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The Upper Hand of Disruptive Innovation: Driving New Product Development Success Arik R. Johnson UWEC Entrepreneur Program Development & Leadership Institute Eau Claire, Wisconsin, USA CEO & Managing Director, Aurora WDC Two-Hour Workshop [email_address] Thursday 05 April 2007
Defining Objectives for Today Rewind 25 Years to See Where Competitive Intelligence Has Come From Understand the New Techniques that can be Used to Understand & Produce High-Impact Analysis Based on the Core Theories of Innovation Practice Applying those Techniques in Real-Life “Vignettes” using the Core Theories of Innovation as the Analytical Framework
Three Intelligence Trends Organizational Acculturation  – Everyone in the Firm is a Virtual Member of the CI Team Corporate Governance  – Board-level Priority for Ensuring Reliability of the Earnings Forecast (Vioxx/Celebrex Impact, SarbOx 402, etc.) Disruptive Innovation  – Predicting Outcome of Competitive Battles based on Product Strategy & Predictable Dynamics
CI is About Better Decision-Making Strategic Decisions What Business are We in and Where are New Opportunities for Growth? Operational Decisions How do we structure those business units to most effectively compete for and win Market Share? Tactical Decisions Which customers are available to us and how can we convince them to select us over any and all functional equivalents?
Research Collection Sources Where does the information come from? Primary Research We may share customers, prospects and suppliers who can be interviewed. Every company has knowledgeable employees with loose lips. Secondary Research Companies release information for promotional, image and regulatory purposes. No Company Operates in Isolation Information is exchanged everywhere money is exchanged.
Analysis is Key The Difference Between Data and Intelligence “ The competitor would make a good acquisition candidate. Its lean & mean structure would fit well with our current operations.” Intelligence: The insight that will allow you to make an informed decision “ After gathering more operational information and running a side-by-side profit & loss analysis, it appears the competitor has become highly efficient. It exceeds industry standards and has become a best-in-class facility.” Analysis: Distilled information “ Based on the D&B and the salesperson’s report, it appears the competitor has lost business.” Information: A pooling of these bits of facts, observations and rumors 2001: “The D&B report told us that the competitors plant had 100 employees.” 2004: “One of our salespeople just passed by the competitor’s plant and spotted only 30 cars in the lot.” Data: Scattered bits and pieces of facts, observations and rumors
Porter’s Five Forces Model
Two Fundamental Competitive Analysis Examples SWOT Analysis Core Competence
Strategic Intelligence Principles of Defensive Warfare Only the market leader should consider playing defense. The best defensive strategy is the courage to attack  yourself. Strong competitive moves should always be blocked. Principles of Offensive Warfare The main consideration is the strength of the leader's position. Find a weakness in the leader's strength and attack at that point. Launch the attack on as narrow a front as possible. Principles of Flanking Warfare A good flanking move must be made into an uncontested area. Tactical surprise ought to be an important  element of the plan. The pursuit is just as critical as the attack itself. Principles of Guerilla Warfare Find a segment of the market small enough  to defend. No matter how successful you  become, never act like the leader. Be prepared to bug out at a moment's notice. -- Jack Trout Guerilla Small Players Finding market small enough to defend Prepared to bug out at moment’s notice Flanking New Players Moving into uncontested area Element of surprise Offensive No 2 or No 3 Avoiding leader’s strengths Attacking leader’s weaknesses Defensive Market Leaders Attacking themselves with new ideas Blocking competitive moves The Strategy Square
Growth Vector Analysis Growth Vector Analysis (GVA) reviews the different product alternatives available to the firm in relation to its market options, not already being pursued by competitors. Four complimentary characteristics are used for defining common threads of strategy: Product-Market Scope  specifies particular industries to which a firm confines its position. Growth Vector  indicates the direction a firm is moving relative to current product-market posture (market penetration, market development, product development and diversification). Competitive Advantage  defined as particular properties of individual product markets conveying a strong market position. Synergy  is the combined effect on the firm’s resources that is greater than the sum of its parts.   Present Products Improved Products New Products Existing Market Market Penetration Product Extension Product Development Expanded Market Market Extension Market Segmentation / Product Differentiation Product Development / Market Extension New Market Market Development Product/Service Extension & Market Development Diversification
Traditional CI Follows a Disciplined Process for Information Collection and Analysis Deliver, Inform & Recommend Planning &  Direction Secondary Research Analysis & Production Primary Research Tactical Users &  Strategic Decision Makers Needs The Traditional CI Cycle
