SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 25
Getting from Point A to
Point B: Creating Good
Transitions
Al Kammerer
and
Bobbi Olson
11 October 2006
What is a transition?
 Bridges parts of your paper together
 Helps you (writer) carry over a thought from one
sentence to another, from one idea to another, or from
one paragraph to another with words or phrases
 Guides the reader to interpret ideas the way you (as a
writer) want them to
Point A
Point B
What is a transition?
 Transitions link sentences and paragraphs
together smoothly….
so there are no abrupt jumps
or breaks between ideas
Types of Transitions
 Some lead the reader
forward to “build”
on an idea or thought
 Others make your
reader compare
or draw conclusions
from preceding
thoughts
There are several types of transitional devices; each leads
your reader to make certain connections or assumptions
about the areas you’re connecting
Types of Transitions
 A transition can be
 A single word
 A phrase
 A sentence
 An entire paragraph
 All function the same way  a transition either
directly summarizes the content of a preceding
sentence, section, etc., or it helps the reader
anticipate or comprehend NEW information that
you’re going to present.
Transition Placement
 Between Sections
 In longer works, it may be necessary to include
transitional paragraphs that summarize for the reader
what was just covered and specify how it connects to
what is going to be covered next.
 Between Paragraphs
 If you have done a good job of arranging paragraphs so
that the content of one leads logically to the next, the
transition will highlight a relationship that already exists
by summarizing the previous paragraph and suggesting
something of the content of the paragraph that follows.
 A transition between paragraphs can be a word or two
(however, for example, similarly), a phrase, or a sentence.
Example of Paragraph Transitions
Transition Placement
 Within Paragraphs:
 As with transitions between sections and
paragraphs, transitions within paragraphs act
as cues by helping readers to anticipate what
is coming before they read it.
 Within paragraphs, transitions tend to be single
words or short phrases.
Transitions – To Add
 These words signify that you’re elaborating
on an idea in your writing:
 And, again, and then, besides, equally
important, finally, further, furthermore, nor,
too, next, lastly, what’s more, moreover, in
addition, first (second, etc.)
 Example: Friends is a television show about six
friends. It shows how relationships are often
complicated.
 Friends is a television show about six friends.
Furthermore, it shows how relationships are often
complicated.
Transitions – To Compare
 These words signify you’re comparing a previous
idea to a new one in your paper, or describing
two different things:
 Whereas, but, yet, on the other hand, however,
nevertheless, on the other hand, on the contrary, by
comparison, where, compared to, up against, balanced
against, although, conversely, meanwhile, after all, in
contrast, although this may be true…
 Example: Ross and Rachel are dating. Ross and
Monica are siblings.
 Ross and Rachel are dating. However, Ross and
Monica are siblings.
Transitions – To Prove
 Use these words to indicate support for
your argument:
 Because, for, since, for the same reason,
obviously, evidently, furthermore, moreover,
besides, indeed, in fact, in addition, in any
case, that is…
 Example: Monica loves food. She is a chef.
 Monica loves food. In fact, she is a chef.
Transitions – To Show Exception
 These words help you move to an idea
that counters an earlier idea
 Yet, still, however, nevertheless, in spite of,
despite, of course, once in a while,
sometimes…
 Example: Phoebe acts unintelligently. She
has some of the smartest observations.
 Phoebe acts unintelligently. Yet, she has
some of the smartest observations.
Transitions – To Show Time
 When telling events in a chronological sequence,
these words help make the order clear:
 Immediately, thereafter, soon, after a few hours, finally,
then, later, previously, formerly, first (second, etc.),
next, and then…
 Example: Ross and Rachel get married. They get
a divorce. They have a baby.
 First, Ross and Rachel get married. Soon after,
they get a divorce. Then, they have a baby.
Transitions – To Repeat
 These types of transitional devices help
remind the reader what you have
mentioned before:
 In brief, as I have said, as I have noted, as has
been noted…
 Example: Ross and Rachel have a crazy
relationship.
 As has been shown, Ross and Rachel have
a crazy relationship.
Transitions – To Emphasize
 Emphasis words do just that – serve to
emphasize points that you want the reader to
really be aware of and understand:
 Definitely, extremely, obviously, in fact, indeed, in any
case, absolutely, positively, naturally, surprisingly,
always, forever, never, emphatically, unquestionably,
without a doubt, certainly, undeniably, without
reservation…
 Example: Ross has been married three times.
Ross likes to get married.
 Ross has been married three times. Obviously,
Ross likes to get married.
Transitions – To Show Sequence or
“Results”
 If there is no clear order or you’re writing that
one idea causes another, use the following
words:
 First, second, third, and so forth, next, then, following
this, at this time, now, at this point, after, afterward,
