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Internet of Things
IoT Physical Devices and End points
and RaspberryPi
Internet of Things
IoT Physical Devices and Endpoints
Internet of Things(Elective 2) Prepared by Dr. MK Jayanthi Kannan
2
Course Specification
By
Dr. M.K. Jayanthi Kannan, M.E.,MS.,MBA., M.Phil., Ph.D.,
Professor and HOD ISE,
Faculty of Engineering & Technology,
JAIN Deemed To-Be University,
Bengaluru.
Staff Room: 324- 8.
Office Hours : 8.30 AM -4 PM
Department of Computer Science and
Engineering,
FET Block,
Internet of Things ( Elective 2) by Dr.M.K.Jayanthi Kannan
Module 4 : Arduino UNO, RaspberryPi with Python
IoT Physical Devices and Endpoints
Arduino UNO: Introduction to Arduino,
• Arduino UNO, Installing the Software,
• Fundamentals of Arduino Programming.
• IoT Physical Devices and Endpoints.
RaspberryPi: Introduction to RaspberryPi,
• About the RaspberryPi Board: Hardware Layout,
• Operating Systems on RaspberryPi, Configuring.
Internet of Things(Elective 2) Prepared by Dr. MK Jayanthi Kannan
Module – 4
IoT Physical Devices and End Point-Aurdino UNO
1
Arduino:
 Arduino is an open-source electronics platform based on easy-
to-use hardware and software.
 Arduino boards are able to read inputs - light on a sensor, a
finger on a button, or a Twitter message - and turn it into an
output - activating a motor, turning on an LED, publishing
something online.
Internet of Things(Elective 2) Prepared by Dr. MK Jayanthi Kannan
IoT Physical Devices and End Point-Aurdino Uno
1
Arduino:
 Arduino is an open-source electronics platform based on easy-
to-use hardware and software.
 Arduino boards are able to read inputs - light on a sensor, a
finger on a button, or a Twitter message - and turn it into an
output - activating a motor, turning on an LED, publishing
something online.
Internet of Things(Elective 2) Prepared by Dr. MK Jayanthi Kannan
Module – 4 IoT Physical Devices and End Point-
Aurdino Uno
7
Arduino UNO:
 Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328P.
 It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6
analog inputs, a 16 MHz quartz crystal, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP
header and a reset button.
 "Uno" means one in Italian and was chosen to mark the release of Arduino Software
(IDE) 1.0. The Uno board and version 1.0 of Arduino Software (IDE) were the
reference versions of Arduino, now evolved to newer releases.
Internet of Things(Elective 2) Prepared by Dr. MK Jayanthi Kannan
Module – IoT Physical Devices and End Point-
Aurdino Uno
8
1. Reset Button – This will restart any code that is loaded tothe
Arduino board
2. AREF – Stands for “Analog Reference” and is used to set an
external reference voltage
3. Ground Pin – There are a few ground pins on the Arduinoand
they all work the same
analog output
4.Digital Input/Output – Pins 0-13 can be used for digital input or 12. 3.3V Pin – This pin supplies 3.3 volts of power to your projects
output
13. 5V Pin – This pin supplies 5 volts of power to your projects
5. PWM – The pins marked with the (~) symbol can simulate
6. USB Connection – Used for powering up your Arduino and
uploading sketches
7. TX/RX – Transmit and receive data indicationLEDs
8. ATmega Microcontroller – This is the brains and is where the
programs are stored
9. Power LED Indicator – This LED lights up anytime the board is
plugged in a power source
10. Voltage Regulator – This controls the amount of voltage going
into the Arduino board
11. DC Power Barrel Jack – This is used for poweringyour
Arduino with a power supply
14. Ground Pins – There are a few ground pins on theArduino
and they all work the same
15. Analog Pins – These pins can read the signal from an analog
sensor and convert it to digital
9
Module – 6 IoT Physical Devices and End Point-
Aurdino Uno
Internet of Things(Elective 2) Prepared by Dr. MK Jayanthi Kannan
Module –4 IoT Physical Devices and End Point-Aurdino
Uno
Fundamentals of Arduino Programming:
Two required functions / methods / routines:
void setup()
{
// runs once
}
void loop()
{
// repeats
}
10
digitalWrite()
analogWrite()
digitalRead()
if() statements/ Boolean
analogRead()
Serialcommunication
BIG
6
CONCEPTS
Comments, Comments, Comments
Comments
// this is for single line comments
// it’s good to put at the top and before anything ‘tricky’
/* this is for multi-line comments
Like this…
And this….