Key Intelligence Topics (KITs) Process of Interactive Dialog with Decision-Makers through KIT Interviews; Consists of 3 Protocols w/Subtle Differences: Strategic Decisions/Issues Key Marketplace Players Early-Warning Topics
Tactical CI Project Example: Cost Analysis
Level of CI Involvement in M&A Stage   ID   Evaluate  Due    Consum- Criteria    Targets   Analyze  Diligence  Recommend  Negotiation  mation  Integration Level of CI Involvement High Low Intelligence Research Business Units   Finance   Technical Assessment   Legal Executives   M&A Specialists Transition Team   Logistics   HR
Seven Steps to Effective Competitive Benchmarking Determine functional areas within your operation to be benchmarked . This is likely to be those areas that will benefit most from the benchmarking process, based upon the cost, importance and potential of changes following the study. Identify the key factors and variables  with which to measure those functions. Two general forms – wherewithal/resources and goals/strategy. Select the best-in-class companies  for each area to be benchmarked -- those companies that perform each function at the lowest cost, with the highest degree of customer satisfaction, etc. The companies you select will be those that do whatever you’re measuring better than you do and/or are ones you wish to emulate or copy. Measure performance of the comparison companies  for each benchmark being considered. Measure your own performance  for each variable and begin comparing the results in an "apples-to-apples" format to determine the gap between your firm and the best-in-class examples. Specify programs and actions  to meet and surpass the competition based on a plan developed to enhance those areas that show potential for compliment. Implement your improvement program  by setting specific improvement targets and deadlines, and by developing a monitoring process to review and update the analysis over time. This will also form the basis for ongoing monitoring, revision and recalibration of measurements in future benchmarking studies.
Competitors, Customers & Technologies Are Complex Interdependencies CI is About Learning to See Clearly through Market Illusions
The Duality Continuum of Intelligence Both  Decisive & Incisive Sensing Incisive Scanning for Trends, there is no “Decision” to be made Recognize “Pattern Vector” History Framework for Interpretation Implications for the Reader Bottom-Up Exposition Driven by Trends Outcome is Observation Emergent & Theoretical Decisive Frame of Reference is the Decision, Less Trend-Dependent Framework for Current Analysis Compares Options & Outcomes Recommendations and Trust Top-Down Imposition Driven by Issues Decision & Action vs. ‘Nariyuki’ Factual & Hypothetical
Different Missions, Different Approaches Specialist Slower Production Less Output, More Analytical Agenda Driven by Contact Network Lots of Subject Matter Knowledge Seeks Explanation of the Subject Investigative Very Slow, Curious, Historical Little Output, Highly Analytical Questions Official Positions, Listens to Nonspokesmen Operates Outside Routine Agenda of the Publisher Generalist In a Hurry Lots of Output, Less Analytical Agenda Driven by the Publisher Little Knowledge of Subject Matter Seeks Volume of Public Interest
The Insight Method Take Nothing at Face Value Get to the Facts at the Heart of an Issue Explain Difficult Concepts, Don’t Write Around It Speak to As Many Relevant People as Possible Use Simple, Obvious Questions to Open Subjects Don’t Echo Main Source, Find Other Views Every Company, Person & Issue Has a History that Drives Behavior Today Sunday Times
The Ideal Analyst = Investigative Journalist e.g. Maria Bartiromo (CNBC) Argument/Idea Evangelist Entrepreneurial Passion Quick Study with Intense Curiosity Instinctive but Empirical Project/Deadline Manager Librarian/Information Manager Hard-Core Interviewer Pattern Recognizant Great Communicator Persuasive Position Advocate
Success Breeds Complacency “ It is a classic conundrum for business titans: How much money and attention should be focused on a new, but growing, operation that is far less profitable than the core business?” - Prof. Clayton Christensen,  The Innovator's Dilemma
Consumers “Hire” Products to Do “Jobs” for Them Concentrate Less on What Customers “Want” and More on What Customers “Need”
Disruptive Innovation Theory Sustaining Innovations Better Products Brought to Established Markets Low-End Disruptions Target Overshot Customers with a Lower Cost Business Model New-Market Disruption Compete Against Nonconsumption Difference Performance Measure Time Nonconsumers or Nonconsuming Contexts Performance
Disruptive Technology
Value Chain Evolution Theory Disruptive Business Models: Vertically Integrating VC to Improve What’s “Not Good Enough” in the company’s products and services judged by customers. Performance Defining Subsystems: Companies must control all those activities and combinations of activities in the value chain that drive the product performance characteristics that matter most to customers. Specialists will seek to control performance drivers based on differences in motivation and skills around a modular interface in the VC. (Sword & Shield)
RPV Theory: Building Capabilities Processes Ways to Turn Resources into Products/Services Hiring/Training Product Dev. Manufacturing Budgeting Research Values Prioritization Criteria for Decision-Making Cost Structure Income Statement Customer Demand Opp. Size Ethics Resources Assets the Firm can Buy or Sell, Build or Destroy People Technology Products Equipment Cash/Brand/Distr.