subsequently, finally, consequently, previously, before
this, simultaneously, concurrently, thus, therefore,
hence, next, and then, soon…
 Example: Joey went to film a movie in Las Vegas.
Ross and Rachel got married.
 Joey went to film a movie in Las Vegas. At this
time, Ross and Rachel got married.
Transitions – To Give an Example
 Words such as these clearly indicate when you’re
giving an example to support yourself:
 For example, for instance, in this case, in another case,
on this occasion, in this situation, take the case of, to
demonstrate, to illustrate, as an illustration…
 Example: Joey does not share food. He will not
even share with Emma, Rachel’s baby.
 Joey does not share food. For example, he will
not even share with Emma, Rachel’s baby.
Transitions – To Summarize or
Conclude
 When trying to summarize your points, using
these words clearly signals your intent:
 In brief, on the whole, summing up, to conclude, in
conclusion, as I have shown, as I have said, hence,
therefore, accordingly, thus, as a result, consequently,
on the whole…
 Example: Friends shows the lives of six friends. It
shows how they interact with each other.
 Friends shows the lives of six friends.
Consequently, it shows how they interact with
each other.
Transitions: Repeating Key Words
 Transitions don’t always have to be one of
these “signal” words; they can also be
words that you have used before to
remind the reader of what you are talking
about
 Example: Friends is about six friends who
remain loyal to each other despite all of the
issues that come up in their lives.
 Because of the loyalty Friends portrays, many
people are attracted to the show.
Sources
 Information courtesy of:
 Purdue OWL: Transitional Devices (Connecting Words)–
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/print/general/gl
_transition.html
 Standout Essays Writing Tutorial: Creating Smooth
Transitions –
http://www.standoutessay.com/tutorial/transitions.html
 The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at
Chapel Hill: Transitions –
http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/transitions.
html
Transition Exercises
 George Bernard Shaw wrote a series of maxims
beginning with four that define one of the most
ancient of these forms of advice—the Golden
Rule.
 Do not do unto others as you would that they should do
unto you. Their tastes may not be the same.
 Never resist temptation. Prove all things. Hold fast
that which is good.
 Do not love your neighbor as yourself. If you are on
good terms with yourself it is an impertinence; If on
bad, an injury.
 The golden rule is that there are no golden rules
       As maxims, these sentences work because we add transitions Shaw
leaves out.   Let's make an essay out of them by adding transitional words and
phrases.
       Two forms of the Golden Rule have surfaced 
through the years—the negative and the positive.   
The negative form advises that we should not 
treat others in ways we would not want to be 
treated. If something is a pain to you, this negative 
Golden Rule advises us not to inflict that
treatment on others.  The positive form advises 
that we should treat others the way we like to be 
treated. If something is pleasurable to you, you 
should treat others to its pleasure. In his first 
maxim, Shaw advised against the latter, but he 
would probably also disagree with the former 
negative phrasing statement.  He advised that we 
resist the temptation to do unto others as we 
would that they do unto us because our tastes 
might differ. 
      Shaw further advised that we need to use
temptation rather than resist it. He said:  
"Never resist temptation.   Prove all things. Hold 
fast that which is good." By testing our impulses 
scientifically, we might better learn which of our 
whims might actually lead to self improvement. 
In other words, by experimenting, we can 
discover the truth.  Only then, can we learn to 
follow the better of our angels rather than those
that make us worse. In this way, we can learn 
about our real rather than our imagined strengths 
and weaknesses.      
      Due to this constant learning process, Shaw did not 
think we automatically know what is best for ourselves. 
Writing during the earliest phase of modern psychology, 
Shaw knew that some of us are uncomfortable being the 
way we are. He gave two reasons for advising that we 
should not love our neighbor as ourselves.   The first was 
that if we love ourselves, we might act impertinently or 
overly familiar to those not ready with such familiarity. 
 The second, was that if we do not love ourselves, we 
might injure others by treating them as badly as we
treat ourselves. For instance, we may like smoking, but 
our neighbor may not enjoy us blowing smoke in his face. 
Shaw said:  "Do not love your neighbor as yourself.  If you 
are on good terms with yourself, it is an impertinence.  If 
on bad, an injury." Shaw shows how an innocent ideal rule 
can lead to trouble.
      Rather than injure each other with 
such an easily misunderstood ideal, he 
advised that we forget the Golden Rule, 
saying that "the Golden Rule is that there 
are no golden rules."   The dangers of 
misapplying similar ideals in the shape
of rules were clear to Shaw, and the logic 
of his conclusions is clear and compelling. 
We should test our ideals and rules 
rather than accept them naively. 

