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DISRUPTIVE
INNOVATION
SUBMITTED BY:
COURSE:
COURSE INSTRUCTOR:
SEMESTER:
D I S R U P T I V E
I N N O V A T I O N
4
1
2
3
B U I L D I N G A N
I N N O V A T I O N C U L T U R E
•Inhibitors of disruptive innovation
•Ways in which an innovation culture
can be built
C A S E S T U D I E S
Industry examples based on the
Disruptive Innovation Theory
D E F I N I T I O N O F
D I S R U P T I V E I N N O V A T I O N
D I S R U P T I V E I N N O V A T I O N
T H E O R Y B Y C L A Y T O N
C H R I S T E N S E N
•How it challenges the status quo
•Innovation approaches based on the theory
CONTENT
SLIDE /1
DISRUPTIVE
INNOVATION
Definition
...describes a process by which a
product or service takes root
initially in simple applications at
the bottom of a market and then
relentlessly moves upmarket,
eventually displacing
established competitors.
- Clayton Christensen
SLIDE /2
Overview
Prof. Clayton Christensen
Harvard Business School
Born: 6 April 1952
DISRUPTIVE
INNOVATION
THEORY
Book written in 1997
Touch Point: How Innovation
Challenges the Status Quo
SLIDE /4
What is the demand for
improved product/service
performance over time in an
industry?
Performance
High
Low
TimeEarly… Current
SLIDE /5
Demand for better
technological performance
generally increases over
time – irrespective of the
segment they are in
Performance
High
Low
TimeEarly… Current
High
demand
customers
Average
demand
customers
Low
demand
customers
Sophisticated,
Most profitable
SLIDE /
SUSTAINING
INNOVATION
LOW-END
DISRUPTION
NEW MARKET
DISRUPTION
Here’s when leading
firms drive
technological
improvements
It is at this level where
disruption takes place
New entrants take
advantage of the gap
created for the over
served customers
New entrants may
target non-consuming
targets with new
market disruptions
INNOVATION APPROACHES BASED ON THE
DISRUPTIVE INNOVATION THEORY
Brief Descriptions
HIGH-END
INTEGRATION
In response to
disruption, Incumbents
tend to resort to High-
end Integration
SLIDE /7
SUSTAINING
INNOVATION
Here’s when leading firms
drive technological
improvements
Performance
High
Low
TimeEarly… Current
Sustaining
innovation
1.
High demand
customers
Average demand
customers
Low demand
customers
SLIDE /8
SUSTAINING
INNOVATION
CONT...
Performance
High
Low
TimeEarly… Current
Sustaining
trajectory
High demand
customers
Average demand
customers
Low demand
customers
However the pace of technological
growth exceeds the pace of demand
growth
This creates a gap between demand
and supply
SLIDE /9
LOW-END
DISRUPTION
It is at this level where disruption
takes place
New entrants take advantage of
the gap created for the over served
customers
Performance
High
Low
TimeEarly… Current
Sustaining
trajectory
High demand
customers
Average demand
customers
Low demand
customers
Low-end
disruption
 New firms enter with disruptive
technologies and start a new
trajectory with a new business
model
 New firms move upmarket and
eventually dominate the mainstream
market when they meet
performance requirements
2.
SLIDE /10
NEW MARKET
DISRUPTION
New entrants may target non-
consuming targets with new
market disruption
Time
Non-
Consuming
market
New market
disruption
3.
SLIDE /11
HIGH-END
INTEGRATION
In response to disruption,
Incumbents tend to resort to
High-end Integration
Performance
High
Low
TimeEarly… Current
High demand
customers
Average demand
customers
Low demand
customers
High-end
integration
4.
