angel, interpreted as Eros
(arch and arrows), crosses his glance
with Europa.
Reni stresses the girl’s enchanted,
ecstatic, and mystical expression.
Coherently she turns her look up and
not back to her maids as told by the
literary sources.
Img 33
It’s interesting to notice the
position recalling the Santa
Cecilia by Raffaello (Img 33a), an
intense iconographic parallel in
forms and meaning of the classic
Myth and the Christian values
connected to the rape of the soul
towards God to reach celestial
beatitude.
Reni mixes and transforms sacred and
profane in a sort of well done allegory
of the salvation of human soul.
Title: Ecstasy of Santa Cecilia
Artist: Raffaello (1483-1520)
Date: 1514
Location: Pinacoteca Nazionale,
Bologna
Technique: Oil painting on wood
transferred on canvas canvas
Img 33a
Img 34 Title: Rape of Europa
Artist: Bernardo Strozzi
(1581/82-1644)
Date: 1640-1644
Location: Poznan (PL),
Museum Narodowe
Type: Oil painting on
canvas
One of the more extimated
works by Strozzi in Venice. It
belongs to the Raczynski
collection (catalogue, 1841).
It’s a late production of the artist (around 1640 – 1644), as shown by the reference
to the great XVI c. tradition.
In particular the inspiration is Paolo Veronese’s work (Img 29-30), as demonstrated
by the theme of the raped heroine by Jupiter - bull, justification for a debunk novel
and lightly erotic.
Img 34
The white dog, bottom to left, the
group of angels and the look of
Europa towards them recalls
Caliari-Veronese.
Finally the Princess is not stable on the back of the
bull that prances towards the exterior of the picture as
to invade the spectator space, giving more impulse to
the movement of the animal.
While the senxual and erotic
character of the raped girl recalls
the painting by Veronese in the
Galleria Capitolina (Img 30), also
known through plenty of replicas.
Despite the figurative reference
the moment of the episode is not
the same.
Here the proper moment of the
rape is represented: Europa is
being transported towards the sea
by the bull and turns towards the
maids while four angels surround
her.
Img 29,30
STROZZI, 1640 -1644, Poland
1580, Rm – 1580, Ve - PAOLO CALIARI - VERONESE
Title: Landscape with rape of
Europa
Artist: Claude Gallée, named
Lorrain (1600-1682)
Date: 1655
Location: Mosca, Pushkin
Museum
Client: papa Alessandro VII
Chigi (1655-1667)
Technique: Oil painting on
canvas
Img 35
The context of the mythological scene is an extraordinary natural landscape view
with an elegiac atmosphere.
The artist develops the mythological theme as a justification to treat and to
celebrate the marine landscape, true protagonist of the canvas.
In the centre young Europa,
has climbed on the bull
adorned with garlands.
The girls to the left, are
probably working the same
garlands.
Img 35
Jupiter is bringing Europa to
the sea, accompanied by two
maids: the parade is clearly
moving as the blowing
dresses suggest.
This detail is taken from the
literary sources as well as
from the figurative tradition
that in ‘600 tend to represent
the popular scene in a
standardised way (recall of
some classical elements: girl’s
position on the bull and/or
the veil blowing in the wind).
But here, as in other pictures,
the same details are
represented in the moment
when the girl is still on the
land, differently from the
literary sources.
Img 35
To the right there are bulls
grazing, perhaps the herd
looked after Mercury-
shepherd.
There are also more human
figures some lying in the
shade of the beeches recalling
Virgil (70-19 BC.)’s bucolic
verses (Bucoliche, 38 BC.).
ROME
Title: Rape of Europa
Artist: Mattia Preti (1613-1699)
Date: 1640-66
Location: Rome, Galleria
Pallavicini
Client: Filippo III Colonna
Tecnique: Oil painting on canvas
Img 36
This painting was part of a series
of works dedicated by the
painter to love rape by gods.
It was ordered by Filippo III
Colonna for the marriage of
Margherita Colonna with the
Duke Giulio Cesare Rospigliosi.
ROME
The scene shows the proper
instant when Europa is raped and
brought to the sea by the bull-
Jupiter.
Img 36
The girl, sitting on a side, holds
with her left hand a horn while
above her there are two angels
flying, recurrent motif of the XVII
c. figurative tradition.
The scene is completed by the
maids as witnesses of the rape,
who in vain try to pull the bull’s
tail.
Moreover the bull is pulled in the
sea by one of the angels by the
horns – very dynamic and excited
scene.
Title: Rape of Europa
Artist: Guido Cagnacci (1601-
1663)
Date: 1650
Location: Marano di Castenaso
(Bologna) , Collezione Molinari
Pradelli
Tecnique: Oil painting on
canvas (115,5 x 94,5 cm)
Img 37
This painting seem to have as a
model the work by di Guido
Reni (Img 33) adding more
sensuality to scene, inspired by
northern artists as Goltzius (Img
30a).
Img 30a – 33
RENI – 1638 GOLTZIUS – 1590
This peculiar interpretation of
the story of Jupiter and Europa
is the strong sensual attitude, a
unicum compared to the
iconographic tradition of the
Myth
Img 37
Europa is the absolute
protagonist of the picture
represented as a proper classic
heroine:
hair blowing in the wind, the
light dress leaving her breast
uncovered, her inspired
attitude, sitting on the bull,
with a domesticated look,
adorned of roses (the same on
her dress).
Theme as opportunity for technical experiments:
Modern style, very far from traditional academic pattern.
Img 38
Title: Rape of Europa
Artist: Valentin Serov
Date: 1910
Location:
Tecnique: Oil painting on
canvas
Very peculiar geometric diagonal movement composition, very high horizon line: Elongated
forms to stress dynamism.
Even the horizon is on movement, with moving waves and the dolphins accompany the
movement of Zeus for a stronger dynamism.
Experimental work also on colours: red bull and special blue-violet colour for the see, very
expressionist. Flower motifs and simple shapes recall Liberty Style.
Theme as opportunity for
technical experiments for all
artists.
Simple signs, close to Cubism.
Img 39
Title: Rape of Europa
Artist: Henri Matisse
Date: 1929
Location: National Gallery of
Australia, Canberra, Australia
Tecnique: Oil painting on
canvas
Contemporary times have seen the representation of the Myth reflecting political
and cultural changes of the continent.
In the period between the wars the Myth has been repudiating fascist movements
and their attempt to rape Europa, intended as bloody conquest of the continent
imposing the image of a white and “Aryan” Europa.
More recently the Myth has represented new European unity and the integrated
idea of eastern and western territories, separated by the Cold War in the 50’s.
There are Europes exhibiting stars in a circle representing many nations and different
flags.
1933: year of Hitler’s conquest
of power in Germany
Img 40 Title: Rape of Europa
Artist: Max Beckmann
Date: 1933
Location:
Tecnique: Oil painting on
canvas
Max Beckmann presents
Europa laying down on a dark
bull, dark as the Nazi shirt
(symbol of power and
arrogance) and expressing the
cry against violence on her
face.
So called “degenerated artist”
Critique of war and violence,
the bull is black and full of red
blood
Img 40a Title: Rape of Europa
Artist: Hugo Claus (1929-2008)
Date: ?
Location:
Tecnique: Paint on paper
Art sustaining and celebrating
polical movements.
Img 41 Title: Aryan Europa
Artist: Werner Peyner
Date: 1937
Location:
Tecnique: Oil painting on
canvas
Europa is blonde and Aryan.
Propaganda subject:
two bulls represent the two
continents, Africa (black) and Europa
(red, referring to French Socialism) –
wearing a fashionable hat.
Img 42 Title: Rape of Europa
Artist: Arthur Johnson
Date: 1935
Location:
Tecnique: Drawing for a magazine
cover
Reference to Mussolini who has
sacrificed some of his positions in
Europe for his interests in Ethiopia.
Celebration of
political and cultural
unity.
Img 43 Title: Rape of Europa
Artist: /
Date: /
Location:
Typology: Print
The geographical map
of Europe represents
the background of
the group Europe and
the bull, almost
static, triumphal,
celebrating the
continent and unity –
dress with flags and
symbols.
Celebration of political and
cultural unity
Img 44
Title: Rape of Europa
Artist: /
Date: 2000
Location:
Typology: Coin
Dynamic trip, adventure,
projection to the future?
Great today social and cultural
transformations have brought
to representations where
Europa is not anymore a victim
or acquiescent.
Img 45
Title: Rape of Europa
Artist: Ursula
Date: 1987
Location:
Tecnique: Oil painting on
canvas
Here Europa in the center of
the image, acts as the
protagonist. At the same time
her hairstyle, the bull’s pattern
and the context recall a world
where the exotic is mixed to
the global world and Europa is
not anymore the center of the
planet.
In 2006, after having focused
exclusively on the Abu Ghraib
series for over 14 months,
Botero returned to the
themes of his early life such as
the family and maternity, and
Europe - basic themes .
Img 46
Title: Rape of Europa
Artist: Fernando Botero
Date: 2007
Location:
Tecnique: Bronze sculpture
Same cultural movement is at the base of international, extra-european representations
from Japan to Latin America.
New symbol of universality, free interpretation through single cultures spread around the
world in a world where many people have moved to Europe as in the past they moved from
Europe to the New World.
Interesting cultural hybrids
Europa is not scared to move from eastern to western lands to discovered new worlds
bringing a new culture.
Its figure reminds us that people have always transmigrated and that people movements
always bring important exchanges and cultural and social innovation.
http://www.inos.it/ mainly
http://www.treccani.it/scuola/tesine/viaggio_e_mito/15.html
Luisa Passerini, Il mito d’Europa. Radici antiche per nuovi simboli, Firenze,
Giunti, 2002.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

More Related Content

What's hot

Arte Griego 1ºESO
Arte Griego 1ºESOArte Griego 1ºESO
Arte Griego 1ºESO
Virelay
 
Greek Art and Architecture
Greek Art and ArchitectureGreek Art and Architecture
Greek Art and Architecture
Greg Sill
 
Aegean Art: Chapter 4
Aegean Art: Chapter 4Aegean Art: Chapter 4
Aegean Art: Chapter 4
smolinskiel
 
Powerpoint Unitat 3. Art Grec
Powerpoint Unitat 3. Art GrecPowerpoint Unitat 3. Art Grec
Powerpoint Unitat 3. Art Grec
scardona11
 