More Related Content

What's hot

Persuasive essay
Persuasive essayPersuasive essay
Persuasive essayaquaglia
 
Grammar - Comma Use
Grammar - Comma UseGrammar - Comma Use
Grammar - Comma UseSam Georgi
 
How to write a paragraph
How to write a paragraphHow to write a paragraph
How to write a paragraphYendry Anchía
 
How to write a good essay??
How to write a good essay??How to write a good essay??
How to write a good essay??guestb9454e5
 
Narrative Essay Writing
Narrative Essay WritingNarrative Essay Writing
Narrative Essay WritingRenee Davis
 
How to write a descriptive essay
How to write a descriptive essayHow to write a descriptive essay
How to write a descriptive essayLama Albabtain
 
Cause and-Effect Essay Writing
Cause and-Effect Essay WritingCause and-Effect Essay Writing
Cause and-Effect Essay WritingUniversity of York
 
Year 10 iGCSE English Language writing
Year 10 iGCSE English Language writingYear 10 iGCSE English Language writing
Year 10 iGCSE English Language writingCat Davies
 
Sequence powerpoint 1
Sequence powerpoint 1Sequence powerpoint 1
Sequence powerpoint 1msmohn
 
Introduction to Narrative Essays
Introduction to Narrative EssaysIntroduction to Narrative Essays
Introduction to Narrative EssaysChristine Strayer
 
Expository Essay PowerPoint_russellrodrigo
Expository Essay PowerPoint_russellrodrigoExpository Essay PowerPoint_russellrodrigo
Expository Essay PowerPoint_russellrodrigoDr. Russell Rodrigo
 
Descriptive writing 1
Descriptive writing 1Descriptive writing 1
Descriptive writing 1mzickefoose2
 
Argument lesson pp
Argument lesson ppArgument lesson pp
Argument lesson ppHank Maine
 
Persuasive Writing Lesson PowerPoint
Persuasive Writing Lesson PowerPointPersuasive Writing Lesson PowerPoint
Persuasive Writing Lesson PowerPointmoran23
 

What's hot (20)

Persuasive essay
Persuasive essayPersuasive essay
Persuasive essay
 
Grammar - Comma Use
Grammar - Comma UseGrammar - Comma Use
Grammar - Comma Use
 
Common Core Informative/Explanatory Writing
Common Core Informative/Explanatory WritingCommon Core Informative/Explanatory Writing
Common Core Informative/Explanatory Writing
 
How to write a paragraph
How to write a paragraphHow to write a paragraph
How to write a paragraph
 
How to write a good essay??
How to write a good essay??How to write a good essay??
How to write a good essay??
 