Consumer Demand & Signals of Change Non-Market Contexts: External Forces (Government, Economics, etc.) Increasing or Decreasing Barriers to Innovation Undershot Consumers: Opportunities for Up-Market Sustaining Innovations Overshot Consumers: Opportunities for Low-End Disruption, Shifting Profits by Specialist Displacements (Modularity) and the Emergence of Rules Non-Consumers: Opportunities for New Market Disruptive Growth Established Companies almost always Lose to Disruptive Innovators
Process of Predicting Industry Change Signals of Change Strategic Choices Influencing Success Likely Outcome of Competitive Battles
Process of Predicting Industry Change Breakout Discussions Customer Needs Operational Asset Posture & Alignment Technology & R&D Innovation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Competitor Vignettes A.) Articulate Opposing Worldviews & their Impact on Resulting Competitor Strategy B.) Describe Primary Forces to Consider Driving Competitor Decisions & Industry Change C.) Develop Hypothetical & Factual Frameworks for Research Collection, Impact Analysis and Delivery of Findings and Recommendations
Competitor Vignettes Toyota vs. General Motors Microsoft vs. Google Intel vs. AMD Dell vs. HP Wal-Mart vs. Target
Questions or Comments? www.AuroraWDC.com   www.ReconG2.com Arik R. Johnson Intelligence Leadership Institute [email_address] +01-715-720-1616 Derek L. Johnson Research & Analysis Bureau [email_address] +01-608-268-3470
The CI Think Tank Model TASKING > SENSING > INTERPRETATION

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Disruptive Innovation

  • 1. The Upper Hand of Disruptive Innovation: Driving New Product Development Success Arik R. Johnson UWEC Entrepreneur Program Development & Leadership Institute Eau Claire, Wisconsin, USA CEO & Managing Director, Aurora WDC Two-Hour Workshop [email_address] Thursday 05 April 2007
  • 2. Defining Objectives for Today Rewind 25 Years to See Where Competitive Intelligence Has Come From Understand the New Techniques that can be Used to Understand & Produce High-Impact Analysis Based on the Core Theories of Innovation Practice Applying those Techniques in Real-Life “Vignettes” using the Core Theories of Innovation as the Analytical Framework
  • 3. Three Intelligence Trends Organizational Acculturation – Everyone in the Firm is a Virtual Member of the CI Team Corporate Governance – Board-level Priority for Ensuring Reliability of the Earnings Forecast (Vioxx/Celebrex Impact, SarbOx 402, etc.) Disruptive Innovation – Predicting Outcome of Competitive Battles based on Product Strategy & Predictable Dynamics
  • 4. CI is About Better Decision-Making Strategic Decisions What Business are We in and Where are New Opportunities for Growth? Operational Decisions How do we structure those business units to most effectively compete for and win Market Share? Tactical Decisions Which customers are available to us and how can we convince them to select us over any and all functional equivalents?
  • 5. Research Collection Sources Where does the information come from? Primary Research We may share customers, prospects and suppliers who can be interviewed. Every company has knowledgeable employees with loose lips. Secondary Research Companies release information for promotional, image and regulatory purposes. No Company Operates in Isolation Information is exchanged everywhere money is exchanged.