Prehistoric art
Prehistoric artPrehistoric art
Prehistoric art
ehfodor
 
A TIMELINE: BRIEF HISTORY OF WESTERN HISTORY FOCUS ON CONFLICTS
A TIMELINE: BRIEF HISTORY OF WESTERN HISTORY FOCUS ON CONFLICTSA TIMELINE: BRIEF HISTORY OF WESTERN HISTORY FOCUS ON CONFLICTS
A TIMELINE: BRIEF HISTORY OF WESTERN HISTORY FOCUS ON CONFLICTS
jundumaug1
 

What's hot (20)

Greek art
Greek artGreek art
Greek art
 
Roman Art
Roman ArtRoman Art
Roman Art
 
Old Kingdom Egypt: Non-Royal Tombs
Old Kingdom Egypt:  Non-Royal TombsOld Kingdom Egypt:  Non-Royal Tombs
Old Kingdom Egypt: Non-Royal Tombs
 
Arte Griego 1ºESO
Arte Griego 1ºESOArte Griego 1ºESO
Arte Griego 1ºESO
 
Greek Art and Architecture
Greek Art and ArchitectureGreek Art and Architecture
Greek Art and Architecture
 
Il Teatro Greco
Il Teatro GrecoIl Teatro Greco
Il Teatro Greco
 
Greece Part 2
Greece Part 2Greece Part 2
Greece Part 2
 
Ellenismo
EllenismoEllenismo
Ellenismo
 
Aegean Art: Chapter 4
Aegean Art: Chapter 4Aegean Art: Chapter 4
Aegean Art: Chapter 4
 
Arte Griego 3
Arte Griego 3Arte Griego 3
Arte Griego 3
 
Powerpoint Unitat 3. Art Grec
Powerpoint Unitat 3. Art GrecPowerpoint Unitat 3. Art Grec
Powerpoint Unitat 3. Art Grec
 
Godofredo Ortega Muñoz. pintor
Godofredo Ortega Muñoz. pintorGodofredo Ortega Muñoz. pintor
Godofredo Ortega Muñoz. pintor
 
Prehistoric art
Prehistoric artPrehistoric art
Prehistoric art
 
A TIMELINE: BRIEF HISTORY OF WESTERN HISTORY FOCUS ON CONFLICTS
A TIMELINE: BRIEF HISTORY OF WESTERN HISTORY FOCUS ON CONFLICTSA TIMELINE: BRIEF HISTORY OF WESTERN HISTORY FOCUS ON CONFLICTS
A TIMELINE: BRIEF HISTORY OF WESTERN HISTORY FOCUS ON CONFLICTS
 
Renaissance art
Renaissance artRenaissance art
Renaissance art
 
Hermes amb Dionís infant
Hermes amb Dionís infantHermes amb Dionís infant
Hermes amb Dionís infant
 
Arte romana parte i
Arte romana parte iArte romana parte i
Arte romana parte i
 
NOZIONI FONDAMENTALI DI GEOMETRIA RAZIONALE
NOZIONI FONDAMENTALI DI GEOMETRIA RAZIONALENOZIONI FONDAMENTALI DI GEOMETRIA RAZIONALE
NOZIONI FONDAMENTALI DI GEOMETRIA RAZIONALE
 
Egyptian Art
Egyptian ArtEgyptian Art
Egyptian Art
 
Ovid's Life and Works - Francesca Farris
Ovid's Life and Works - Francesca FarrisOvid's Life and Works - Francesca Farris
Ovid's Life and Works - Francesca Farris
 

Viewers also liked

Listino Nissan Qashqai+2
Listino Nissan Qashqai+2Listino Nissan Qashqai+2
Listino Nissan Qashqai+2
Autoblog.it
 
Gdz nimecka sotnikova_2008
Gdz nimecka sotnikova_2008Gdz nimecka sotnikova_2008
Gdz nimecka sotnikova_2008
Lucky Alex
 
Математика. 6 класс. Учебник. Никольский С.М., Потапов М.К.
Математика. 6 класс. Учебник. Никольский С.М., Потапов М.К.Математика. 6 класс. Учебник. Никольский С.М., Потапов М.К.
Математика. 6 класс. Учебник. Никольский С.М., Потапов М.К.
Azat Hollywood
 
Gdz kreslenya sudorenko
Gdz kreslenya sudorenkoGdz kreslenya sudorenko
Gdz kreslenya sudorenko
Lucky Alex
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Listino Nissan Qashqai+2
Listino Nissan Qashqai+2Listino Nissan Qashqai+2
Listino Nissan Qashqai+2
 
SsangYong Korando
SsangYong KorandoSsangYong Korando
SsangYong Korando
 
Le palynologue
Le palynologueLe palynologue
Le palynologue
 
SSTG. Comissió Consultiva d'Hàbitat Urbà
SSTG. Comissió Consultiva d'Hàbitat UrbàSSTG. Comissió Consultiva d'Hàbitat Urbà
SSTG. Comissió Consultiva d'Hàbitat Urbà
 
Luyện thi IELTS hiệu quả với smotion.net
Luyện thi IELTS hiệu quả với smotion.netLuyện thi IELTS hiệu quả với smotion.net
Luyện thi IELTS hiệu quả với smotion.net
 
Toy Staff Links
Toy Staff LinksToy Staff Links
Toy Staff Links
 
Gdz nimecka sotnikova_2008
Gdz nimecka sotnikova_2008Gdz nimecka sotnikova_2008
Gdz nimecka sotnikova_2008
 
Informe de la Xarxa d'Inclusió Laboral per a persones amb discapacitat de Bar...
Informe de la Xarxa d'Inclusió Laboral per a persones amb discapacitat de Bar...Informe de la Xarxa d'Inclusió Laboral per a persones amb discapacitat de Bar...
Informe de la Xarxa d'Inclusió Laboral per a persones amb discapacitat de Bar...
 
La inserció laboral de persones amb discapacitat. Recursos, bones pràctiques ...
La inserció laboral de persones amb discapacitat. Recursos, bones pràctiques ...La inserció laboral de persones amb discapacitat. Recursos, bones pràctiques ...
La inserció laboral de persones amb discapacitat. Recursos, bones pràctiques ...
 
Алгебра. 8 класс Макарычев Ю. Н., Миндюк Н. Г., Нешков К. И., Суворова С. Б.
Алгебра. 8 класс Макарычев Ю. Н., Миндюк Н. Г., Нешков К. И., Суворова С. Б.Алгебра. 8 класс Макарычев Ю. Н., Миндюк Н. Г., Нешков К. И., Суворова С. Б.
Алгебра. 8 класс Макарычев Ю. Н., Миндюк Н. Г., Нешков К. И., Суворова С. Б.
 
Listino Prezzi Citroen C4 Picasso 2016 Settembre
Listino Prezzi Citroen C4 Picasso 2016 SettembreListino Prezzi Citroen C4 Picasso 2016 Settembre
Listino Prezzi Citroen C4 Picasso 2016 Settembre
 
Математика. 6 класс. Учебник. Никольский С.М., Потапов М.К.
Математика. 6 класс. Учебник. Никольский С.М., Потапов М.К.Математика. 6 класс. Учебник. Никольский С.М., Потапов М.К.
Математика. 6 класс. Учебник. Никольский С.М., Потапов М.К.
 
Le Palais du Luxembourg
Le Palais du LuxembourgLe Palais du Luxembourg
Le Palais du Luxembourg
 
Europe: born of an idea timeline.
Europe: born of an idea timeline.Europe: born of an idea timeline.
Europe: born of an idea timeline.
 
Europe: born of an idea timeline. French version
Europe: born of an idea timeline. French versionEurope: born of an idea timeline. French version
Europe: born of an idea timeline. French version
 
History of Europe
History of EuropeHistory of Europe
History of Europe
 
Europa born of an idea
Europa born of an ideaEuropa born of an idea
Europa born of an idea
 
Boucher - Enlevement d'Europe - Louvre
Boucher - Enlevement d'Europe - LouvreBoucher - Enlevement d'Europe - Louvre
Boucher - Enlevement d'Europe - Louvre
 
Le mythe d’Europe de l’Antiquité à nos jours
Le mythe d’Europe de l’Antiquité à nos joursLe mythe d’Europe de l’Antiquité à nos jours
Le mythe d’Europe de l’Antiquité à nos jours
 
Gdz kreslenya sudorenko
Gdz kreslenya sudorenkoGdz kreslenya sudorenko
Gdz kreslenya sudorenko
 

Similar to Europa iconograph

Greek and romans chapter 4
Greek and romans chapter 4Greek and romans chapter 4
Greek and romans chapter 4
Karen Owens
 
What can art tell us about africans in
What can art tell  us about africans inWhat can art tell  us about africans in
What can art tell us about africans in
Aixa Rodriguez
 
Thury mythology modern lit
Thury mythology modern litThury mythology modern lit
Thury mythology modern lit
herusalatiga
 
Codes of (un)dress and gender constructs from the Greek to t.docx
Codes of (un)dress and gender constructs from the Greek to t.docxCodes of (un)dress and gender constructs from the Greek to t.docx
Codes of (un)dress and gender constructs from the Greek to t.docx
mary772
 
The arts and culture of egypt
The arts and culture of egyptThe arts and culture of egypt
The arts and culture of egypt
Joemer Olayvar
 

Similar to Europa iconograph (20)

Myth of EUrope in art
Myth of EUrope in artMyth of EUrope in art
Myth of EUrope in art
 
Europe born of an idea
Europe born of an ideaEurope born of an idea
Europe born of an idea
 
Europa
Europa Europa
Europa
 
Greek mythology - Vatican Museums
Greek mythology - Vatican MuseumsGreek mythology - Vatican Museums
Greek mythology - Vatican Museums
 
Europe
EuropeEurope
Europe
 
Whatcanarttellusaboutafricansin 101009100638-phpapp01
Whatcanarttellusaboutafricansin 101009100638-phpapp01Whatcanarttellusaboutafricansin 101009100638-phpapp01
Whatcanarttellusaboutafricansin 101009100638-phpapp01
 
Europe
EuropeEurope
Europe
 
Europe
EuropeEurope
Europe
 
Europe
EuropeEurope
Europe
 
Greek music
Greek musicGreek music
Greek music
 
Greek and romans chapter 4
Greek and romans chapter 4Greek and romans chapter 4
Greek and romans chapter 4
 
