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Economic DevelopmentEconomic Development
Concepts and IssuesConcepts and Issues
Abdul Baki
Director, BPATC
abaki_23@yahoo.com
Outline
 Definition
 Different views on Development
 Growth vs Development
 Core values of Development
 Objectives of Development
 Development as freedom
 Human Development Index
 Conclusion
Development !!!! ????.........
 What is the meaning of growth if it is not translated into the lives of people?
- UNDPHuman Development Report 1995
 Development can be seen ….. as a process of expanding the real
freedoms that people enjoy.
- Amarya Sen, Nobel Laureate in Economics.
 Our primary goal in development must be reduce the disparities across and
within countries….. The key development challenge of our time is the
challenges of inclusion.
- James D. Wolfensohn, FormerPresident, World Bank
 For a poor person everything is terrible – illness, humiliation, shame. We
are cripples; we are afraid of everything; we depend on everyone. No one
needs us. We are like garbage that everyone wants to get rid of.
- A blind woman fromMoldova
Meaning of Development
Development is not purely an economic
phenomenon but rather a multi-dimensional process
involving reorganization and reorientation of entire
economic ANDsocial system.
Development is process of improving the quality of
all human lives.
Meaning of Development
Development is the CAPACITY of the national economy, whose
initial economic condition has been more or less static for a long
time, to GENERATE and SUSTAIN an annual increase in its
GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT at rates of 5% to 7%
There is a stress on the industrialization often at the expense
of agriculture and rural development.
DEVELOPMENT is seen as an economic phenomena in
which rapid gains in overall growth would either trickle do wn
to the masses in the form of jobs and other economic
opportunities.
TRADITIONAL ECONOMIC MEANING
Meaning of Development
NEW ECONOMIC VIEW
 DEVELOPMENT is the reduction or elimination of poverty,
inequalityandunemployment within the context of a growing
economy.
 The development of PEOPLE rather than development of
things.
 The challenge of development is to IMPROVE the quality of
life. Especially in the world’s poor countries.
 Development means less poverty, cleaner environment, more
equal opportunity, greater individual freedom and a richer
cultural life.
Sen’s View
““Economic growth cannot be sensibly treatedEconomic growth cannot be sensibly treated
as an end in itself. Development has to beas an end in itself. Development has to be
more concerned with enhancing the lives wemore concerned with enhancing the lives we
lead and the freedoms we enjoy.”lead and the freedoms we enjoy.”
Amartya SenAmartya Sen
Development as FreedomDevelopment as Freedom
1998 Nobel Laureate in Economics1998 Nobel Laureate in Economics
Sen’s cont’d..
 Sen attempts to expand the basic interpretations of
freedom by examining five elemental forms of
instrumental freedoms:
 political freedoms,
 economic facilities,
 social opportunities,
 transparency guarantees, and
 protective security.
 These freedoms constitute not only the means, but
also the ends in development.
Common Characteristics ofCommon Characteristics of
Developing NationsDeveloping Nations
 Political instabilityPolitical instability
 Policy inconsistencyPolicy inconsistency
 Low levels of livingLow levels of living
standardstandard
 Low levels ofLow levels of
productivityproductivity
 High rates ofHigh rates of
population growthpopulation growth
and dependencyand dependency
burdensburdens
 Resource gapResource gap
 High levels ofHigh levels of
unemployment andunemployment and
underemploymentunderemployment
 Dependence onDependence on
agriculturalagricultural
production andproduction and
primary-productprimary-product
exportsexports
 Prevalence ofPrevalence of
imperfect marketsimperfect markets
 Weak institutionsWeak institutions
Growth vs Development
 Economic growth is the increase of a nation’s real output
(GDP).
- Is a quantity based concept - not quality based
- A direct measure of changes in the size of the
economy
 Economic development is the process by which a nation
enhances its standard of living over time.
 GDP per capita is considered as a key indicator of
Development.