Narrative Essay Writing
Narrative Essay WritingNarrative Essay Writing
Narrative Essay Writing
 
How to write a descriptive essay
How to write a descriptive essayHow to write a descriptive essay
How to write a descriptive essay
 
Cause and-Effect Essay Writing
Cause and-Effect Essay WritingCause and-Effect Essay Writing
Cause and-Effect Essay Writing
 
Comparing texts
Comparing textsComparing texts
Comparing texts
 
Year 10 iGCSE English Language writing
Year 10 iGCSE English Language writingYear 10 iGCSE English Language writing
Year 10 iGCSE English Language writing
 
Sentence Combining
Sentence CombiningSentence Combining
Sentence Combining
 
Sequence powerpoint 1
Sequence powerpoint 1Sequence powerpoint 1
Sequence powerpoint 1
 
Introduction to Narrative Essays
Introduction to Narrative EssaysIntroduction to Narrative Essays
Introduction to Narrative Essays
 
Expository Essay PowerPoint_russellrodrigo
Expository Essay PowerPoint_russellrodrigoExpository Essay PowerPoint_russellrodrigo
Expository Essay PowerPoint_russellrodrigo
 
Complex sentences
Complex sentencesComplex sentences
Complex sentences
 
Descriptive writing 1
Descriptive writing 1Descriptive writing 1
Descriptive writing 1
 
The hook
The hookThe hook
The hook
 
Summarizing
SummarizingSummarizing
Summarizing
 
Argument lesson pp
Argument lesson ppArgument lesson pp
Argument lesson pp
 
Persuasive Writing Lesson PowerPoint
Persuasive Writing Lesson PowerPointPersuasive Writing Lesson PowerPoint
Persuasive Writing Lesson PowerPoint
 

Similar to Transitions

Relationships workshop
Relationships workshopRelationships workshop
Relationships workshoplcalgaro
 
This is a Book report assignment .docx
                              This is a Book report assignment .docx                              This is a Book report assignment .docx
This is a Book report assignment .docxhallettfaustina
 
Writing Elements A Quick Guide to Grammar and Usag.docx
Writing Elements A Quick Guide to Grammar and Usag.docxWriting Elements A Quick Guide to Grammar and Usag.docx
Writing Elements A Quick Guide to Grammar and Usag.docxericbrooks84875
 
Determiner and its types
Determiner  and  its  typesDeterminer  and  its  types
Determiner and its typesSaiqaAftabTunio
 
Sentence style for technical reporters
Sentence style for technical reportersSentence style for technical reporters
Sentence style for technical reportersMartha Schwer
 
The Student Guide To Writing Better Sentences In The English Classroom 2017 P...
The Student Guide To Writing Better Sentences In The English Classroom 2017 P...The Student Guide To Writing Better Sentences In The English Classroom 2017 P...
The Student Guide To Writing Better Sentences In The English Classroom 2017 P...jpinnuck
 
Final Project
Final ProjectFinal Project
Final Projectmsummerv
 
Eng 83 r transitions and patterns of organization
Eng 83 r transitions and patterns of organizationEng 83 r transitions and patterns of organization
Eng 83 r transitions and patterns of organizationElizabeth Buchanan
 
The paragraph
The paragraphThe paragraph
The paragraphSONNYJM
 
Successful writing. lecture 4(2)
Successful writing. lecture 4(2)Successful writing. lecture 4(2)
Successful writing. lecture 4(2)TamaraMontgomery
 

Similar to Transitions (20)

Relationships workshop
Relationships workshopRelationships workshop
Relationships workshop
 
Paragarph transitions
Paragarph transitionsParagarph transitions
Paragarph transitions
 
Linking words
Linking wordsLinking words
Linking words
 
Parts of speech1
Parts of speech1Parts of speech1
Parts of speech1
 
This is a Book report assignment .docx
                              This is a Book report assignment .docx                              This is a Book report assignment .docx
This is a Book report assignment .docx
 
COHESIVE DEVICES.pptx
COHESIVE DEVICES.pptxCOHESIVE DEVICES.pptx
COHESIVE DEVICES.pptx
 
Writing Elements A Quick Guide to Grammar and Usag.docx
Writing Elements A Quick Guide to Grammar and Usag.docxWriting Elements A Quick Guide to Grammar and Usag.docx
Writing Elements A Quick Guide to Grammar and Usag.docx
 
Linkers
LinkersLinkers
Linkers
 
Determiner and its types
Determiner  and  its  typesDeterminer  and  its  types
Determiner and its types
 
Sentence style for technical reporters
Sentence style for technical reportersSentence style for technical reporters
Sentence style for technical reporters
 
The Student Guide To Writing Better Sentences In The English Classroom 2017 P...
The Student Guide To Writing Better Sentences In The English Classroom 2017 P...The Student Guide To Writing Better Sentences In The English Classroom 2017 P...
The Student Guide To Writing Better Sentences In The English Classroom 2017 P...
 