What can art tell us about africans in
What can art tell  us about africans inWhat can art tell  us about africans in
What can art tell us about africans in
 
The Philosophical Demotion of the Sacred Feminine Form in Classical Art
The Philosophical Demotion of the Sacred Feminine Form in Classical Art The Philosophical Demotion of the Sacred Feminine Form in Classical Art
The Philosophical Demotion of the Sacred Feminine Form in Classical Art
 
Thury mythology modern lit
Thury mythology modern litThury mythology modern lit
Thury mythology modern lit
 
Roman Art Essay
Roman Art EssayRoman Art Essay
Roman Art Essay
 
Codes of (un)dress and gender constructs from the Greek to t.docx
Codes of (un)dress and gender constructs from the Greek to t.docxCodes of (un)dress and gender constructs from the Greek to t.docx
Codes of (un)dress and gender constructs from the Greek to t.docx
 
The arts and culture of egypt
The arts and culture of egyptThe arts and culture of egypt
The arts and culture of egypt
 
Minoan civilization
Minoan civilizationMinoan civilization
Minoan civilization
 
Prehistoric art
Prehistoric artPrehistoric art
Prehistoric art
 
Ενότητα Α. A Brief History of the Study of Greek Mythology.pdf
Ενότητα Α. A Brief History of the Study of Greek Mythology.pdfΕνότητα Α. A Brief History of the Study of Greek Mythology.pdf
Ενότητα Α. A Brief History of the Study of Greek Mythology.pdf
 

More from Andrea Sepiacci

More from Andrea Sepiacci (11)

Arte e storia
Arte e storiaArte e storia
Arte e storia
 
Grotte archivi del tempo
Grotte archivi del tempoGrotte archivi del tempo
Grotte archivi del tempo
 
Piattaforme per esplorare il futuro
Piattaforme per esplorare il futuroPiattaforme per esplorare il futuro
Piattaforme per esplorare il futuro
 
Dibattito anna ascani
Dibattito anna ascaniDibattito anna ascani
Dibattito anna ascani
 
Natività: da Giotto a Bill Viola
Natività: da Giotto a Bill ViolaNatività: da Giotto a Bill Viola
Natività: da Giotto a Bill Viola
 
Paesaggi reali e immaginari le pietre e i cittadini 2017
Paesaggi reali e immaginari   le pietre e i cittadini 2017Paesaggi reali e immaginari   le pietre e i cittadini 2017
Paesaggi reali e immaginari le pietre e i cittadini 2017
 
Paesaggi a rischio: il Trasimeno attraverso l'arte
Paesaggi a rischio: il Trasimeno attraverso l'artePaesaggi a rischio: il Trasimeno attraverso l'arte
Paesaggi a rischio: il Trasimeno attraverso l'arte
 
Presentazione Le Pietre e i cittadini
Presentazione Le Pietre e i cittadiniPresentazione Le Pietre e i cittadini
Presentazione Le Pietre e i cittadini
 
Le pietre e i cittadini
Le pietre e i cittadiniLe pietre e i cittadini
Le pietre e i cittadini
 
Urban evolution of Paris
Urban evolution of ParisUrban evolution of Paris
Urban evolution of Paris
 
Raffaello roma
Raffaello romaRaffaello roma
Raffaello roma
 

Recently uploaded

會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
中 央社
 
Neurulation and the formation of the neural tube
Neurulation and the formation of the neural tubeNeurulation and the formation of the neural tube
Neurulation and the formation of the neural tube
SaadHumayun7
 
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
中 央社
 

Recently uploaded (20)

How to Manage Notification Preferences in the Odoo 17
How to Manage Notification Preferences in the Odoo 17How to Manage Notification Preferences in the Odoo 17
How to Manage Notification Preferences in the Odoo 17
 
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
 
[GDSC YCCE] Build with AI Online Presentation
[GDSC YCCE] Build with AI Online Presentation[GDSC YCCE] Build with AI Online Presentation
[GDSC YCCE] Build with AI Online Presentation
 
Neurulation and the formation of the neural tube
Neurulation and the formation of the neural tubeNeurulation and the formation of the neural tube
Neurulation and the formation of the neural tube
 
Telling Your Story_ Simple Steps to Build Your Nonprofit's Brand Webinar.pdf
Telling Your Story_ Simple Steps to Build Your Nonprofit's Brand Webinar.pdfTelling Your Story_ Simple Steps to Build Your Nonprofit's Brand Webinar.pdf
Telling Your Story_ Simple Steps to Build Your Nonprofit's Brand Webinar.pdf
 
Mbaye_Astou.Education Civica_Human Rights.pptx
Mbaye_Astou.Education Civica_Human Rights.pptxMbaye_Astou.Education Civica_Human Rights.pptx
Mbaye_Astou.Education Civica_Human Rights.pptx
 
size separation d pharm 1st year pharmaceutics
size separation d pharm 1st year pharmaceuticssize separation d pharm 1st year pharmaceutics
size separation d pharm 1st year pharmaceutics
 
Basic Civil Engg Notes_Chapter-6_Environment Pollution & Engineering
Basic Civil Engg Notes_Chapter-6_Environment Pollution & EngineeringBasic Civil Engg Notes_Chapter-6_Environment Pollution & Engineering
Basic Civil Engg Notes_Chapter-6_Environment Pollution & Engineering
 
“O BEIJO” EM ARTE .
“O BEIJO” EM ARTE                       .“O BEIJO” EM ARTE                       .
“O BEIJO” EM ARTE .
 
Pragya Champions Chalice 2024 Prelims & Finals Q/A set, General Quiz
Pragya Champions Chalice 2024 Prelims & Finals Q/A set, General QuizPragya Champions Chalice 2024 Prelims & Finals Q/A set, General Quiz
Pragya Champions Chalice 2024 Prelims & Finals Q/A set, General Quiz
 
UNIT – IV_PCI Complaints: Complaints and evaluation of complaints, Handling o...
UNIT – IV_PCI Complaints: Complaints and evaluation of complaints, Handling o...UNIT – IV_PCI Complaints: Complaints and evaluation of complaints, Handling o...
UNIT – IV_PCI Complaints: Complaints and evaluation of complaints, Handling o...
 
The Benefits and Challenges of Open Educational Resources
The Benefits and Challenges of Open Educational ResourcesThe Benefits and Challenges of Open Educational Resources
The Benefits and Challenges of Open Educational Resources
 
The Ultimate Guide to Social Media Marketing in 2024.pdf
The Ultimate Guide to Social Media Marketing in 2024.pdfThe Ultimate Guide to Social Media Marketing in 2024.pdf
The Ultimate Guide to Social Media Marketing in 2024.pdf
 
Exploring Gemini AI and Integration with MuleSoft | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #45
Exploring Gemini AI and Integration with MuleSoft | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #45Exploring Gemini AI and Integration with MuleSoft | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #45
Exploring Gemini AI and Integration with MuleSoft | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #45
 
The Last Leaf, a short story by O. Henry
The Last Leaf, a short story by O. HenryThe Last Leaf, a short story by O. Henry
The Last Leaf, a short story by O. Henry
 
Operations Management - Book1.p - Dr. Abdulfatah A. Salem
Operations Management - Book1.p  - Dr. Abdulfatah A. SalemOperations Management - Book1.p  - Dr. Abdulfatah A. Salem
Operations Management - Book1.p - Dr. Abdulfatah A. Salem
 
INU_CAPSTONEDESIGN_비밀번호486_업로드용 발표자료.pdf
INU_CAPSTONEDESIGN_비밀번호486_업로드용 발표자료.pdfINU_CAPSTONEDESIGN_비밀번호486_업로드용 발표자료.pdf
INU_CAPSTONEDESIGN_비밀번호486_업로드용 발표자료.pdf
 
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
 
Danh sách HSG Bộ môn cấp trường - Cấp THPT.pdf
Danh sách HSG Bộ môn cấp trường - Cấp THPT.pdfDanh sách HSG Bộ môn cấp trường - Cấp THPT.pdf
Danh sách HSG Bộ môn cấp trường - Cấp THPT.pdf
 
philosophy and it's principles based on the life
philosophy and it's principles based on the lifephilosophy and it's principles based on the life
philosophy and it's principles based on the life
 