Objectives of Development
The improvement in the access and
distribution of basic necessities
The improvement of living standards
The expansion economic and social
opportunities
Three Core Values of Development
Sustenance: The Ability to Meet Basic Needs
All the persons have certain basic needs which are necessary
for the survival. They consist of food, shelter, health and
protection. If any one of them is missing or in short supply in
any economy it would represent the state of under-
development.
Self-Esteem: To Be a Person
A second universal component of the good life is a self-esteem,
a sense of worth and self-respect. It means that the other
people could not use him for their own ends. It also means that
each person should be given his due respect and due right.
Three Core Values of Development
(cont’d..)
 Freedom from Servitude: To Be Able to choose
 The third universal value required for economic development
is concerned with human freedom. By freedom it means the
emancipation from alienating material conditions of life and
from social servitude to nature, ignorance, other people,
misery, institutions and dogmatic beliefs.
Economic Development: How the notion evolved
over time
 Economic history of the modern world started with the
Industrial Revolution (17th
Century)
 Factory-based industrial production came into being
 Markets expanded :
 Division of labour promoted large-scale production.
 Larger surplus led to greater capital formation, investment,
production capacity and growth of income
 The economy transformed gradually
- From a primarily agricultural to an industrial economy
Cont’d…..
 ArthurLewis’ model of Economic
Development
- Mobilize surplus generated by agriculture.
- Use this surplus to set up industry.
- Shift surplus labour from agriculture to newly set up
industry.
- This will set in a process of industrialization and
income growth.
Cont’d…..
 The Trickle Down question :
- Does a higher overall income growth rate mean a
higher income level for all?
 Experience of countries during the 1960s :
 Most developing countries of Asia, Africa & Latin
America experienced income growth along with rising
income inequality
In most of these countries incidence of absolute
poverty increased.
Cont’d….
 Simon Kuznets’ hypothesis :
– With rising per capita income, income inequality rises
first and then starts declining after a threshold income
level has been crossed.
 Many country experiences corroborated this hypothesis.
Policy implication of Kuznets’ hypothesis:
 Intervention needed to improve income
distribution & alleviate poverty of the population.
Cont’d….
 Poverty took up the centre stage of
development discussions in late 1970s
 Concept of Absolute Poverty in terms of Food
Security & Nutritional Inadequacy evolved
 Along with percapita income & income
inequality measure, incidence of poverty
became a major development indicator of the
developing countries of the World.
Cont’d….
 In mid 1980s, ProfessorAmartya Sen enunciated a
comprehensive notion of Human welfare in terms of
his famous Entitlement, Capabilities & Functioning
concepts.
 In brief :
- Welfare / Well being derives from consumption
(of goods & services)
- Access to consumption requires Entitlement (in
terms of purchasing power for procuring goods &
services for consumption)
Cont’d….
 Capabilities (defined in terms of health, access
to education, Knowledge & information) helps
converting consumption into welfare i.e
command over commodities
 Lack of entitlement / capabilities is defined to be
violation of proper Functioning
Development puzzle
Growth without Development
 High level income
 Poor health and education standard
 High inequality
Development puzzle cont’d…..
 The World Bank (2005) : “different policies can yield the same result,
and the same policy can yield different results, depending on country
institutio nalco nte xts and unde rlying g ro wth strate g ie s .”
 There is no single set of policies that can be guaranteed to ignite
sustained growth. Nations that have succeeded at this tremendously
important task have faced different sets of obstacles and have
adopted varying policies .
 It seems harder than ever to identify the keys to growth. For every
example, there is a counter-example. The current nostrum of o ne
size do e sn’t fit allis not itself a big idea, but a way of expressing the
absence of any big ideas.
Development is fragile and unpredictable (!!)
 Brazil and Cote d’Ivoire were success stories of 1960-
80, China and India were definitely NOT
 China and India are success stories 1980-2007, Brazil
and Cote d’Ivoire definitely NOT
 Different answers that have disappointed: investment,
education, health, privatization, structural adjustment,
population control, foreign aid.