  • 6. Analysis is Key The Difference Between Data and Intelligence “ The competitor would make a good acquisition candidate. Its lean & mean structure would fit well with our current operations.” Intelligence: The insight that will allow you to make an informed decision “ After gathering more operational information and running a side-by-side profit & loss analysis, it appears the competitor has become highly efficient. It exceeds industry standards and has become a best-in-class facility.” Analysis: Distilled information “ Based on the D&B and the salesperson’s report, it appears the competitor has lost business.” Information: A pooling of these bits of facts, observations and rumors 2001: “The D&B report told us that the competitors plant had 100 employees.” 2004: “One of our salespeople just passed by the competitor’s plant and spotted only 30 cars in the lot.” Data: Scattered bits and pieces of facts, observations and rumors
  • 8. Two Fundamental Competitive Analysis Examples SWOT Analysis Core Competence
  • 9. Strategic Intelligence Principles of Defensive Warfare Only the market leader should consider playing defense. The best defensive strategy is the courage to attack yourself. Strong competitive moves should always be blocked. Principles of Offensive Warfare The main consideration is the strength of the leader's position. Find a weakness in the leader's strength and attack at that point. Launch the attack on as narrow a front as possible. Principles of Flanking Warfare A good flanking move must be made into an uncontested area. Tactical surprise ought to be an important element of the plan. The pursuit is just as critical as the attack itself. Principles of Guerilla Warfare Find a segment of the market small enough to defend. No matter how successful you become, never act like the leader. Be prepared to bug out at a moment's notice. -- Jack Trout Guerilla Small Players Finding market small enough to defend Prepared to bug out at moment’s notice Flanking New Players Moving into uncontested area Element of surprise Offensive No 2 or No 3 Avoiding leader’s strengths Attacking leader’s weaknesses Defensive Market Leaders Attacking themselves with new ideas Blocking competitive moves The Strategy Square
  • 10. Growth Vector Analysis Growth Vector Analysis (GVA) reviews the different product alternatives available to the firm in relation to its market options, not already being pursued by competitors. Four complimentary characteristics are used for defining common threads of strategy: Product-Market Scope specifies particular industries to which a firm confines its position. Growth Vector indicates the direction a firm is moving relative to current product-market posture (market penetration, market development, product development and diversification). Competitive Advantage defined as particular properties of individual product markets conveying a strong market position. Synergy is the combined effect on the firm’s resources that is greater than the sum of its parts.   Present Products Improved Products New Products Existing Market Market Penetration Product Extension Product Development Expanded Market Market Extension Market Segmentation / Product Differentiation Product Development / Market Extension New Market Market Development Product/Service Extension & Market Development Diversification
  • 11. Traditional CI Follows a Disciplined Process for Information Collection and Analysis Deliver, Inform & Recommend Planning & Direction Secondary Research Analysis & Production Primary Research Tactical Users & Strategic Decision Makers Needs The Traditional CI Cycle
  • 12. Key Intelligence Topics (KITs) Process of Interactive Dialog with Decision-Makers through KIT Interviews; Consists of 3 Protocols w/Subtle Differences: Strategic Decisions/Issues Key Marketplace Players Early-Warning Topics
  • 13. Tactical CI Project Example: Cost Analysis
  • 14. Level of CI Involvement in M&A Stage ID Evaluate Due Consum- Criteria Targets Analyze Diligence Recommend Negotiation mation Integration Level of CI Involvement High Low Intelligence Research Business Units Finance Technical Assessment Legal Executives M&A Specialists Transition Team Logistics HR
  • 15. Seven Steps to Effective Competitive Benchmarking Determine functional areas within your operation to be benchmarked . This is likely to be those areas that will benefit most from the benchmarking process, based upon the cost, importance and potential of changes following the study. Identify the key factors and variables with which to measure those functions. Two general forms – wherewithal/resources and goals/strategy. Select the best-in-class companies for each area to be benchmarked -- those companies that perform each function at the lowest cost, with the highest degree of customer satisfaction, etc. The companies you select will be those that do whatever you’re measuring better than you do and/or are ones you wish to emulate or copy. Measure performance of the comparison companies for each benchmark being considered. Measure your own performance for each variable and begin comparing the results in an "apples-to-apples" format to determine the gap between your firm and the best-in-class examples. Specify programs and actions to meet and surpass the competition based on a plan developed to enhance those areas that show potential for compliment. Implement your improvement program by setting specific improvement targets and deadlines, and by developing a monitoring process to review and update the analysis over time. This will also form the basis for ongoing monitoring, revision and recalibration of measurements in future benchmarking studies.