*/
comments
Three commands to know…
pinMode(pin, INPUT/OUTPUT);
ex: pinMode(13, OUTPUT);
digitalWrite(pin, HIGH/LOW);
ex: digitalWrite(13, HIGH);
delay(time_ms);
ex: delay(2500); // delay of 2.5 sec.
// NOTE: -> commands are CASE-sensitive
Arduino Code Basics
Arduino programs run on two basic sections:
void setup() {
//setup motors, sensors etc
}
void loop() {
// get information from sensors
// send commands to motors
}
SETUP
16 16
The setup section is used for assigning input and outputs
(Examples: motors, LED’s,sensors etc) to ports on theArduino
It also specifies whether the device is OUTPUT or INPUT
To do this we use the command “pinMode”
SETUP
void setup() {
pinMode(9, OUTPUT);
}
port #
Input or Output
void loop() {
digitalWrite(9, HIGH);
delay(1000);
digitalWrite(9, LOW);
delay(1000);
}
L
OOP
Port # from setup
Turn the LED on
or off
Wait for 1 second
or 1000 milliseconds
18
int val = 5;
DECLARING A VARIABLE
Type
assignment
“becomes”
variable name
value
19
USING VARIABLES
int delayTime = 2000;
digitalWrite(greenLED, HIGH);
delay(delayTime);
}
int greenLED = 9;
void setup() {
Declare delayTime
pinMode(greenLED, OUTPUT)V;ariable
}
void loop() {
Use delayTime
digitalWrite(greenLED, LOVWa)ri;able
delay(delayTime);
20
Using Variables
int delayTime = 2000;
int greenLED = 9;
}
void setup() {
pinMode(greenLED, OUTPUT);
}
void loop() {
digitalWrite(greenLED, HIGH);
delay(delayTime);
digitalWrite(greenLED, LOW);
delayTime = delayTime - 100;
delay(delayTime);
subtract 100 from
21
delayTime to gradually
increase LED’s blinking
speed
Conditions
To make decisions in Arduino code we
use an ‘if’ statement
‘If’ statements are based on a TRUE or
FALSE question
23
VALUE COMPARISONS
GREATER THAN
a > b
LESS
a < b
EQUAL
a == b
GREATER THAN OR EQUAL
a >= b
LESS THAN OR EQUAL
a <= b
NOT EQUAL
a != b
IF Condition
if(true)
{
“perform some action”
}
25
int counter = 0;
void setup() {
Serial.begin(9600);
}
void loop() {
if(counter < 10)
{
Serial.println(counter);
}
counter = counter + 1;
}
IF Example
Input & Output
Transferring data from the computer to an Arduino
is done using Serial Transmission
To setup Serial communication we use the following
26
void setup() {
Serial.begin(9600);
}
26
Writing to the Console
void setup() {
Serial.begin(9600);
Serial.println(“Hello World!”);
}
void loop() {}
27
IF - ELSE
Condition
if( “answer is true”)
{
“perform some action”
}
else
{
“perform some other action”
}
29
int counter = 0;
void setup() {
Serial.begin(9600);
}
void loop() {
if(counter < 10)
{
Serial.println(“less than 10”);
}
else
{
Serial.println(“greater than or equal to 10”);
Serial.end();
}
counter = counter + 1;}
IF - ELSE Example
IF - ELSE IF
Condition
if( “answer is true”)
{
“perform some action”
}
else if( “answer is true”)
{
“perform some other action”
}
31
int counter = 0;
void setup() {
Serial.begin(9600);
}
void loop() {
if(counter < 10)
{
Serial.println(“less than 10”);
}
else if (counter == 10)
{
Serial.println(“equal to 10”);
}
else
{
Serial.println(“greater than 10”);
Serial.end();
}
counter = counter + 1;
}
IF - ELSE Example
BOOLEAN OPERATORS - AND
32 32
If we want all of the conditions to be true we need to use ‘AND’ logic (AND gate)
We use the symbols &&
• Example
if ( val > 10 && val < 20)
BOOLEAN OPERATORS - OR
33 32
If we want either of the conditions to be true we need to use ‘OR’ logic (OR gate)
We use the symbols ||
• Example
if ( val < 10 || val > 20)
34
BOOLEAN VARIABLES
boolean done = true;
boolean done = false;
void setup() {
Serial.begin(9600);}
void loop() {
if(!done) {
Serial.println(“HELLOWORLD”);
done = true; }
}
Important functions
• Serial.println(value);
– Prints the value to the Serial Monitor on your computer
• pinMode(pin, mode);
– Configures a digital pin to read (input) or write (output) a digital value
• digitalRead(pin);
– Reads a digital value (HIGH or LOW) on a pin set for input