 Noconsensus amongdevelopment economists about
how to achievedevelopment
Freedom from foreign control
 Growth under colonialism was poor, growth has been
much higher since independence in most countries
 Growth under foreign aid/structural adjustment is poor
 Most successful examples of growth are homegrown :
China, India, Vietnam, Turkey, Chile, Singapore, Taiwan,
South Korea, Mauritius.
 Each society figured out its own unique path to
accommodate dynamic individuals. Not told what to do by
international organizations or invading armies.
Cont’d…..
Democracy and development
 The impact of Democracy and Development is
mixed. This is a “Chicken and egg problem”.
 Experiences from East Asian Countries (China,
S Korea, Japan, Singapore, Malaysia), India
Latin America and African nations
 Empirical results for in 1980s and later show that
multiparty democratic states have better
economic policies than autocratic ones.
Classification of countries by World Bank
 
Countries are divided in the following
income groups (based on GNI 2011):
 Low income : $1,025 or less
 Lower middle income : $1,026 to $4,035
 Upper middle income : $4,036 to $12,475
 High income : $12,476 or more
 In late 1980s, Professor Mahbub Ul Haq, under
the auspices of UNDP concretized &
implemented Human Development as a
measurable concept.
 As a core concept, Human Development
encompasses three basic dimensions :
Human Development Index (HDI) UNDP
– Income
– Health
– Literacy
Features of HDI
 Scale 0 to 1
 Indicators :
 Longevity – as measured by Life expectancy in birth
 Knowledge – as measured by a weighted average of
adult literacy (two-third) and mean years average of
schooling (one third)
 Standard of living- as measured by real per capita
GDP adjusted for Purchasing power parity (PPP)
HDI 2013
Country Rank Value HD Group Life expectancy
(yr.)
Per capita PPP
($)
Bangladesh 146 0.515 Low 69.2 1785
India 136 0.554 Medium 65.4 3468
Pakistan 146 0.515 Low 65.4 2550
Srilanka 92 0.715 Medium 74.9 4943
Nepal 157 0-463 Low 68.8 1160
Bhutan 140 0.538 Medium 67.2 5293
Maldives 104 0.688 Medium 76.8 5276
Afghanistan 175 0.374 Low 48.7 1416
China 101 0.699 Medium 73.5 7476
South Africa 121 0.629 Medium 52.8 9469
Brazil 85 0.788 High 73.5 10162
Russia 55 0.755 High 68.8 14561
USA 3 0.937 Very high 80.7 36402
Norway 1 0.955 Very high 81.1 47567
Japan 10 0.912 Very high 83.4 32295
Source: Human Development Report 2013, UNDP.
HDI 2013 Comparison among groups
HDI group Average Value Average Life
Expectancy
Average Per
capita PPP ($)
Very High 0.905 80.0 33352
High 0.758 73.1 11579
Medium 0.640 69.7 5276
Low 0.466 58.7 1585
South Asia 0.558 65.9 3435
LDCs 0.449 59.1 1327
Bangladesh 0.515 68.9 1785
Source: Human Development Report 2013, UNDP.
United Nations’United Nations’
Millennium Development Goals (MDG)Millennium Development Goals (MDG)
1.1. Eradicate Extreme Hunger and PovertyEradicate Extreme Hunger and Poverty
2.2. Achieve Universal Primary EducationAchieve Universal Primary Education
3.3. Promote Gender Equality and Empower WomenPromote Gender Equality and Empower Women
4.4. Reduce Child MortalityReduce Child Mortality
5.5. Improve Maternal HealthImprove Maternal Health
6.6. Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseasesCombat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases
7.7. Ensure Environmental StabilityEnsure Environmental Stability
8.8. Develop a Global Partnership for DevelopmentDevelop a Global Partnership for Development
In 1987 Brundtland report “Our CommonIn 1987 Brundtland report “Our Common
Future” definedFuture” defined sustainable developmentsustainable development asas
development that ‘meets the needs of thedevelopment that ‘meets the needs of the
present generation without compromising thepresent generation without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet theirability of future generations to meet their
needs’ (WCED 1987).needs’ (WCED 1987).