Final Project
Final ProjectFinal Project
Final Project
 
Eng 83 r transitions and patterns of organization
Eng 83 r transitions and patterns of organizationEng 83 r transitions and patterns of organization
Eng 83 r transitions and patterns of organization
 
Patterns of organization time and space
Patterns of organization time and spacePatterns of organization time and space
Patterns of organization time and space
 
Cohesive Devices
Cohesive DevicesCohesive Devices
Cohesive Devices
 
The paragraph
The paragraphThe paragraph
The paragraph
 
Reading exam techniques
Reading exam techniquesReading exam techniques
Reading exam techniques
 
Successful writing. lecture 4(2)
Successful writing. lecture 4(2)Successful writing. lecture 4(2)
Successful writing. lecture 4(2)
 
Cohesion
CohesionCohesion
Cohesion
 
Paragraphs
ParagraphsParagraphs
Paragraphs
 

More from kb615

Summary quote paraphrase workshop
Summary quote paraphrase workshopSummary quote paraphrase workshop
Summary quote paraphrase workshopkb615
 
Iqe power point for online section
Iqe power point for online sectionIqe power point for online section
Iqe power point for online sectionkb615
 
Ethos pathos logos presentation w audio
Ethos pathos logos presentation w audioEthos pathos logos presentation w audio
Ethos pathos logos presentation w audiokb615
 
Diagnostic essay revision lesson
Diagnostic essay revision lessonDiagnostic essay revision lesson
Diagnostic essay revision lessonkb615
 
Diagnostic essay revision lesson
Diagnostic essay revision lessonDiagnostic essay revision lesson
Diagnostic essay revision lessonkb615
 
Gatsby syntax powerpoint (2)
Gatsby syntax powerpoint (2)Gatsby syntax powerpoint (2)
Gatsby syntax powerpoint (2)kb615
 
Logos ethos pathos_e32007
Logos ethos pathos_e32007Logos ethos pathos_e32007
Logos ethos pathos_e32007kb615
 
Iqe power point
Iqe power pointIqe power point
Iqe power pointkb615
 
Eng 6170 powerpoint
Eng 6170 powerpointEng 6170 powerpoint
Eng 6170 powerpointkb615
 

More from kb615 (9)

Summary quote paraphrase workshop
Summary quote paraphrase workshopSummary quote paraphrase workshop
Summary quote paraphrase workshop
 
Iqe power point for online section
Iqe power point for online sectionIqe power point for online section
Iqe power point for online section
 
Ethos pathos logos presentation w audio
Ethos pathos logos presentation w audioEthos pathos logos presentation w audio
Ethos pathos logos presentation w audio
 
Diagnostic essay revision lesson
Diagnostic essay revision lessonDiagnostic essay revision lesson
Diagnostic essay revision lesson
 
Diagnostic essay revision lesson
Diagnostic essay revision lessonDiagnostic essay revision lesson
Diagnostic essay revision lesson
 
Gatsby syntax powerpoint (2)
Gatsby syntax powerpoint (2)Gatsby syntax powerpoint (2)
Gatsby syntax powerpoint (2)
 
Logos ethos pathos_e32007
Logos ethos pathos_e32007Logos ethos pathos_e32007
Logos ethos pathos_e32007
 