Europa iconograph

  • 1. Europe between Mythology, Modernity and Multiculturalism Erasmus+ KA1 Training course Paris 25 - 30 July 2016
  • 2. The Myth of Europe
  • 3. The Myth of Europe two meanings: -from eu-rope, eυ-ρώπη, ”well irrigated” -from ε ρύς (ὐ eurus), ”wide” + ψ/ π-/ πτ- (ὤ ὠ ὀ ōps/ōp-/opt-), “eye, face ” - Eur pēṓ , ”wide gaze", ”wide look", synonymous full moon, name of the goddess. Europe - Europa is a feature of the Greek mythology. The name Europe derives from ancient Greek Ευρώπη In the Myth Europa was a Phoenician woman of high lignage from whom the name of the continent has been taken. ORIGINS
  • 4. Very popular Myth in western culture represented in literature and art: First written signs are to find back in Homer’s and Hesiod, but an oral tradition refers to events connected to the Myth in XIX - XV c. BC. Quite complex and differing interpretation: Europa's earliest literary reference is in the Iliad, Homer (8th c. BC). Another early reference is in the Hesiodic Catalogue of Women, Hesiod (650-750 BC) LITERATURE SOURCES There were two competing myths relating how Europa came into the Hellenic world, but they agreed that she came to Crete, where the sacred bull was paramount. In the more familiar telling (Hesiod) the name Europa occurs in the long list of daughters of Oceanus and Tethys and is the object of the seduction by the god Zeus in the form of a bull, who breathed from his mouth a saffron crocus and carried her away to Crete. Herodotus (484 – 425 BC) provided a more literal version beginning the account of Persian-Hellene confrontations telling how she was kidnapped by Minoans, who were said to have taken her to Crete.
  • 5. As a further proof of Europa's Phoenician origin in 2012, an archaeological mission of the British Museum, discovered in Sidon ancient currency that depicts Europa riding the bull with her veil flying all over like a bow – recurring element in iconography. Moreover the mythical Europa cannot be separated from the mythology of the sacred bull, which had been worshipped in the Levant. The story of her abduction by Zeus in the form of a white bull was a Cretan story; It’s to frame among "most of the love-stories concerning Zeus originated from more ancient tales describing his marriages with goddesses” (Kerényi ). The daughter of the earth-giant Tityas and mother of Euphemus by Poseidon was also named Europa.
  • 6. After reaching the beach Jupiter reveals his real identity and lives with her giving birth to three children Minos (future King of Crete), Radamanto and Sarpèdone; finally Jupiter gives Europa as a wife to the king of the island, Asteria, who adopts the children. Europa, Phoenician Princess (from present Lebanon territory, cities of Tyre and Sido), is picking flowers by the sea with girl-friends, where she is spotted and desired by Jupiter-Zeus Main features of the Myth (in different versions, most popular by Ovidius-Ovid): - to seduce her he turns into a white bull and make Mercury be the leader of a proper herd towards the girls to gets closer; - the girl is fascinated by the beautiful and gentle animal, she caress it, put a crown on it and finally she climbs on its back; - the bull dives into the sea and swims towards the island of Crete bringing her along; The Myth continues with the stories of Europa’s brothers, travelling to different directions in search of their sister: among them Cadmo who, reaching eastern Greece, founded Tebe; THE MYTH
  • 7. The image of the girl travelling by sea on the back of a lover bull, a bull in love suspended between delight and fear, has been a main subject of inspiration for several artists (sculptors, painters, mosaic and textile makers) through centuries. Europa does not seem to have been venerated directly in cult anywhere in classical Greece, but at Lebadaea in Boeotia. Pausanias, a Greek traveller and geographer of the II c. AD (who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius) noted that Europa was the epithet of Demeter—"Demeter whom they surname Europa …." Generally the Myth represents a movement of civilization from East to West and the name Europa, given to western territories, witnesses this movement. The degree of respect of ancient sources is very varied, from total adhesion to vague inspiration and the feeling of continuity is illusory. The dissemination of the Myth in the Middle Age belongs to illustrated Ovid’s Metamorphoses. From XIVc. the version of the Ovide moralisé, informed by Ovid, the Christian Bible and other Latin and vernacular authorities, from Plato to Chrétien de Troyes, written by an anonymous Franciscan friar was very popular. Allegorical meaning: Europa represents the human soul and the bull is Christ, as a redeemer moving Europa from Earth (desires and misguided affections to which many of Ovid's protagonists succumb) to Paradise (Img11).
  • 8. At least 200 images of the Myth are known to be produced in ancient times. The earliest vase-painting with subject securely identifiable as Europa, dates from mid-7th century BC, Here to follow a very partial but meaningful idea of the richness of the production through the centuries – representation of different moments of the Myth: In some periods as in ‘600-’700, the Myth seems often to be without any deep meaning more used as an ornamental motif to reproduce even on different objects or tapestry.On the other hand during the ‘500 and onwards great representation of the Myth recalling the theme with all its dramatic features. Tiziano Vecellio or Paul Rubens among the most significant: two images showing an extraordinary mixture of creativity and repetition as a “duel” in a 70 years period gap (Img 25- 31a). In the contemporary age the Myth has been again modified and adapted to times, reflecting political and cultural changes of the continent (Img 40 onwards). There have been also plenty of engraving representations for printed books (e.g.Img 24, 30a)
  • 9. Title: Europe on the bull Author: / Date: Half VII BC. Location: Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale Type: fragment of phitos beota Img 1
  • 10. This fragment of PHITOS BEOTA is the most ancient representation of the Myth of Europe known. PHITOS: ancient Greek word for a large storage jar of a characteristic bombed shape BEOTA, from Beotia, part of present Central Greece region facing the Gulf of Corinth and of Ancient Greece with the most important city Thebes
  • 11. References to Beotia: -As already told, Pausanias, in his Description of Greece, a crucial link between classical literature and modern archaeology, tells about the archaic story of Labadea, beotian city where is recorded a particular form of worshipping of goddess Demeter, who presided over harvest and fertility, there called also Europe -Cadmius, brother of Europe, well represents a link to Beotia because there, searching for the sister, he founds Thebe and brings the alphabet from East to West, from Phoenicia to Greece.
  • 12. Typical archaic iconography for the representation of the Myth: very simple scene and characters superimposed, Europe on the running bull, from right to left Details: -a very thin bull more similar to a horse , but with a bull tail, different iconography from others -the paws very apart to represent the extended running movement through the sea to the island of Crete - the decorated dress and Assyrian jewel to characterise the Princess (similar to other representations of bulls in minoan-mycenean culture of Crete, see Img 3)
  • 13. Title: Europe on the bull Author: / Date: 580–560 BC. Location: Palermo, Museo Archeologico “Antonio Salinas” (Selinunte, tempio Y) Typology: Sculpture in tuff Img 2 One of the most significant ancient representation of the Myth renowned. Found in the 10th February 1892 by Antonio Salinas together with three other metopes belonging to a tower of the city wall of Selinunte (around V c. BC.) Originally it had to be polychrome, some traces of blue colour where found. Carved in tuff stone it presents a bas-relief.
  • 14. Simple graphic but detailed: Europe shows her face in profile; her hands are resting, one on the horn, the other in the back of the animal, legs are both to the right – main motif recurrent through centuries. She’s wearing a long chitone (long tunic) and the hair is gathered and dispersed on her body. Arching front paws accentuate the idea of movement in the water. Two dolphins under the bull paws represent the sea that is one of main the subjects of the Myth (see also e.g. Img 10a). The bull has its muzzle facing the viewer . Bull’s hair in the forehead is well kept as well as Europa’s one, even the bull’s tail is combed in a tress. Europa’s attitude is serene, still far from the poetic tradition from I c. AC. onwards – Ovid version tells about a playful and sensual relation but at some point terrified (see also Horace, Carmina, book II, XXV 9.
  • 15. OVID Bk II:833-875, Jupiter’s abduction of Europa …. Mercury “There his father calls him aside, and without revealing love as the reason, says ‘Son, faithful worker of my commands, go, quickly in your usual way, fly down to where, in an eastern land, they observe your mother’s star, among the Pleiades, (the inhabitants give it the name of Sidon). There drive the herd of royal cattle, that you will see some distance off, grazing the mountain grass, towards the sea shore!’ He spoke, and immediately, as he commanded, the cattle, driven from the mountain, headed for the shore, where the great king’s daughter, Europa, used to play together with the Tyrian virgins. Royalty and love do not sit well together, nor stay long in the same house. So the father and ruler of the gods, who is armed with the three-forked lightning in his right hand, whose nod shakes the world, setting aside his royal sceptre, took on the shape of a bull, lowed among the other cattle, and, beautiful to look at, wandered in the tender grass….” continues nxt page
  • 16. ” … In colour he was white as the snow that rough feet have not trampled and the rain- filled south wind has not melted. The muscles rounded out his neck, the dewlaps hung down in front, the horns were twisted, but one might argue they were made by hand, purer and brighter than pearl. His forehead was not fearful, his eyes were not formidable, and his expression was peaceful. Agenor’s daughter marvelled at how beautiful he was and how unthreatening. But though he seemed so gentle she was afraid at first to touch him. Soon she drew close and held flowers out to his glistening mouth. The lover was joyful and while he waited for his hoped-for pleasure he kissed her hands. He could scarcely separate then from now. At one moment he frolics and runs riot in the grass, at another he lies down, white as snow on the yellow sands. When her fear has gradually lessened he offers his chest now for virgin hands to pat and now his horns to twine with fresh wreaths of flowers. The royal virgin even dares to sit on the bull’s back, not realising whom she presses on, while the god, first from dry land and then from the shoreline, gradually slips his deceitful hooves into the waves. Then he goes further out and carries his prize over the mid-surface of the sea. ” … In colour he was white as the snow that rough feet have not trampled and the rain- filled south wind has not melted. The muscles rounded out his neck, the dewlaps hung down in front, the horns were twisted, but one might argue they were made by hand, purer and brighter than pearl. His forehead was not fearful, his eyes were not formidable, and his expression was peaceful. Agenor’s daughter marvelled at how beautiful he was and how unthreatening. But though he seemed so gentle she was afraid at first to touch him. Soon she drew close and held flowers out to his glistening mouth. The lover was joyful and while he waited for his hoped-for pleasure he kissed her hands. He could scarcely separate then from now. At one moment he frolics and runs riot in the grass, at another he lies down, white as snow on the yellow sands. She is terrified and looks back at the abandoned shore she has been stolen from and her right hand grips a horn, the other his back, her clothes fluttering, winding, behind her in the breeze.“ OVID Bk II:833-875, Jupiter’s abduction of Europa