Thank you

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Economic development

  • 1. Economic DevelopmentEconomic Development Concepts and IssuesConcepts and Issues Abdul Baki Director, BPATC abaki_23@yahoo.com
  • 2. Outline  Definition  Different views on Development  Growth vs Development  Core values of Development  Objectives of Development  Development as freedom  Human Development Index  Conclusion
  • 3. Development !!!! ????.........  What is the meaning of growth if it is not translated into the lives of people? - UNDPHuman Development Report 1995  Development can be seen ….. as a process of expanding the real freedoms that people enjoy. - Amarya Sen, Nobel Laureate in Economics.  Our primary goal in development must be reduce the disparities across and within countries….. The key development challenge of our time is the challenges of inclusion. - James D. Wolfensohn, FormerPresident, World Bank  For a poor person everything is terrible – illness, humiliation, shame. We are cripples; we are afraid of everything; we depend on everyone. No one needs us. We are like garbage that everyone wants to get rid of. - A blind woman fromMoldova
  • 4. Meaning of Development Development is not purely an economic phenomenon but rather a multi-dimensional process involving reorganization and reorientation of entire economic ANDsocial system. Development is process of improving the quality of all human lives.
  • 5. Meaning of Development Development is the CAPACITY of the national economy, whose initial economic condition has been more or less static for a long time, to GENERATE and SUSTAIN an annual increase in its GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT at rates of 5% to 7% There is a stress on the industrialization often at the expense of agriculture and rural development. DEVELOPMENT is seen as an economic phenomena in which rapid gains in overall growth would either trickle do wn to the masses in the form of jobs and other economic opportunities. TRADITIONAL ECONOMIC MEANING
  • 6. Meaning of Development NEW ECONOMIC VIEW  DEVELOPMENT is the reduction or elimination of poverty, inequalityandunemployment within the context of a growing economy.  The development of PEOPLE rather than development of things.  The challenge of development is to IMPROVE the quality of life. Especially in the world’s poor countries.  Development means less poverty, cleaner environment, more equal opportunity, greater individual freedom and a richer cultural life.
  • 7. Sen’s View ““Economic growth cannot be sensibly treatedEconomic growth cannot be sensibly treated as an end in itself. Development has to beas an end in itself. Development has to be more concerned with enhancing the lives wemore concerned with enhancing the lives we lead and the freedoms we enjoy.”lead and the freedoms we enjoy.” Amartya SenAmartya Sen Development as FreedomDevelopment as Freedom 1998 Nobel Laureate in Economics1998 Nobel Laureate in Economics
  • 8. Sen’s cont’d..  Sen attempts to expand the basic interpretations of freedom by examining five elemental forms of instrumental freedoms:  political freedoms,  economic facilities,  social opportunities,  transparency guarantees, and  protective security.  These freedoms constitute not only the means, but also the ends in development.
  • 9. Common Characteristics ofCommon Characteristics of Developing NationsDeveloping Nations  Political instabilityPolitical instability  Policy inconsistencyPolicy inconsistency  Low levels of livingLow levels of living standardstandard  Low levels ofLow levels of productivityproductivity  High rates ofHigh rates of population growthpopulation growth and dependencyand dependency burdensburdens  Resource gapResource gap  High levels ofHigh levels of unemployment andunemployment and underemploymentunderemployment  Dependence onDependence on agriculturalagricultural production andproduction and primary-productprimary-product exportsexports  Prevalence ofPrevalence of imperfect marketsimperfect markets  Weak institutionsWeak institutions
  • 10. Growth vs Development  Economic growth is the increase of a nation’s real output (GDP). - Is a quantity based concept - not quality based - A direct measure of changes in the size of the economy  Economic development is the process by which a nation enhances its standard of living over time.  GDP per capita is considered as a key indicator of Development.