• digitalWrite(pin, value);
– Writes the digital value (HIGH or LOW) to a pin set for output
• Essential Programming Concepts
– Delay
– Infinite Loop
• General Input/Output
– Polling or Busy/Wait I/O
– Interrupt Processing
• Timers and Internal Inteerrupts
• High-Level Language Extensions
• Code Transformations for Embedded Computing
– Loop Unrolling
– Loop Merging
– Loop Peeling
– Loop Tiling
OUTLINE
• Delays are essential in embedded systems, unlike high-
performance systems where we want the program to
execute as fast as possible
• Delays are used to synchronize events, or read inputs
with a specific sampling freqency (more on Bus/Wait I/O)
DELAY (1/3)
• Okay, so how do we build a delay function?
• Our reference is the system clock frequency
• We use a register or a timer to measure ticks
• Each tick is 1/frequency
• Example: Assuming a 16-bit processor, an increment
and a jump instruction is 1-cycle each and a 10 MHz
system clock, build a 1-sec delay:
• T = 1/10 MHz = 100 ns
• 1 s/100 ns = 10,000,000
int i=5000000; //2 ticks per iteration
BACK: i--;
if (i!=0) goto BACK;
DELAY (3/3)
• Embedded Systems are mostly single-functioned
• Their core application never terminates
• Infinite loops are not forbidden as long as they are done
correctly
Infinite Loop (1/2)
void main()
{
light enum {RED, ORANGE, GREEN};
loop: light = RED; //no exit from loop!
delay(20000); //20-sec red
light = ORANGE;
//2-sed orange
delay(2000);
light = GREEN;
delay(20000);
goto loop;
//20-sec green
//just repeat sequence
}
Infinite Loop (2/2)
 ARUDINO UNO and RasberryPi with Python

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ARUDINO UNO and RasberryPi with Python

  • 1. Internet of Things IoT Physical Devices and End points and RaspberryPi
  • 2. Internet of Things IoT Physical Devices and Endpoints Internet of Things(Elective 2) Prepared by Dr. MK Jayanthi Kannan
  • 3. 2 Course Specification By Dr. M.K. Jayanthi Kannan, M.E.,MS.,MBA., M.Phil., Ph.D., Professor and HOD ISE, Faculty of Engineering & Technology, JAIN Deemed To-Be University, Bengaluru. Staff Room: 324- 8. Office Hours : 8.30 AM -4 PM Department of Computer Science and Engineering, FET Block, Internet of Things ( Elective 2) by Dr.M.K.Jayanthi Kannan
  • 4. Module 4 : Arduino UNO, RaspberryPi with Python IoT Physical Devices and Endpoints Arduino UNO: Introduction to Arduino, • Arduino UNO, Installing the Software, • Fundamentals of Arduino Programming. • IoT Physical Devices and Endpoints. RaspberryPi: Introduction to RaspberryPi, • About the RaspberryPi Board: Hardware Layout, • Operating Systems on RaspberryPi, Configuring. Internet of Things(Elective 2) Prepared by Dr. MK Jayanthi Kannan
  • 5. Module – 4 IoT Physical Devices and End Point-Aurdino UNO 1 Arduino:  Arduino is an open-source electronics platform based on easy- to-use hardware and software.  Arduino boards are able to read inputs - light on a sensor, a finger on a button, or a Twitter message - and turn it into an output - activating a motor, turning on an LED, publishing something online. Internet of Things(Elective 2) Prepared by Dr. MK Jayanthi Kannan
  • 6. IoT Physical Devices and End Point-Aurdino Uno 1 Arduino:  Arduino is an open-source electronics platform based on easy- to-use hardware and software.  Arduino boards are able to read inputs - light on a sensor, a finger on a button, or a Twitter message - and turn it into an output - activating a motor, turning on an LED, publishing something online. Internet of Things(Elective 2) Prepared by Dr. MK Jayanthi Kannan