  • 17. Title: Rape of Europe Author: / Date: 500 BC. Location: Providence, Rhode Island School of Design, Museum of Art Typology: Attic vase (lekythos) Img 3 The decoration develops all around the geometry of the vase, from left to right up to the neck of the vase with a flower motif. “these garlands are usually associated with Dyonisos and the Maenads. Here there might be a minor motif contamination, as can be seen on numerous vases”
  • 18. Presumably , according to the position and attitude of the subjects, Europe and the bull are still standing out of the water, the one moment before the proper rape, as soon as the bull has just arched his back and the girl gets surprised. The God is perhaps forced to lift his muzzle responding to the attitude of Europa who, scared by the risk to fall, grabs one horn and try to hold herself. The girl is wearing as a Princess: a long elegant multi-folded decorated chitone and a nice hair band More clear the other figures to the side : Afrodite (with a mirror) and Hermes. Possibly representing two divinities: on one side love, good premonition for the union of Jupiter and Europa and the trip (Hermes, messenger of gods and god of commerce) to Crete where Europe will give birth to three children and be a Queen .
  • 19. Title: Rape of Europe Author/ Artist: Painter from Berlino (Beazley) Date: 480 BC. Location: Tarquinia, Museo Nazionale Typology: Attic vase Img 4 The crater is a funerary urn containing the ashes of a woman according to a small golden ring found inside. Europe is richly dressed as a Princess. Even here the more common iconography, is abandoned: the scene is depicting the previous moment to the proper rape, when Europa is behind the bull still not on his back holding him by a horn.
  • 20. Title: Juppiter and Europe Author: / Date: 470-450 BC. Location: Parigi, Musée du Louvre Typology: Boeotian terracotta sculpture Img 5 The work is a sculpture in the round with a rough surface and archaic forms: figures features appear rigid and approximately described, the low detailing would suggest a worshipping function.
  • 21. Title: Jupiter and Europe Author/Artist: Assteas Date: 350-330 B.C. Location: before in Los Angeles, Malibu, J. Paul Getty Museum, recently got back to Italy, now under control by Carabinieri del Nucleo Tutela Patrimonio Culturale- Heritage Care Typology: Vase in the shape of chalice from Paestum Img 6 Found in a black excavation in Sant’Agata dei Goti (BN) and illegally exported abroad in 1973 to be sold. It was bought by the Paul Getty Museum in Malibu where it has been until 2009, when recognized and given back to Italy together with other masterpieces.
  • 22. It’s a rare example of work with the signature of the author. It shows the decoration on the front with the narration from right to left. Img 6 The bull is moving to the left but looking to the front. Classical iconography: Europa is sitting to a side looking forward, her hair down on her shoulders with a beautifully embroidered dress, one hand on a horn the other one keeping her veil blowing in the wind. The central group of Europa sitting on the back of the bull presents elements connected to a marine landscape: fishes on the bottom and sea divinities with long tails, the bull also has curved legs as if he was swimming in the water.
  • 23. Title: The rape of Europe Author: / Date: I c. AD. Location: Paris, Musèe de Guimet, from Begram (Afghanistan) Typology: Glass vase Img 7 Part of a rich treasure found in one of the four afghani sites - Begram - discovered during the first half of XX c. discovered by the Mission Hackin around 1939, a wide variety of priceless historical and artistic value painted glasses. The most common shape is elongated and conical, typical of Alexandria of Egypt hellenistic age painting ((332 -30 b.C.).
  • 24. Img 7 Begram glasses were decorated, as showed here, with a peculiar style with a prevailing black sign to define shapes and shadows. The veil blowing in the wind shaped in an arch is a recurrent element as well in the figurative tradition as in the literary one. The bull is red because of the white background.
  • 25. Title: The rape of Europe Author: anonymous Date: End of I Century B.C.- beginning of Ist Century A.D. Location: Aquileia, Archaeological Museum Typology: Mosaic Img 8 Fine Hellenistic craftsmanship, was part of the pavement in a roman house room in Aquileia (north-eastern border of Italy with Slovenia) situated in the northern part of the main Piazza Capitolo.
  • 26. Made in calcareous stones and green and blue glass paste it was found in 1845 during an excavation made to the north of Aquileia Basilica (public building for meetings and justice). Img 8 Young Europa is here completely naked without any traditional attribute seen so far (only the fact she’s sitting on a side, the hair in the wind and the position of the hands). This character could refer to another tradition recognizing in Europa a Nereide, as told by Esiodo in his Teogonia where Europa is mentioned as daughter of Nereo (ancient God, symbol of a calm and good sea) .
  • 27. Title: Europe and the bull Author: anonymous Date: 50 AD. Location: Napoli, National Archaelogical Museum, corridor I (from Pompei, House of Giasone (IX, 5, 18), west wall of cubiculum g) Typology: wall painting, Fresco Img 9 In the museum collection since 1878 following the excavation wanted by king Ferdinando IV Borbone in 1787. The painting is ascribable to the IV Pompeian style (mural painting styles by archaeologist August Mau, 1840 – 1909).
  • 28. Img 9 Scenae frontes are inserted in aedicules decorated with rectangles and losenges, transposition on fresco of an easel painting. The scene represents the moment when Europe is sitting on the bull dressed in a veil leaving the body naked and covering the legs. The girl has an absent gaze, again holding with a hand one of the horns and with the other the veil (or the back of the animal - Ovid) (Img 2, 7,8) More complex and real scene: three maids are helping her.
  • 29. Title: The rape of Europe Author: anonymous Date: 330-360 AD. Location: Kent, Lullingstone Villa Type: floor painting mosaic Img 10 Situated in the semicircular triclinium of the Villa. The construction belongs to the roman influence period and was realized in a long period of time from the I-II c. to the IV-V sec. AD. The villa is composed by a series of stratified and superimposed buildings and was used as a private rural estate or as a sort of farm. It was decorated in the IV c. with floor mosaics, as the one of Rape of Europa. The mosaic frames the scene with some aniconic (with no images) motifs. Europa is represented sitting on a side of the bull – Jupiter: with a hand she’s holding to the neck and with the other one she keeps the blowing veil, she has a foot lifted not to touch the water.
  • 30. Title: Rape of Europe Author: / Date: III c. AD. Location: House of Europa Typology: Mosaic Img 10a Serene attitude of Europa brought away by the bull, embracing confident the animal. Representation of the sea with fish (Img2). New element is the angel with the torch of love.
  • 31. Title: Rape of Europe Author: / Date: ? Location: Germany Typology: Mosaic Img 10b Very dynamic scene, three groups of figures: the three maids, Europa and the bull, the shephard – Mercury. Beautiful mountain landscape. Important roman mosaic discovered in 1676 in Praeneste, Palestrina, left Rome 1941 for Germany and is still there: Hitler wanted it for his museum never born in Linz. From 1691, it was exposed in Palazzo Barberini; from 1934, in Villa Giulia. It has been a model for later art.
  • 32. Title: The rape of Europe Author: anonymous Date: 1385 Location: Lyon, Bibliothèque de la Ville, handbook dell’Ovide Moralisé, Ms. 742. fol. 40 Typology: Illustation Tecnique: miniature (67 x 61 mm) Img 11 The miniature is taken from the Lyon manuscript translating l’Ovide Moralisé, from the Metamorphoses. It represents the passage of the Ovidian Myth telling “how Jupiter raped the beautiful Europa”, as in the bottom caption in red. Jupiter is depicted as a white bull transporting Europa on the sea far from the beach, towards the left to what we know Sidonia – Crete. To the right, on the edge of a rock, there are three girls from the entourage of Europa she was playing with before the rape.
  • 33. Img 11 The three are facing Europa, dressing in the contemporary way according to the manuscript: one of them, with her hands open in front of Europa, seems to be calling her, the other has her hand on the heart and the third, in the background, is peacefully looking at the marine ride. Europa, represented while riding the bull with her blond hair blowing in the wind, is sitting to one side with her feet together, one hand on her dress the other lifted to the left. The look is serene completely dedicated to the divine animal. The rape of Europa, is here told according to a Christian interpretation tending to give to the Myth a new allegorical meaning: the transportation of Europa through the sea made by Jupiter has here a totally positive connotation, as a symbol of human soul redemption through the incarnation of God in the body of Christ- the bull.
  • 34. ROMA Title: The rape of Europe Author/ Artist: Antonio di Pietro Averlino, named “Filarete” (1400-1469?) Date: 1433-1445 Location: Città del Vaticano, Basilica of St. Peter, Bronze door of St. Peter. Client: papa Eugenio IV (1431- 1447) Typology: relief Img 12 The door is considered one of the first forms of the Renaissance art in Italy; inaugurated in 1445 to celebrate the church and the Pope Eugenio IV.
  • 35. A wide frame in acanthus leafs defines scenes with profane and mythological character where is possible to recognize, located in the six shutters of the door: Emperors’ portraits, historical figures and eastern and western church reunification episodes by pope Eugenio IV, Saint Peter and Paul martyrdom scenes and other sacred images. Img 12 ROMA This representation is a synthesis between ancient images (Byzantine and Classical) and contemporary ones, intended to stress the passage from Pagan Rome to Christian and modern Rome.
  • 36. Title: The rape of Europe Author/ Artist: artist from Padua or Venice XV-XVI secolo Date: 1470-1490 Location: Firenze, Museo Nazionale del Bargello Typology: Little bronze (h. 21,5 cm) Tecnique: in the round bronze cladded with black laque Img 13
  • 37. General sense of classical grace and majesty (see the classical clothing of the girl, from the footwear to the tunic, similar to a peplum), probably a reference to the rediscovery of the classical world by the venetian art and culture of the time. Img 13 Europa is sitting on the bull, it proceeds slowly alluding more to a classical triumph scene then to the representation of a rape.
  • 38. Title: The rape of Europe Author/ Artist: Albrecht Dürer (1471- 1528) Date: 1494-1495 Location: Wien, Albertina Typology: Drawing Img 14 The paper belongs to a notebook that shows preparatory works and drafts. The rape of Europa is represented on half the paper and is separated by a dividing line from other preparatory works (three lion heads, a statue of Apollo and an eastern man) as if it was a sketch book.
  • 39. The representation and the polularization of the Myth and of the iconography of Europa are tightly linked to the rediscovery of the ancient world in northern Europe from the XV c. Img 14 The whole artistic style of the time was affected by these ideas. Through more frequent commercial exchanges between North and South distances are reduced and cultures contaminate. The development of the press and the habit of artists to travel through Europe represent the opportunity to exchange and spread new themes and iconographies. Very dynamic scene, Europa is sitting with an arm bend on the bull.