  • 11. Objectives of Development The improvement in the access and distribution of basic necessities The improvement of living standards The expansion economic and social opportunities
  • 12. Three Core Values of Development Sustenance: The Ability to Meet Basic Needs All the persons have certain basic needs which are necessary for the survival. They consist of food, shelter, health and protection. If any one of them is missing or in short supply in any economy it would represent the state of under- development. Self-Esteem: To Be a Person A second universal component of the good life is a self-esteem, a sense of worth and self-respect. It means that the other people could not use him for their own ends. It also means that each person should be given his due respect and due right.
  • 13. Three Core Values of Development (cont’d..)  Freedom from Servitude: To Be Able to choose  The third universal value required for economic development is concerned with human freedom. By freedom it means the emancipation from alienating material conditions of life and from social servitude to nature, ignorance, other people, misery, institutions and dogmatic beliefs.
  • 14. Economic Development: How the notion evolved over time  Economic history of the modern world started with the Industrial Revolution (17th Century)  Factory-based industrial production came into being  Markets expanded :  Division of labour promoted large-scale production.  Larger surplus led to greater capital formation, investment, production capacity and growth of income  The economy transformed gradually - From a primarily agricultural to an industrial economy
  • 15. Cont’d…..  ArthurLewis’ model of Economic Development - Mobilize surplus generated by agriculture. - Use this surplus to set up industry. - Shift surplus labour from agriculture to newly set up industry. - This will set in a process of industrialization and income growth.
  • 16. Cont’d…..  The Trickle Down question : - Does a higher overall income growth rate mean a higher income level for all?  Experience of countries during the 1960s :  Most developing countries of Asia, Africa & Latin America experienced income growth along with rising income inequality In most of these countries incidence of absolute poverty increased.
  • 17. Cont’d….  Simon Kuznets’ hypothesis : – With rising per capita income, income inequality rises first and then starts declining after a threshold income level has been crossed.  Many country experiences corroborated this hypothesis. Policy implication of Kuznets’ hypothesis:  Intervention needed to improve income distribution & alleviate poverty of the population.
  • 18. Cont’d….  Poverty took up the centre stage of development discussions in late 1970s  Concept of Absolute Poverty in terms of Food Security & Nutritional Inadequacy evolved  Along with percapita income & income inequality measure, incidence of poverty became a major development indicator of the developing countries of the World.
  • 19. Cont’d….  In mid 1980s, ProfessorAmartya Sen enunciated a comprehensive notion of Human welfare in terms of his famous Entitlement, Capabilities & Functioning concepts.  In brief : - Welfare / Well being derives from consumption (of goods & services) - Access to consumption requires Entitlement (in terms of purchasing power for procuring goods & services for consumption)
  • 20. Cont’d….  Capabilities (defined in terms of health, access to education, Knowledge & information) helps converting consumption into welfare i.e command over commodities  Lack of entitlement / capabilities is defined to be violation of proper Functioning
  • 21. Development puzzle Growth without Development  High level income  Poor health and education standard  High inequality
  • 22. Development puzzle cont’d…..  The World Bank (2005) : “different policies can yield the same result, and the same policy can yield different results, depending on country institutio nalco nte xts and unde rlying g ro wth strate g ie s .”  There is no single set of policies that can be guaranteed to ignite sustained growth. Nations that have succeeded at this tremendously important task have faced different sets of obstacles and have adopted varying policies .  It seems harder than ever to identify the keys to growth. For every example, there is a counter-example. The current nostrum of o ne size do e sn’t fit allis not itself a big idea, but a way of expressing the absence of any big ideas.