Iqe power point
Iqe power pointIqe power point
Iqe power point
 
Eng 6170 powerpoint
Eng 6170 powerpointEng 6170 powerpoint
Eng 6170 powerpoint
 

Transitions

  • 1. Getting from Point A to Point B: Creating Good Transitions Al Kammerer and Bobbi Olson 11 October 2006
  • 2. What is a transition?  Bridges parts of your paper together  Helps you (writer) carry over a thought from one sentence to another, from one idea to another, or from one paragraph to another with words or phrases  Guides the reader to interpret ideas the way you (as a writer) want them to Point A Point B
  • 3. What is a transition?  Transitions link sentences and paragraphs together smoothly…. so there are no abrupt jumps or breaks between ideas
  • 4. Types of Transitions  Some lead the reader forward to “build” on an idea or thought  Others make your reader compare or draw conclusions from preceding thoughts There are several types of transitional devices; each leads your reader to make certain connections or assumptions about the areas you’re connecting
  • 5. Types of Transitions  A transition can be  A single word  A phrase  A sentence  An entire paragraph  All function the same way  a transition either directly summarizes the content of a preceding sentence, section, etc., or it helps the reader anticipate or comprehend NEW information that you’re going to present.
  • 6. Transition Placement  Between Sections  In longer works, it may be necessary to include transitional paragraphs that summarize for the reader what was just covered and specify how it connects to what is going to be covered next.  Between Paragraphs  If you have done a good job of arranging paragraphs so that the content of one leads logically to the next, the transition will highlight a relationship that already exists by summarizing the previous paragraph and suggesting something of the content of the paragraph that follows.  A transition between paragraphs can be a word or two (however, for example, similarly), a phrase, or a sentence.
  • 7. Example of Paragraph Transitions
  • 8. Transition Placement  Within Paragraphs:  As with transitions between sections and paragraphs, transitions within paragraphs act as cues by helping readers to anticipate what is coming before they read it.  Within paragraphs, transitions tend to be single words or short phrases.
  • 9. Transitions – To Add  These words signify that you’re elaborating on an idea in your writing:  And, again, and then, besides, equally important, finally, further, furthermore, nor, too, next, lastly, what’s more, moreover, in addition, first (second, etc.)  Example: Friends is a television show about six friends. It shows how relationships are often complicated.  Friends is a television show about six friends. Furthermore, it shows how relationships are often complicated.
  • 10. Transitions – To Compare  These words signify you’re comparing a previous idea to a new one in your paper, or describing two different things:  Whereas, but, yet, on the other hand, however, nevertheless, on the other hand, on the contrary, by comparison, where, compared to, up against, balanced against, although, conversely, meanwhile, after all, in contrast, although this may be true…  Example: Ross and Rachel are dating. Ross and Monica are siblings.  Ross and Rachel are dating. However, Ross and Monica are siblings.
  • 11. Transitions – To Prove  Use these words to indicate support for your argument:  Because, for, since, for the same reason, obviously, evidently, furthermore, moreover, besides, indeed, in fact, in addition, in any case, that is…  Example: Monica loves food. She is a chef.  Monica loves food. In fact, she is a chef.
  • 12. Transitions – To Show Exception  These words help you move to an idea that counters an earlier idea  Yet, still, however, nevertheless, in spite of, despite, of course, once in a while, sometimes…  Example: Phoebe acts unintelligently. She has some of the smartest observations.  Phoebe acts unintelligently. Yet, she has some of the smartest observations.
  • 13. Transitions – To Show Time  When telling events in a chronological sequence, these words help make the order clear:  Immediately, thereafter, soon, after a few hours, finally, then, later, previously, formerly, first (second, etc.), next, and then…  Example: Ross and Rachel get married. They get a divorce. They have a baby.  First, Ross and Rachel get married. Soon after, they get a divorce. Then, they have a baby.
  • 14. Transitions – To Repeat  These types of transitional devices help remind the reader what you have mentioned before:  In brief, as I have said, as I have noted, as has been noted…  Example: Ross and Rachel have a crazy relationship.  As has been shown, Ross and Rachel have a crazy relationship.
  • 15. Transitions – To Emphasize  Emphasis words do just that – serve to emphasize points that you want the reader to really be aware of and understand:  Definitely, extremely, obviously, in fact, indeed, in any case, absolutely, positively, naturally, surprisingly, always, forever, never, emphatically, unquestionably, without a doubt, certainly, undeniably, without reservation…  Example: Ross has been married three times. Ross likes to get married.  Ross has been married three times. Obviously, Ross likes to get married.