  • 40. Title: The rape of Europe on the bull Author/ Artist: Andrea Briosco, named Riccio – Frizzy? or somebody of his entourage Date: 1500 Location: Budapest, Szépmûvészeti Museum Type: Bronze Sculpture Img 15 The fine making of the two figures (young Europa and Jupiter in form of bull) composing the sculpture, separately cast, let think to an artist with a goldsmith training.
  • 41. The iconography is a unicum: it’s a particularly dramatic and violent version of the Myth. Img 15 The girl looks very aggressive as in Orazio’s version in one of his Odi - Carmina (Libro II, ode XXV 9) (23 BC). Europa is here represented after the rape in Crete, very angry and threatening the bull with a weapon in her hand, that was originally part of the sculpture and today is lost. The author make a personal choice to recall a literary source and a peculiar very dynamic instant .
  • 42. Title: The rape of Europe Author/ Artist: Francesco Giovanni Rustici Date: 1495 Location: London, Victoria and Albert Museum Typology: relief Technique: glazed terracotta Img 16 Very relaxed Europa on bull- Jupiter, regarding each other. She‘s in a playful pose. Very natural and dynamic setting, between the waves, the wind and the clouds.
  • 43. Title: Taurus (Aprile) Artist: Giovanni Maria Falconetto (1468- 1535) Date: 1520 Location: Mantova, Palazzo D’Arco, Zodiac Hall Client: Giulio dei Gonzaga di Feltrino (Capodieci-Ilari) Typology: wall painting Tecnique: Fresco Img 17 The context is a frame dedicated to the astrological sign of the Taurus. The rape of Europa is on the background in a complex interpretation scene where Jupiter is represented four times.
  • 44. In the foreground a white haired figure with the beard on his back, a small ram identified as a Pan, playing the flute or syringe, with small horns on his head, the goat Amaltea with small Jupiter. Img 17 The scene according to experts is a clear reference to fertility and earth abundance but especially breeding fertility as Ovid states in the Fasti regarding the month of April dedicated to Venus Verticordia (opening hearts).
  • 45. Img 17 To the left Jupiter on an arch identified with the Arch of Augustus in Fano, is putting the bull in the sky as a sign of gratitude to have let him having Europa. The idea is reinforced because of different elements: -the breeding goat, -the ram drinking to a source with a Priapus symbol, -a couple of deers as a symbol of lust - the same bull in his generative meaning, often associated to sexual ardour.
  • 46. Title: Europa’s life – Europa sitting on the bull’s back Artist: Bernardino Luini (1481- 1532) Date: 1521-1523 Location: Berlin, Staatliche Museen Type: wall painting Tecnique: Fresco Img 18 Part of a series of thematic frescoes on the Stories of Europa commissioned by business man Gerolamo Rabia for his residence in Milan by architect Cristoforo Solari.The frescoes were seriously damaged through the centuries and at the beginning of the XIX c. it was necessary to detach them. They were then sold.
  • 47. It is therefore impossible to know the original location in the building. Img 18 Luini’s frescoes represent an extraordinary exception in the pictorial tradition regarding the Myth of Europa in the XVI c. as well as in the previous and following centuries. It’s one of the first cases of picture of the Myth in a narrative sequence comprehending more then one episode (see also e.g. Img 21) .
  • 48. Title: Jupiter and Europa Artist: Jacopo Robusti named Tintoretto Date: 1541 Location: Modena, Galleria Estense Typology: Painting Img 19 This oil on wood is part of thirteen mythological pictures taken from Ovid’s Metamorphoses during his young years (1540 – 1541). These pictures used to decorate the ceiling of the palace of the client Vittorio Pisani Earl of San Paterniano, but in September 1658 Francesco I d’Este bought them and they were located in the new gallery.
  • 49. The representation of the Myth is reduced to the minimum, as if forced inside the octagon: Img 19 the girl is on the back of the bull and looks at her maid holding in one hand the crown made with plants. Europa seems coming forward, towards the vacuum, as to predict her destiny .
  • 50. Title: Rape of Europa Artist: René Boyvin (1525-1580) Date: post 1540 Location: Vienna, Albertina Typology: burin engraving Img 20 It’s the reproduction of an original fresco by Rosso Fiorentino (1495-1540) located in the Francis I Gallery (prototype for the gallery itself and a showcase for the Renaissance in France) in Fontainebleau. The fresco representing the rape is the fresco twin of Saturn and Filira; the two pictures are located to the sides of the Elefante Reale, allegory of strenght and prudence of Francis I. The three scenes are connected on the idea of unity between animal and goodness.
  • 51. All frescoes have a double meaning, at a time positive and negative: they represent negative passions, but also positive passions of figures that once transformed in animals generate wise people: Europa and Jupiter as a bull generate Minos, wise King of Crete; Fillira and Saturn as a horse generate Chirone, centaur and teacher of Achille . Img 20 The picture of Europa naked has the most ancient precedent in the mosaic of Aquileia (see img 8) The legs of Europa have a disordered posture, the right one bend on the back of the bull, the other one, extended on the side, as in the precedent in Durer drawing (see img 14).
  • 52. Title: Europa raped by Jupiter Artist: Giulio Bonasone (1510 - post 1576) Date: 1546 Location: New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art Typology: engraving on wood Img 21 The subject is taken from a sketch by Raffaello, not recalled among his known works. Bonasone accurately duplicates the scene, attaching to it a personal and original mark due to his manual and creative ability.
  • 53. Img 21 The scene is defined simultaneous or synchronic, because it puts together on the same paper different moments of the Myth (see Img 18). In the centre the moment when Europa puts a flower crown of the bull, made by her maids, the animal is lying down to help the girl to climb on him; to the left the three girls working; in the back ground the bull swimming towards Crete . Mercury is in the form of a shepherd and Neptune is in the sea
  • 54. Title: Rape of Europa Artist: Andrea Meldolla, called Schiavone (1510/1515–1563) or Lambert Sustris (1515-1591) Date: Second half of XVI Century Location: : Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum Type: Oil painting on canvas Img 22 A small painting originally inserted in a frame together with another canvas depicting the Myth of Nesso e Deianira (*) represents a very simple scene of Europa who, against her will, is brought by sea by Jupiter-bull. (*) dramatic Myth, Nesso is killed by Deianira husband Eracle and kills Eracle through Deianira with a shirt poisoned with his own blood.
  • 55. The work presents a typical venetian extraordinary naturalism e.g. details as the bull’s eye almost human and the light foam of the see waves. Img 22 The very upset girl looks back towards her friends calling her from the beach. She holds herself tightly to the bull’s horns while her dress and hair are blowing in the air because of the rapid movement of the bull, as in Ovid’s Metamorphoses.
  • 56. Title: Rape of Europa Artist: Jean Cousin il Vecchio (1526- 1593 ca.) Date: 1550 Location: Blois, Musée de Beaux- Arts du Chateau Type: Oil painting on canvas Img 23 Jean Cousin the old was a painter connected to the School of Fontainebleau - Ecole de Fontainbleu (c.1530–c.1610, late Renaissance Mannerism) specialized in glass and engraving painting with a very independent way of working – strong decorations and interest for Ancient Culture. The artist has always had a deep interest for the tales by Ovid - he was the illustrator of a whole edition of the Metamorphoses in 1566.
  • 57. The painting was originally in the Hotel de la Poste in Blois, destroyed in 1940. Img 23 The episode of the rape is very common in French Renaissance and the landscape on the background - with monuments inspired to the past. In the scene, on one side Jupiter turned in bull swims with a garland of flowers, given by Europa, around his neck; the girl is sitting with the wind blowing her hair, holding both horns.
  • 58. Around them plenty of Eroti (little angels or winged spirits) (version of Luciano and Achille Tazio) riding newt holding trumpets, plants and garlands. Img 23 Such a serene image of the rape is probably due to the original function of the painting as a decoration of a bedroom in the hotel and therefore celebrating the nuptial life. Jean Cousin represents the climax of the bull’s ride, with Europa who isn’t scared at all but very pleased by the Eroti’s parade.
  • 59. Title: Rape of Europa Artist: Bernard Salomon Date: 1557 Location: Bernard Salomon, La Metamorphose d'Ovide figurée, Lione 1557, 178 p. Client: Jean de Tournes Typology: Engraving Tecnique: blockprint – woodcut Img 24 The book presents the main episodes of Ovid Metamorphoses. Each page is a concluded unity with an ornamental frame containing an image and a text: inscriptio (brief description of the title), pictura (image of one of the scenes from the Metamorphosis) and subscriptio (poetic description of the episode in the pictura).
  • 60. There is a very tight relationship between text and image, a proper Picta Poesis, where poetry is defined as a talking painting and painting as a silent poetry (Guthmuller, 1997). Img 24 The text was very successful and was re- edited in a revised and shorten version. Salomon’s series was often forged in Paris. The fake molds were reused out of France as in the Tetraschica by Virgil Solis (Cappelletti, 1997). The peculiarity of Salomon depends on the narrative character based on a single theme.
  • 61. Img 24 Europa and the bull are travelling by sea towards Crete, in the background. On the left there is Agenore (King of Tyre- Tiro - Lebanon, Europa’s father) ’s bulls herd by the beach. In the foreground the girls of Tyre worried for the rape. The rape of Europa is represented moving from left to right, in the classical position with a hand on a horn and the other on the back of the animal with the dress blowing and the feet suspended not to wet (e.g.Img 10); The image matches the description of the rape in the Metamorphoses, and in the Ovide figureè. The girl Europa is represented with a more melancholic mood, for a not too dramatic scene – see the veil in an arch.
  • 62. Title: Rape of Europa Artist: / Date: Second half of XVIth century Location: Pesaro, Museo della Ceramica Typology: Ceramic plate Tecnique: Majolica (diam. 27,5 cm) Img 24a Partially inspired by the engraving illustrating the Rape of Europa in La Metamorphose d'Ovide figuré (Img 24), 1557 by B. Salomon, this ceramic, as well as the other one kept still in Pesaro (Img 24b), shows the tight relation between this type of decorations and the contemporary print illustrations.
  • 63. Salomon represents a precedent only regarding the central figure of Europa sitting on the bull: although the bull and Europa are still not in the water, the pose and some details, as the blowing veil on the girl’s head, clearly recall the main group in the well-known engraving. Img 24a On the left there are the maids of Europa, to the right a shepherd, perhaps Mercury, while on the background, far away, the moment of the proper rape is represented with Europa brought away by Jupiter-bull.