SLIDE /
CASE STUDIESMarket Research & Banking Sectors
SLIDE /12
Market Research Sector
Disruption in the market research sector
in Kenya
Performance
High
Low
TimeEarly… Current
Tier 1
clients
Tier 2
clients
Tier 3
clients
High-end
integration
Low-end
disruption
SLIDE /13
Performance
High
Low
TimeEarly… Current
Premium
Retail
Unbanked
High-end
integration
Low-end
disruption
Disruption in the banking sector
in Kenya
Banking Sector
SLIDE /
Start
90s…
Technological advancements are
taking place at a fast pace and this
requires companies to adapt
quickly
EARLY
90S
Early Mobile Banking
Offered over SMS
No internet required
“Pull” services offered
EARLY
2000S
Mobile Web
Introduction of Smartphones
with WAP support enabling use
of mobile web
“Push” SMS services-account
alerts sent automatically
2010
ONWARDS
Introduction of Mobile
Banking Apps
Rapid growth of
android based banking
apps
14
SLIDE /
October - December
15
Ongoing
2018…
THE FUTURE AND BEYOND
Beyond mobiles, towards wearables
Wearables are capable of providing a
number of push opportunities to
Financial Institutions worldwide
So as to delight and surprise customers,
augmentations of products and services
have to be done continuously
SLIDE /16
INHIBITORS OF
DISRUPTIVE
INNOVATION
The “Adoption” Barrier
• Over reliance on existing designs
• Organizational structure
• Excessive bureaucracy
• Shifting the status quo
The “Mindset” barrier
• Inability to unlearn
• Lack of distinctive competencies
• Obsolete mental models
The “Risk” barrier
• The learning trap
• Lack of realistic ROI expectation
• High risks and uncertainty
• Risk averse climate
The “Nascent ” Barrier
• Lack of creativity
• Lack of market sensing and foresight
• Innovation process mismanagement
The “Infrastructural” barrier
• Lack of mandatory infrastructure
• Lack of adequate follow through
SLIDE /17
BUILDING
AN
INNOVATION
CULTURE
• Foster cross functional involvement to spur idea
sharing (have a diverse team work together)
• Be open to suggestions so as to build an
atmosphere where employees can give their input
• Have a reward/feedback system where innovators
get feedback on their work and million-dollar ideas
get rewarded/recognition
• Have a system that will enable idea sharing i.e. less
bureaucratic procedures (having innovators bypass
hierarchies)
• Have innovation treated as a key resource of
economic growth i.e. having an innovation
unit/department
SLIDE /18
• Set up workshops specifically for idea
generation/brainstorming
• Take consideration of both future-growth
innovations as well as incremental ones
• Outline clear objectives as this will lead to more
creative ideas directly linked to the objectives
• Encourage mistakes/risk taking as it’s part of the
creative process
• Implement a rotating culture as it allows
employees to step out of their comfort zones
which could lead to sparking of new ideas
BUILDING
AN
INNOVATION
CULTURE
THANK YOU
DEBRAH
MUKAMI
EDWARD
IHAJI
ARNOLD
SAWE

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Disruptive Innovation - Africa Study

  • 2. D I S R U P T I V E I N N O V A T I O N 4 1 2 3 B U I L D I N G A N I N N O V A T I O N C U L T U R E •Inhibitors of disruptive innovation •Ways in which an innovation culture can be built C A S E S T U D I E S Industry examples based on the Disruptive Innovation Theory D E F I N I T I O N O F D I S R U P T I V E I N N O V A T I O N D I S R U P T I V E I N N O V A T I O N T H E O R Y B Y C L A Y T O N C H R I S T E N S E N •How it challenges the status quo •Innovation approaches based on the theory CONTENT
  • 3. SLIDE /1 DISRUPTIVE INNOVATION Definition ...describes a process by which a product or service takes root initially in simple applications at the bottom of a market and then relentlessly moves upmarket, eventually displacing established competitors. - Clayton Christensen
  • 4. SLIDE /2 Overview Prof. Clayton Christensen Harvard Business School Born: 6 April 1952 DISRUPTIVE INNOVATION THEORY Book written in 1997 Touch Point: How Innovation Challenges the Status Quo
  • 5. SLIDE /4 What is the demand for improved product/service performance over time in an industry? Performance High Low TimeEarly… Current
  • 6. SLIDE /5 Demand for better technological performance generally increases over time – irrespective of the segment they are in Performance High Low TimeEarly… Current High demand customers Average demand customers Low demand customers Sophisticated, Most profitable
  • 7. SLIDE / SUSTAINING INNOVATION LOW-END DISRUPTION NEW MARKET DISRUPTION Here’s when leading firms drive technological improvements It is at this level where disruption takes place New entrants take advantage of the gap created for the over served customers New entrants may target non-consuming targets with new market disruptions INNOVATION APPROACHES BASED ON THE DISRUPTIVE INNOVATION THEORY Brief Descriptions HIGH-END INTEGRATION In response to disruption, Incumbents tend to resort to High- end Integration
  • 8. SLIDE /7 SUSTAINING INNOVATION Here’s when leading firms drive technological improvements Performance High Low TimeEarly… Current Sustaining innovation 1. High demand customers Average demand customers Low demand customers
  • 9. SLIDE /8 SUSTAINING INNOVATION CONT... Performance High Low TimeEarly… Current Sustaining trajectory High demand customers Average demand customers Low demand customers However the pace of technological growth exceeds the pace of demand growth This creates a gap between demand and supply
  • 10. SLIDE /9 LOW-END DISRUPTION It is at this level where disruption takes place New entrants take advantage of the gap created for the over served customers Performance High Low TimeEarly… Current Sustaining trajectory High demand customers Average demand customers Low demand customers Low-end disruption  New firms enter with disruptive technologies and start a new trajectory with a new business model  New firms move upmarket and eventually dominate the mainstream market when they meet performance requirements 2.