  • 23. Development is fragile and unpredictable (!!)  Brazil and Cote d’Ivoire were success stories of 1960- 80, China and India were definitely NOT  China and India are success stories 1980-2007, Brazil and Cote d’Ivoire definitely NOT  Different answers that have disappointed: investment, education, health, privatization, structural adjustment, population control, foreign aid.  Noconsensus amongdevelopment economists about how to achievedevelopment
  • 24. Freedom from foreign control  Growth under colonialism was poor, growth has been much higher since independence in most countries  Growth under foreign aid/structural adjustment is poor  Most successful examples of growth are homegrown : China, India, Vietnam, Turkey, Chile, Singapore, Taiwan, South Korea, Mauritius.  Each society figured out its own unique path to accommodate dynamic individuals. Not told what to do by international organizations or invading armies.
  • 26. Democracy and development  The impact of Democracy and Development is mixed. This is a “Chicken and egg problem”.  Experiences from East Asian Countries (China, S Korea, Japan, Singapore, Malaysia), India Latin America and African nations  Empirical results for in 1980s and later show that multiparty democratic states have better economic policies than autocratic ones.
  • 27. Classification of countries by World Bank   Countries are divided in the following income groups (based on GNI 2011):  Low income : $1,025 or less  Lower middle income : $1,026 to $4,035  Upper middle income : $4,036 to $12,475  High income : $12,476 or more
  • 28.  In late 1980s, Professor Mahbub Ul Haq, under the auspices of UNDP concretized & implemented Human Development as a measurable concept.  As a core concept, Human Development encompasses three basic dimensions : Human Development Index (HDI) UNDP – Income – Health – Literacy
  • 29. Features of HDI  Scale 0 to 1  Indicators :  Longevity – as measured by Life expectancy in birth  Knowledge – as measured by a weighted average of adult literacy (two-third) and mean years average of schooling (one third)  Standard of living- as measured by real per capita GDP adjusted for Purchasing power parity (PPP)
  • 30. HDI 2013 Country Rank Value HD Group Life expectancy (yr.) Per capita PPP ($) Bangladesh 146 0.515 Low 69.2 1785 India 136 0.554 Medium 65.4 3468 Pakistan 146 0.515 Low 65.4 2550 Srilanka 92 0.715 Medium 74.9 4943 Nepal 157 0-463 Low 68.8 1160 Bhutan 140 0.538 Medium 67.2 5293 Maldives 104 0.688 Medium 76.8 5276 Afghanistan 175 0.374 Low 48.7 1416 China 101 0.699 Medium 73.5 7476 South Africa 121 0.629 Medium 52.8 9469 Brazil 85 0.788 High 73.5 10162 Russia 55 0.755 High 68.8 14561 USA 3 0.937 Very high 80.7 36402 Norway 1 0.955 Very high 81.1 47567 Japan 10 0.912 Very high 83.4 32295 Source: Human Development Report 2013, UNDP.
  • 31. HDI 2013 Comparison among groups HDI group Average Value Average Life Expectancy Average Per capita PPP ($) Very High 0.905 80.0 33352 High 0.758 73.1 11579 Medium 0.640 69.7 5276 Low 0.466 58.7 1585 South Asia 0.558 65.9 3435 LDCs 0.449 59.1 1327 Bangladesh 0.515 68.9 1785 Source: Human Development Report 2013, UNDP.
  • 32. United Nations’United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals (MDG)Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 1.1. Eradicate Extreme Hunger and PovertyEradicate Extreme Hunger and Poverty 2.2. Achieve Universal Primary EducationAchieve Universal Primary Education 3.3. Promote Gender Equality and Empower WomenPromote Gender Equality and Empower Women 4.4. Reduce Child MortalityReduce Child Mortality 5.5. Improve Maternal HealthImprove Maternal Health 6.6. Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseasesCombat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases 7.7. Ensure Environmental StabilityEnsure Environmental Stability 8.8. Develop a Global Partnership for DevelopmentDevelop a Global Partnership for Development
  • 33. In 1987 Brundtland report “Our CommonIn 1987 Brundtland report “Our Common Future” definedFuture” defined sustainable developmentsustainable development asas development that ‘meets the needs of thedevelopment that ‘meets the needs of the present generation without compromising thepresent generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet theirability of future generations to meet their needs’ (WCED 1987).needs’ (WCED 1987).