  • 64. Img 24b Title: Rape of Europa Artist: atelier Fontana Date: 1560-1570 Location: Pesaro, Museo della Ceramica Typology: Ceramic plate Tecnique: polychrome painting (16,5 cm ø) The subject of the rape is clearly written on the back of the plate. Also this scene presents an undeniable reliance on the engraving by Salomon (Img 24) La Metamorphose d’Ovide figureè, 1557.
  • 65. The plate dates after 1557, but before 1575 (Polidori, 1956). Img 24b The scene develops from left to right and the composition faithfully recalls Salomon’s work. The reproduction of Salomon engraving highlights once more the luck and diffusion of it. To notice the difference compared to the original is in the more detailed representation of the city in the background, the island of Crete.
  • 66. Title: Rape of Europa Artist: Tiziano Vecellio (1488/90- 1576) Date: 1559-1562 Location: Boston, Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum Client: Filippo II Type: Oil painting on canvas Img 25 Among the works for Filippo II defined by the painter ''poetry’’, together with Perseo che libera Andromeda. Sent to Madrid in April 1562. The composition of the canvas is very original: the young Princess is lying down in an unseemly position while being raped and brought away by the bull in the water; in the background the maids are crying, on the foreground three angels, two in the sky with bow and arrows and the third on a dolphin as if chasing the bull.
  • 67. There are different theories on the sources used: Hilliard Goldfarb (1998) sees in Jupiter-bull king Philip II bringing Europa in the New World; Img 25 Karinne Simmoneau (1999) interprets Europa as the personification of the Republic of Venice protected by Filippo II against the Turkish, represented by the fish among the waves. Shapiro (1971) quoting the text of Horace on Europa, mantains that the three angels and the monstrous fish around the girl represent passions condemned by stoic philosophy: happiness (the angel on the dolphin), desire (the angel with the arrows), fear (the monstrous fish) and pain (the angel with the arch, ancient symbol of torture).
  • 68. Title: Rape of Europa Artist: Taddeo Zuccari (1529-1566) Date: 1563-1564 Location: Caprarola, Palazzo Farnese, piano nobile, Winter apartments Client: Alessandro Farnese (1520- 1589) Typology: wall painting Tecnique: Fresco Img 26 Future pope Paolo III, buys in 1504 the land of Caprarola as the base of his ideal family domain. The palace is by Antonio da Sangallo and Vignola, example of Renaissance Architecture and the decoration is by the brothers Taddeo and Federico Zuccari, while the iconographic program was committed to three humanist man, Annibal Caro, Panvinio and Fulvio Orsini – Full artistic and cultural project.
  • 69. The Villa is divided in two zones: the Winter (private life) and Summer (public activities) apartments. Img 26 The image is simple and straightforward, without any redundant element – very calm atmosphere. Important relationship between the Cardinal and Jupiter stories told in the room frescoes – celebration of Jupiter. The Summer apartments were decorated in the '60s of XVI c. with subjects connected to the single rooms functions; The Winter one were destined to representative activities and presents a topographical iconography connected to the places where the Farnese family was ruling. In this part of the Villa there is the Room of Jupiter where in a fresco two colour medallion is represented beautiful Europa while putting a garland on the bull’s horn where she’s nicely sitting.
  • 70. Title: Rape of Europa Artist: Martin de Vos Date: 1572 Location: Bilbao, Museo de Bellas Artes Typology: Marble sculpture Tecnique: relief Img 27 According to Alessandra Baroni (Il mito di Europa, 2002, pp. 89- 90) a new wave of nude figures is more and more common in the second half of XVI c. in the Netherlands. The nude figures loose their heroic attitude derived from roman sculptures towards a more soft, languid and sensual line (Img 8, 20).
  • 71. Europa is not anymore portrayed as an innocent girl, but more as a mature woman in her full femininity and sensuality. Img 27 The foreground is completely occupied by Europa raped by the bull; the girl’s pose, sensually layed down on the bull, will be recalled some years later by Jean Boulogne -Giambologna (Img 28) (Fontana dell’Oceano, Giardino di Boboli, Florence) (see also Img 16). To be noticed the flower garlands around the bull to recall the moment previous to the rape, when Europa adorns the bull’s muzzle with flowers. In the background Europa’s maids are desperate, while Mercury, Jupiter accomplice, is in the sky surrounded by small angels holding darts, Jupiter’s attribute.
  • 72. ROMA Title: The rape of Europa Artist: Jean Boulogne named Giambologna (1529-1608) Date: 1600 Location: Roma, Museo di Palazzo Venezia Typology: Sculpture (32,6 cm) Tecnique: Bronze cast Img 28 The small bronze sculpture is not registered and there are no news about the client. Probably the work is associated to the group of Nesso and Deianira, another Myth about the lover rape. The event of Europa is not completely extraneous to the Flemish artist. He already, in 1575, had inserted the subject in a marble bas-relief at the base of the Fontana di Oceano, in the Giardino di Boboli in Florence.
  • 73. ROMA The composition presents Europa on the back of a running bull unstable on his back paws: the girl holding a horn is sitting herself in an unstable pose unbalanced by the violence of the jump of the animal, with her head back and her look to heaven as to look for salvation. Img 28 The dramatic pose of the raped Princess and her fight against the kidnapper recalls many works where she flails and tries to free herself (Img 8, 16, 25, 27).
  • 74. Title: The rape of Europa Artist: Paolo Caliari, named Veronese (1528-1588) Date: 1580 Location: Venezia, Palazzo Ducale Client: Jacopo Contarini Type: Oil painting on canvas Img 29 Ordered for the Contarini family residence Palace in S. Samuele by Jacopo. Donated to the Serenissima at the death of Samuele in 1713, it was placed in one of the rooms of the Palazzo Ducale. In 1797 the painting was moved to Paris by french troops, and only at the beginning of XIX c. it was given back to Palazzo Ducale.
  • 75. The theme is again the one in the Metamorphoses of Ovid. The painter has focused on the courtship of the girl by the bull differently than usual. Img 29 Four maids attend to the event, two are arranging the Princess’s rich dresses as if she was leaving on a honey moon, the other two are picking nuptial garlands given by the angels; the dog could be interpreted as a symbol of marriage loyalty. The love atmosphere of the scene is stressed by the physical intimacy of the couple: while Europa is sitting on the bull’s back, the bull is kissing her foot (see Ovid’s text) – richness of details and complexity of the subject.
  • 76. ROMA Title: The rape of Europa Artist: Paolo Caliari, named il Veronese (1528- 1588) Date: 1580 Location: Rome, Pinacoteca Capitolina Client: Jacopo Contarini (1536-1595) Technique: Oil painting on canvas Img 30 Second version of the same subject. Three moments of the Myth are represented (see also Img 18,21). On a hillock with trees, and a white Pyramid – classical reference – Europa, in the foreground, is sitting on the back of the bull gently touching her foot (original iconographic detail, invented by the artist freely interpreting literary sources: kisses on the girl’s hands by the
  • 77. ROMA Around the girl there are the maids intent to accomplish activities related to marriage. The erotic tension (details as the naked breast) is therefore softened. Img 30 A girl is arranging Europa’s dress, another one is decorating her cleavage with a jewel, the last two girls are picking flower garlands falling from the angels hands flying in the upper part of the composition.
  • 78. ROMA In the foreground the presence of the Erote – Cupid keeping the bull through the reins and the small angel with a torch conducting the bull to the sea in the second scene, are clear reference to the literary source of Amori di Leucippe e Clitofonte by Achille Tazio. Img 30 Finally in the background Europa is represented already in the water with the bull, turned to her maids asking for help, another .
  • 79. Title: The rape of Europa Artist: Hendrick Goltzius (1558-1617) Date: 1590 Location: / Committenza: / Typology: Print Technique: Engraving (168 x 250 mm) Img 30a There are three series of engravings: in 1589 by G. own atelier, 1590 (with poetry by Franco Estius), in 1615. The engravings were inserted in Bernard Salomon’s Metamorfosi di Ovidio (Strass, 1982).
  • 80. The picture is very dramatic. The sea is rough and the protagonists are excited and dynamic. Img 30a On the background of the composition a previous moment of the Myth is represented (Img 30, 21, 18): Mercury, brings away the bulls herd to the beach as told by Jupiter in the Metamorphoses by Ovid and recalled by other authors in the Renaissance. Jupiter is on a cloud together with an eagle, one of his typical attributes.
  • 81. ROMA Title: The rape of Europa Artist: : Giuseppe Cesari, detto il Cavalier d’Arpino (1568-1640) Date: 1603-1606 (Röttgen) Location: Rome, Galleria Borghese Type: Oil painting on canvas Img 31 The canvas although dated by Tosini (Cieri Via, 1996) in the ‘90s of XVI c., according to Röttgen (2002), for stlystic affinity with coeval works, was probably realized between 1603 and 1606. It must have been bought or even ordered (see Mythologica…, 2005) by Scipione Borghese directly from the painter. First certain news about its presence in the family collection in 1650 (Manilli).
  • 82. ROMA The painting depicts the moment of the rape according to the text by Angelo Poliziano (1454-1494, poet, humanist and playwright ). Img 31 Europa, sitting on a side on the back of the bull is looking at her scared friends. She‘s represented with a cloak and the dress blowing in the wind while holding herself to a horn of the bull; the other hand is embracing the neck of the animal as told in Ovid’s Fasti. The dark grey colour of the bull is detaching from Ovid’s description and is original compared to any other artistic and literary source. But the white spot on the muzzle is mentioned by Mosco (II sec. B.C.).
  • 83. ROMA To the top left Cupid, while riding an eagle and shooting an arrow towards the protagonists of the Myth: symbolic allusion to the love of Jupiter for Europa, but also reference, to the Borghese family heraldic symbol - the eagle (Kristina Herrman Fiore, Mythologica…, 2005) - a reason more to think to a direct order to the painter by Scipione. Img 31 In the background to the right, behind the group of desperate girls, a shepherd, probably Mercury, walking the herd away. Patrizia Tosini (Cieri Via, 1996) interprets as the model of the composition the engraving by Goltzius, 1590 (Img 30a) where although Cupid is Jupiter and there is a general more open composition. K. Herrman Fiore (2005), sees the similarity to an ancient relief once inserted on the façade of the Villa Borghese.
  • 84. Title: Rape of Europa Artist: Pieter Paul Rubens (1577- 1640) Date: 1628-1629 Location: Madrid, Museo del Prado Client: Filippo IV di Spagna (1605- 1655) Technique: Oil painting on canvas(120 x 109 cm) Img 31a We know that Rubens 25 yrs before (1603) had seen the canvas of the venetian master during a period in Spain. This canvas is the exact copy, together with the one with of the one with Diana e Callisto, realized by Tiziano (Img 25 – 1559) for King Philip II. Rubens shows his deep knowledge of Tiziano’s work in each detail.
  • 85. Img 31a The flemish painter was also very well educated on classical culture and had a direct knowledge of the Classic Literature, perhaps even the Metamorphoses. This helped to face the work on mythological themes. Different technical aspects: -canvas in Flandre fabric - a clear-grey ground colour giving to the painting a more background cold tone in contrast with a series of warm colours
  • 86. Img 31a – 25 RUBENS – 1628 TIZIANO – 1559