  • 11. SLIDE /10 NEW MARKET DISRUPTION New entrants may target non- consuming targets with new market disruption Time Non- Consuming market New market disruption 3.
  • 12. SLIDE /11 HIGH-END INTEGRATION In response to disruption, Incumbents tend to resort to High-end Integration Performance High Low TimeEarly… Current High demand customers Average demand customers Low demand customers High-end integration 4.
  • 13. SLIDE / CASE STUDIESMarket Research & Banking Sectors
  • 14. SLIDE /12 Market Research Sector Disruption in the market research sector in Kenya Performance High Low TimeEarly… Current Tier 1 clients Tier 2 clients Tier 3 clients High-end integration Low-end disruption
  • 16. SLIDE / Start 90s… Technological advancements are taking place at a fast pace and this requires companies to adapt quickly EARLY 90S Early Mobile Banking Offered over SMS No internet required “Pull” services offered EARLY 2000S Mobile Web Introduction of Smartphones with WAP support enabling use of mobile web “Push” SMS services-account alerts sent automatically 2010 ONWARDS Introduction of Mobile Banking Apps Rapid growth of android based banking apps 14
  • 17. SLIDE / October - December 15 Ongoing 2018… THE FUTURE AND BEYOND Beyond mobiles, towards wearables Wearables are capable of providing a number of push opportunities to Financial Institutions worldwide So as to delight and surprise customers, augmentations of products and services have to be done continuously
  • 18. SLIDE /16 INHIBITORS OF DISRUPTIVE INNOVATION The “Adoption” Barrier • Over reliance on existing designs • Organizational structure • Excessive bureaucracy • Shifting the status quo The “Mindset” barrier • Inability to unlearn • Lack of distinctive competencies • Obsolete mental models The “Risk” barrier • The learning trap • Lack of realistic ROI expectation • High risks and uncertainty • Risk averse climate The “Nascent ” Barrier • Lack of creativity • Lack of market sensing and foresight • Innovation process mismanagement The “Infrastructural” barrier • Lack of mandatory infrastructure • Lack of adequate follow through
  • 19. SLIDE /17 BUILDING AN INNOVATION CULTURE • Foster cross functional involvement to spur idea sharing (have a diverse team work together) • Be open to suggestions so as to build an atmosphere where employees can give their input • Have a reward/feedback system where innovators get feedback on their work and million-dollar ideas get rewarded/recognition • Have a system that will enable idea sharing i.e. less bureaucratic procedures (having innovators bypass hierarchies) • Have innovation treated as a key resource of economic growth i.e. having an innovation unit/department
  • 20. SLIDE /18 • Set up workshops specifically for idea generation/brainstorming • Take consideration of both future-growth innovations as well as incremental ones • Outline clear objectives as this will lead to more creative ideas directly linked to the objectives • Encourage mistakes/risk taking as it’s part of the creative process • Implement a rotating culture as it allows employees to step out of their comfort zones which could lead to sparking of new ideas BUILDING AN INNOVATION CULTURE