  • 7. Module – 4 IoT Physical Devices and End Point- Aurdino Uno 7 Arduino UNO:  Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328P.  It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz quartz crystal, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header and a reset button.  "Uno" means one in Italian and was chosen to mark the release of Arduino Software (IDE) 1.0. The Uno board and version 1.0 of Arduino Software (IDE) were the reference versions of Arduino, now evolved to newer releases. Internet of Things(Elective 2) Prepared by Dr. MK Jayanthi Kannan
  • 8. Module – IoT Physical Devices and End Point- Aurdino Uno 8
  • 9. 1. Reset Button – This will restart any code that is loaded tothe Arduino board 2. AREF – Stands for “Analog Reference” and is used to set an external reference voltage 3. Ground Pin – There are a few ground pins on the Arduinoand they all work the same analog output 4.Digital Input/Output – Pins 0-13 can be used for digital input or 12. 3.3V Pin – This pin supplies 3.3 volts of power to your projects output 13. 5V Pin – This pin supplies 5 volts of power to your projects 5. PWM – The pins marked with the (~) symbol can simulate 6. USB Connection – Used for powering up your Arduino and uploading sketches 7. TX/RX – Transmit and receive data indicationLEDs 8. ATmega Microcontroller – This is the brains and is where the programs are stored 9. Power LED Indicator – This LED lights up anytime the board is plugged in a power source 10. Voltage Regulator – This controls the amount of voltage going into the Arduino board 11. DC Power Barrel Jack – This is used for poweringyour Arduino with a power supply 14. Ground Pins – There are a few ground pins on theArduino and they all work the same 15. Analog Pins – These pins can read the signal from an analog sensor and convert it to digital 9 Module – 6 IoT Physical Devices and End Point- Aurdino Uno Internet of Things(Elective 2) Prepared by Dr. MK Jayanthi Kannan
  • 10. Module –4 IoT Physical Devices and End Point-Aurdino Uno Fundamentals of Arduino Programming: Two required functions / methods / routines: void setup() { // runs once } void loop() { // repeats } 10
  • 12. Comments, Comments, Comments Comments // this is for single line comments // it’s good to put at the top and before anything ‘tricky’ /* this is for multi-line comments Like this… And this…. */
  • 14. Three commands to know… pinMode(pin, INPUT/OUTPUT); ex: pinMode(13, OUTPUT); digitalWrite(pin, HIGH/LOW); ex: digitalWrite(13, HIGH); delay(time_ms); ex: delay(2500); // delay of 2.5 sec. // NOTE: -> commands are CASE-sensitive
  • 15. Arduino Code Basics Arduino programs run on two basic sections: void setup() { //setup motors, sensors etc } void loop() { // get information from sensors // send commands to motors }
  • 16. SETUP 16 16 The setup section is used for assigning input and outputs (Examples: motors, LED’s,sensors etc) to ports on theArduino It also specifies whether the device is OUTPUT or INPUT To do this we use the command “pinMode”
  • 17. SETUP void setup() { pinMode(9, OUTPUT); } port # Input or Output
  • 18. void loop() { digitalWrite(9, HIGH); delay(1000); digitalWrite(9, LOW); delay(1000); } L OOP Port # from setup Turn the LED on or off Wait for 1 second or 1000 milliseconds 18
  • 19. int val = 5; DECLARING A VARIABLE Type assignment “becomes” variable name value 19
  • 20. USING VARIABLES int delayTime = 2000; digitalWrite(greenLED, HIGH); delay(delayTime); } int greenLED = 9; void setup() { Declare delayTime pinMode(greenLED, OUTPUT)V;ariable } void loop() { Use delayTime digitalWrite(greenLED, LOVWa)ri;able delay(delayTime); 20
  • 21. Using Variables int delayTime = 2000; int greenLED = 9; } void setup() { pinMode(greenLED, OUTPUT); } void loop() { digitalWrite(greenLED, HIGH); delay(delayTime); digitalWrite(greenLED, LOW); delayTime = delayTime - 100; delay(delayTime); subtract 100 from 21 delayTime to gradually increase LED’s blinking speed
  • 22. Conditions To make decisions in Arduino code we use an ‘if’ statement ‘If’ statements are based on a TRUE or FALSE question