  • 87. Title: Rape of Europa Artist: Erasmus Quellinus (1607- 1678) Date: 1636-1637 Location: Madrid, Museo del Prado Client: Filippo IV di Spagna (1605- 1655) Technique: Oil painting on canvas Img 32 Erasmus Quellinus was a flemish painter who worked in Rubens’ atelier. The painting used to be in the Real Academia di San Fernando in Madrid but originally was realized for the decoration of the Tower of the Parada, hunting pavillon for Philip IV of Spain.
  • 88. Img 32 The ornamental program is centred on stories on divine love. It was commited to Rubens who realize mainly drafts inspiring himself to Ovid’s Metamorphoses. The development of the paintings was made by pupils and partners among the others Jacob Jordaens, Cornelis de Vos, Erasmus Quellinus. The scene represents the moment when Europa turns back to the beach, the right hand is on the horn and the dress is blowing in the wind. Static pose, except for the wind in the the dress and hair.
  • 89. Title: Rape of Europa Artist: Guido Reni (1575-1642) Date: 1638-40 Location: London, collezione Denis Mahon. the National Gallery Client: Vladislao IV Vasa, king of Poland Technique: Oil painting on canvas Img 33 This is Reni’s third version of the Rape of Europa (1632-35 for king Charles I of England, lost, known only through engravings; another one for the collector don Diego Felipe de Guzman, today in Milan; the third one is probably a variation of the second one today in the Hermitage in S. Petersburg).
  • 90. Img 33 The work is focused on the central group, leaving the landscape context on the far back. The bull, decorated with a garland, is swimming but seems lifted up compared to water level. Europa also looks suspended on the water. The central moment of the Myth had been already repeated and codified by artistic traditions a very successful theme among the clients. The winged angel, interpreted as Eros (arch and arrows), crosses his glance with Europa. Reni stresses the girl’s enchanted, ecstatic, and mystical expression. Coherently she turns her look up and not back to her maids as told by the literary sources.
  • 91. Img 33 It’s interesting to notice the position recalling the Santa Cecilia by Raffaello (Img 33a), an intense iconographic parallel in forms and meaning of the classic Myth and the Christian values connected to the rape of the soul towards God to reach celestial beatitude. Reni mixes and transforms sacred and profane in a sort of well done allegory of the salvation of human soul.
  • 92. Title: Ecstasy of Santa Cecilia Artist: Raffaello (1483-1520) Date: 1514 Location: Pinacoteca Nazionale, Bologna Technique: Oil painting on wood transferred on canvas canvas Img 33a
  • 93. Img 34 Title: Rape of Europa Artist: Bernardo Strozzi (1581/82-1644) Date: 1640-1644 Location: Poznan (PL), Museum Narodowe Type: Oil painting on canvas One of the more extimated works by Strozzi in Venice. It belongs to the Raczynski collection (catalogue, 1841). It’s a late production of the artist (around 1640 – 1644), as shown by the reference to the great XVI c. tradition. In particular the inspiration is Paolo Veronese’s work (Img 29-30), as demonstrated by the theme of the raped heroine by Jupiter - bull, justification for a debunk novel and lightly erotic.
  • 94. Img 34 The white dog, bottom to left, the group of angels and the look of Europa towards them recalls Caliari-Veronese. Finally the Princess is not stable on the back of the bull that prances towards the exterior of the picture as to invade the spectator space, giving more impulse to the movement of the animal. While the senxual and erotic character of the raped girl recalls the painting by Veronese in the Galleria Capitolina (Img 30), also known through plenty of replicas. Despite the figurative reference the moment of the episode is not the same. Here the proper moment of the rape is represented: Europa is being transported towards the sea by the bull and turns towards the maids while four angels surround her.
  • 95. Img 29,30 STROZZI, 1640 -1644, Poland 1580, Rm – 1580, Ve - PAOLO CALIARI - VERONESE
  • 96. Title: Landscape with rape of Europa Artist: Claude Gallée, named Lorrain (1600-1682) Date: 1655 Location: Mosca, Pushkin Museum Client: papa Alessandro VII Chigi (1655-1667) Technique: Oil painting on canvas Img 35 The context of the mythological scene is an extraordinary natural landscape view with an elegiac atmosphere. The artist develops the mythological theme as a justification to treat and to celebrate the marine landscape, true protagonist of the canvas.
  • 97. In the centre young Europa, has climbed on the bull adorned with garlands. The girls to the left, are probably working the same garlands. Img 35 Jupiter is bringing Europa to the sea, accompanied by two maids: the parade is clearly moving as the blowing dresses suggest. This detail is taken from the literary sources as well as from the figurative tradition that in ‘600 tend to represent the popular scene in a standardised way (recall of some classical elements: girl’s position on the bull and/or the veil blowing in the wind).
  • 98. But here, as in other pictures, the same details are represented in the moment when the girl is still on the land, differently from the literary sources. Img 35 To the right there are bulls grazing, perhaps the herd looked after Mercury- shepherd. There are also more human figures some lying in the shade of the beeches recalling Virgil (70-19 BC.)’s bucolic verses (Bucoliche, 38 BC.).
  • 99. ROME Title: Rape of Europa Artist: Mattia Preti (1613-1699) Date: 1640-66 Location: Rome, Galleria Pallavicini Client: Filippo III Colonna Tecnique: Oil painting on canvas Img 36 This painting was part of a series of works dedicated by the painter to love rape by gods. It was ordered by Filippo III Colonna for the marriage of Margherita Colonna with the Duke Giulio Cesare Rospigliosi.
  • 100. ROME The scene shows the proper instant when Europa is raped and brought to the sea by the bull- Jupiter. Img 36 The girl, sitting on a side, holds with her left hand a horn while above her there are two angels flying, recurrent motif of the XVII c. figurative tradition. The scene is completed by the maids as witnesses of the rape, who in vain try to pull the bull’s tail. Moreover the bull is pulled in the sea by one of the angels by the horns – very dynamic and excited scene.
  • 101. Title: Rape of Europa Artist: Guido Cagnacci (1601- 1663) Date: 1650 Location: Marano di Castenaso (Bologna) , Collezione Molinari Pradelli Tecnique: Oil painting on canvas (115,5 x 94,5 cm) Img 37 This painting seem to have as a model the work by di Guido Reni (Img 33) adding more sensuality to scene, inspired by northern artists as Goltzius (Img 30a).
  • 102. Img 30a – 33 RENI – 1638 GOLTZIUS – 1590
  • 103. This peculiar interpretation of the story of Jupiter and Europa is the strong sensual attitude, a unicum compared to the iconographic tradition of the Myth Img 37 Europa is the absolute protagonist of the picture represented as a proper classic heroine: hair blowing in the wind, the light dress leaving her breast uncovered, her inspired attitude, sitting on the bull, with a domesticated look, adorned of roses (the same on her dress).
  • 104. Theme as opportunity for technical experiments: Modern style, very far from traditional academic pattern. Img 38 Title: Rape of Europa Artist: Valentin Serov Date: 1910 Location: Tecnique: Oil painting on canvas Very peculiar geometric diagonal movement composition, very high horizon line: Elongated forms to stress dynamism. Even the horizon is on movement, with moving waves and the dolphins accompany the movement of Zeus for a stronger dynamism. Experimental work also on colours: red bull and special blue-violet colour for the see, very expressionist. Flower motifs and simple shapes recall Liberty Style.
  • 105. Theme as opportunity for technical experiments for all artists. Simple signs, close to Cubism. Img 39 Title: Rape of Europa Artist: Henri Matisse Date: 1929 Location: National Gallery of Australia, Canberra, Australia Tecnique: Oil painting on canvas
  • 106. Contemporary times have seen the representation of the Myth reflecting political and cultural changes of the continent. In the period between the wars the Myth has been repudiating fascist movements and their attempt to rape Europa, intended as bloody conquest of the continent imposing the image of a white and “Aryan” Europa. More recently the Myth has represented new European unity and the integrated idea of eastern and western territories, separated by the Cold War in the 50’s. There are Europes exhibiting stars in a circle representing many nations and different flags.
  • 107. 1933: year of Hitler’s conquest of power in Germany Img 40 Title: Rape of Europa Artist: Max Beckmann Date: 1933 Location: Tecnique: Oil painting on canvas Max Beckmann presents Europa laying down on a dark bull, dark as the Nazi shirt (symbol of power and arrogance) and expressing the cry against violence on her face. So called “degenerated artist”
  • 108. Critique of war and violence, the bull is black and full of red blood Img 40a Title: Rape of Europa Artist: Hugo Claus (1929-2008) Date: ? Location: Tecnique: Paint on paper
  • 109. Art sustaining and celebrating polical movements. Img 41 Title: Aryan Europa Artist: Werner Peyner Date: 1937 Location: Tecnique: Oil painting on canvas Europa is blonde and Aryan.
  • 110. Propaganda subject: two bulls represent the two continents, Africa (black) and Europa (red, referring to French Socialism) – wearing a fashionable hat. Img 42 Title: Rape of Europa Artist: Arthur Johnson Date: 1935 Location: Tecnique: Drawing for a magazine cover Reference to Mussolini who has sacrificed some of his positions in Europe for his interests in Ethiopia.
  • 111. Celebration of political and cultural unity. Img 43 Title: Rape of Europa Artist: / Date: / Location: Typology: Print The geographical map of Europe represents the background of the group Europe and the bull, almost static, triumphal, celebrating the continent and unity – dress with flags and symbols.
  • 112. Celebration of political and cultural unity Img 44 Title: Rape of Europa Artist: / Date: 2000 Location: Typology: Coin Dynamic trip, adventure, projection to the future?
  • 113. Great today social and cultural transformations have brought to representations where Europa is not anymore a victim or acquiescent. Img 45 Title: Rape of Europa Artist: Ursula Date: 1987 Location: Tecnique: Oil painting on canvas Here Europa in the center of the image, acts as the protagonist. At the same time her hairstyle, the bull’s pattern and the context recall a world where the exotic is mixed to the global world and Europa is not anymore the center of the planet.
  • 114. In 2006, after having focused exclusively on the Abu Ghraib series for over 14 months, Botero returned to the themes of his early life such as the family and maternity, and Europe - basic themes . Img 46 Title: Rape of Europa Artist: Fernando Botero Date: 2007 Location: Tecnique: Bronze sculpture
  • 115. Same cultural movement is at the base of international, extra-european representations from Japan to Latin America. New symbol of universality, free interpretation through single cultures spread around the world in a world where many people have moved to Europe as in the past they moved from Europe to the New World. Interesting cultural hybrids Europa is not scared to move from eastern to western lands to discovered new worlds bringing a new culture. Its figure reminds us that people have always transmigrated and that people movements always bring important exchanges and cultural and social innovation.
  • 116. http://www.inos.it/ mainly http://www.treccani.it/scuola/tesine/viaggio_e_mito/15.html Luisa Passerini, Il mito d’Europa. Radici antiche per nuovi simboli, Firenze, Giunti, 2002. BIBLIOGRAPHY