  • 16. Competitors, Customers & Technologies Are Complex Interdependencies CI is About Learning to See Clearly through Market Illusions
  • 17. The Duality Continuum of Intelligence Both Decisive & Incisive Sensing Incisive Scanning for Trends, there is no “Decision” to be made Recognize “Pattern Vector” History Framework for Interpretation Implications for the Reader Bottom-Up Exposition Driven by Trends Outcome is Observation Emergent & Theoretical Decisive Frame of Reference is the Decision, Less Trend-Dependent Framework for Current Analysis Compares Options & Outcomes Recommendations and Trust Top-Down Imposition Driven by Issues Decision & Action vs. ‘Nariyuki’ Factual & Hypothetical
  • 18. Different Missions, Different Approaches Specialist Slower Production Less Output, More Analytical Agenda Driven by Contact Network Lots of Subject Matter Knowledge Seeks Explanation of the Subject Investigative Very Slow, Curious, Historical Little Output, Highly Analytical Questions Official Positions, Listens to Nonspokesmen Operates Outside Routine Agenda of the Publisher Generalist In a Hurry Lots of Output, Less Analytical Agenda Driven by the Publisher Little Knowledge of Subject Matter Seeks Volume of Public Interest
  • 19. The Insight Method Take Nothing at Face Value Get to the Facts at the Heart of an Issue Explain Difficult Concepts, Don’t Write Around It Speak to As Many Relevant People as Possible Use Simple, Obvious Questions to Open Subjects Don’t Echo Main Source, Find Other Views Every Company, Person & Issue Has a History that Drives Behavior Today Sunday Times
  • 20. The Ideal Analyst = Investigative Journalist e.g. Maria Bartiromo (CNBC) Argument/Idea Evangelist Entrepreneurial Passion Quick Study with Intense Curiosity Instinctive but Empirical Project/Deadline Manager Librarian/Information Manager Hard-Core Interviewer Pattern Recognizant Great Communicator Persuasive Position Advocate
  • 21. Success Breeds Complacency “ It is a classic conundrum for business titans: How much money and attention should be focused on a new, but growing, operation that is far less profitable than the core business?” - Prof. Clayton Christensen, The Innovator's Dilemma
  • 22. Consumers “Hire” Products to Do “Jobs” for Them Concentrate Less on What Customers “Want” and More on What Customers “Need”
  • 23. Disruptive Innovation Theory Sustaining Innovations Better Products Brought to Established Markets Low-End Disruptions Target Overshot Customers with a Lower Cost Business Model New-Market Disruption Compete Against Nonconsumption Difference Performance Measure Time Nonconsumers or Nonconsuming Contexts Performance
  • 25. Value Chain Evolution Theory Disruptive Business Models: Vertically Integrating VC to Improve What’s “Not Good Enough” in the company’s products and services judged by customers. Performance Defining Subsystems: Companies must control all those activities and combinations of activities in the value chain that drive the product performance characteristics that matter most to customers. Specialists will seek to control performance drivers based on differences in motivation and skills around a modular interface in the VC. (Sword & Shield)
  • 26. RPV Theory: Building Capabilities Processes Ways to Turn Resources into Products/Services Hiring/Training Product Dev. Manufacturing Budgeting Research Values Prioritization Criteria for Decision-Making Cost Structure Income Statement Customer Demand Opp. Size Ethics Resources Assets the Firm can Buy or Sell, Build or Destroy People Technology Products Equipment Cash/Brand/Distr.
  • 27. Consumer Demand & Signals of Change Non-Market Contexts: External Forces (Government, Economics, etc.) Increasing or Decreasing Barriers to Innovation Undershot Consumers: Opportunities for Up-Market Sustaining Innovations Overshot Consumers: Opportunities for Low-End Disruption, Shifting Profits by Specialist Displacements (Modularity) and the Emergence of Rules Non-Consumers: Opportunities for New Market Disruptive Growth Established Companies almost always Lose to Disruptive Innovators
  • 28. Process of Predicting Industry Change Signals of Change Strategic Choices Influencing Success Likely Outcome of Competitive Battles
  • 29. Process of Predicting Industry Change Breakout Discussions Customer Needs Operational Asset Posture & Alignment Technology & R&D Innovation
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  • 43. Competitor Vignettes A.) Articulate Opposing Worldviews & their Impact on Resulting Competitor Strategy B.) Describe Primary Forces to Consider Driving Competitor Decisions & Industry Change C.) Develop Hypothetical & Factual Frameworks for Research Collection, Impact Analysis and Delivery of Findings and Recommendations
  • 44. Competitor Vignettes Toyota vs. General Motors Microsoft vs. Google Intel vs. AMD Dell vs. HP Wal-Mart vs. Target
  • 45. Questions or Comments? www.AuroraWDC.com www.ReconG2.com Arik R. Johnson Intelligence Leadership Institute [email_address] +01-715-720-1616 Derek L. Johnson Research & Analysis Bureau [email_address] +01-608-268-3470
  • 46. The CI Think Tank Model TASKING > SENSING > INTERPRETATION