  • 23. 23 VALUE COMPARISONS GREATER THAN a > b LESS a < b EQUAL a == b GREATER THAN OR EQUAL a >= b LESS THAN OR EQUAL a <= b NOT EQUAL a != b
  • 25. 25 int counter = 0; void setup() { Serial.begin(9600); } void loop() { if(counter < 10) { Serial.println(counter); } counter = counter + 1; } IF Example
  • 26. Input & Output Transferring data from the computer to an Arduino is done using Serial Transmission To setup Serial communication we use the following 26 void setup() { Serial.begin(9600); } 26
  • 27. Writing to the Console void setup() { Serial.begin(9600); Serial.println(“Hello World!”); } void loop() {} 27
  • 28. IF - ELSE Condition if( “answer is true”) { “perform some action” } else { “perform some other action” }
  • 29. 29 int counter = 0; void setup() { Serial.begin(9600); } void loop() { if(counter < 10) { Serial.println(“less than 10”); } else { Serial.println(“greater than or equal to 10”); Serial.end(); } counter = counter + 1;} IF - ELSE Example
  • 30. IF - ELSE IF Condition if( “answer is true”) { “perform some action” } else if( “answer is true”) { “perform some other action” }
  • 31. 31 int counter = 0; void setup() { Serial.begin(9600); } void loop() { if(counter < 10) { Serial.println(“less than 10”); } else if (counter == 10) { Serial.println(“equal to 10”); } else { Serial.println(“greater than 10”); Serial.end(); } counter = counter + 1; } IF - ELSE Example
  • 32. BOOLEAN OPERATORS - AND 32 32 If we want all of the conditions to be true we need to use ‘AND’ logic (AND gate) We use the symbols && • Example if ( val > 10 && val < 20)
  • 33. BOOLEAN OPERATORS - OR 33 32 If we want either of the conditions to be true we need to use ‘OR’ logic (OR gate) We use the symbols || • Example if ( val < 10 || val > 20)
  • 34. 34 BOOLEAN VARIABLES boolean done = true; boolean done = false; void setup() { Serial.begin(9600);} void loop() { if(!done) { Serial.println(“HELLOWORLD”); done = true; } }
  • 35. Important functions • Serial.println(value); – Prints the value to the Serial Monitor on your computer • pinMode(pin, mode); – Configures a digital pin to read (input) or write (output) a digital value • digitalRead(pin); – Reads a digital value (HIGH or LOW) on a pin set for input • digitalWrite(pin, value); – Writes the digital value (HIGH or LOW) to a pin set for output
  • 36. • Essential Programming Concepts – Delay – Infinite Loop • General Input/Output – Polling or Busy/Wait I/O – Interrupt Processing • Timers and Internal Inteerrupts • High-Level Language Extensions • Code Transformations for Embedded Computing – Loop Unrolling – Loop Merging – Loop Peeling – Loop Tiling OUTLINE
  • 37. • Delays are essential in embedded systems, unlike high- performance systems where we want the program to execute as fast as possible • Delays are used to synchronize events, or read inputs with a specific sampling freqency (more on Bus/Wait I/O) DELAY (1/3)
  • 38. • Okay, so how do we build a delay function? • Our reference is the system clock frequency • We use a register or a timer to measure ticks • Each tick is 1/frequency • Example: Assuming a 16-bit processor, an increment and a jump instruction is 1-cycle each and a 10 MHz system clock, build a 1-sec delay: • T = 1/10 MHz = 100 ns • 1 s/100 ns = 10,000,000 int i=5000000; //2 ticks per iteration BACK: i--; if (i!=0) goto BACK; DELAY (3/3)
  • 39. • Embedded Systems are mostly single-functioned • Their core application never terminates • Infinite loops are not forbidden as long as they are done correctly Infinite Loop (1/2)
  • 40. void main() { light enum {RED, ORANGE, GREEN}; loop: light = RED; //no exit from loop! delay(20000); //20-sec red light = ORANGE; //2-sed orange delay(2000); light = GREEN; delay(20000); goto loop; //20-sec green //just repeat sequence } Infinite Loop (2/2)