  • 16. Transitions – To Show Sequence or “Results”  If there is no clear order or you’re writing that one idea causes another, use the following words:  First, second, third, and so forth, next, then, following this, at this time, now, at this point, after, afterward, subsequently, finally, consequently, previously, before this, simultaneously, concurrently, thus, therefore, hence, next, and then, soon…  Example: Joey went to film a movie in Las Vegas. Ross and Rachel got married.  Joey went to film a movie in Las Vegas. At this time, Ross and Rachel got married.
  • 17. Transitions – To Give an Example  Words such as these clearly indicate when you’re giving an example to support yourself:  For example, for instance, in this case, in another case, on this occasion, in this situation, take the case of, to demonstrate, to illustrate, as an illustration…  Example: Joey does not share food. He will not even share with Emma, Rachel’s baby.  Joey does not share food. For example, he will not even share with Emma, Rachel’s baby.
  • 18. Transitions – To Summarize or Conclude  When trying to summarize your points, using these words clearly signals your intent:  In brief, on the whole, summing up, to conclude, in conclusion, as I have shown, as I have said, hence, therefore, accordingly, thus, as a result, consequently, on the whole…  Example: Friends shows the lives of six friends. It shows how they interact with each other.  Friends shows the lives of six friends. Consequently, it shows how they interact with each other.
  • 19. Transitions: Repeating Key Words  Transitions don’t always have to be one of these “signal” words; they can also be words that you have used before to remind the reader of what you are talking about  Example: Friends is about six friends who remain loyal to each other despite all of the issues that come up in their lives.  Because of the loyalty Friends portrays, many people are attracted to the show.
  • 20. Sources  Information courtesy of:  Purdue OWL: Transitional Devices (Connecting Words)– http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/print/general/gl _transition.html  Standout Essays Writing Tutorial: Creating Smooth Transitions – http://www.standoutessay.com/tutorial/transitions.html  The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill: Transitions – http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/transitions. html
  • 21. Transition Exercises  George Bernard Shaw wrote a series of maxims beginning with four that define one of the most ancient of these forms of advice—the Golden Rule.  Do not do unto others as you would that they should do unto you. Their tastes may not be the same.  Never resist temptation. Prove all things. Hold fast that which is good.  Do not love your neighbor as yourself. If you are on good terms with yourself it is an impertinence; If on bad, an injury.  The golden rule is that there are no golden rules
  • 22.        As maxims, these sentences work because we add transitions Shaw leaves out.   Let's make an essay out of them by adding transitional words and phrases.        Two forms of the Golden Rule have surfaced  through the years—the negative and the positive.    The negative form advises that we should not  treat others in ways we would not want to be  treated. If something is a pain to you, this negative  Golden Rule advises us not to inflict that treatment on others.  The positive form advises  that we should treat others the way we like to be  treated. If something is pleasurable to you, you  should treat others to its pleasure. In his first  maxim, Shaw advised against the latter, but he  would probably also disagree with the former  negative phrasing statement.  He advised that we  resist the temptation to do unto others as we  would that they do unto us because our tastes  might differ. 
  • 23.       Shaw further advised that we need to use temptation rather than resist it. He said:   "Never resist temptation.   Prove all things. Hold  fast that which is good." By testing our impulses  scientifically, we might better learn which of our  whims might actually lead to self improvement.  In other words, by experimenting, we can  discover the truth.  Only then, can we learn to  follow the better of our angels rather than those that make us worse. In this way, we can learn  about our real rather than our imagined strengths  and weaknesses.      
  • 24.       Due to this constant learning process, Shaw did not  think we automatically know what is best for ourselves.  Writing during the earliest phase of modern psychology,  Shaw knew that some of us are uncomfortable being the  way we are. He gave two reasons for advising that we  should not love our neighbor as ourselves.   The first was  that if we love ourselves, we might act impertinently or  overly familiar to those not ready with such familiarity.   The second, was that if we do not love ourselves, we  might injure others by treating them as badly as we treat ourselves. For instance, we may like smoking, but  our neighbor may not enjoy us blowing smoke in his face.  Shaw said:  "Do not love your neighbor as yourself.  If you  are on good terms with yourself, it is an impertinence.  If  on bad, an injury." Shaw shows how an innocent ideal rule  can lead to trouble.
  • 25.       Rather than injure each other with  such an easily misunderstood ideal, he  advised that we forget the Golden Rule,  saying that "the Golden Rule is that there  are no golden rules."   The dangers of  misapplying similar ideals in the shape of rules were clear to Shaw, and the logic  of his conclusions is clear and compelling.  We should test our ideals and rules  rather than accept them naively.