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CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR
MODELS
CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOR
• Consumer Buying Behavior refers to the buying behavior of final consumers -
individuals & households who buy goods and services for personal consumption.
• All these consumers make up the consumer market.
• The central question for marketers is:
• “How do consumers respond to various marketing efforts the company might
use?”
High
Involvement
Significant
differences
between
brands
Few
differences
between
brands
Low
Involvement
TYPES OF BUYING DECISION BEHAVIOR –LAWSON’S
MODEL
Complex
Buying
Behavior
Variety-
Seeking
Behavior
Dissonance-
Reducing Buying
Behavior
Habitual
Buying
Behavior
MODEL OF BUYER BEHAVIOR
LAWSON’S MODEL
Marketing and
Other Stimuli
Marketing
Product
Price
Place
Promotion
Other
Economic
Technological
Political
Cultural
Buyer’s Black Box
Buyer Characteristics
Buyer Decision Process
Buyer Responses
Product Choice
Brand Choice
Dealer Choice
Purchase Timing
Purchase Amount
FACTORS INFLUENCING
CONSUMER BEHAVIOR-LAWSON’S MODEL
Social
Reference
groups
Family
Roles
and
status
Personal
Age and
life-cycle
Occupation
Economic
situation
Lifestyle
Personality
and
self-concept
Psycho-
logical
Motivation
Perception
Learning
Beliefs and
attitudes
Buyer
Culture
Sub-
culture
Social
class
Cultural
SOURCES OF EXTERNAL INFLUENCES ON CONSUMER
BEHAVIOUR-WILKIE (1990)
SCOPE STRENGTH IMMEDIACY
CULTURE general High Long-term
SUBCULTURE general High Long-term
FAMILY specific High Long-term
FRIENDS specific High/low Long term/short term
MKT STIMULI specific low Long term/short term
SCOPE – the sweep or reach of the impact
STRENGTH- the power to impact behaviour
IMMEDIACY – direct or focused influence on behaviour; the impact
is felt with no or little influence coming into play.
BUYER DECISION PROCESS
-LAWSON’S MODEL
Postpurchase
Behavior
Purchase
Decision
Information
Search
Need
Recognition
Evaluation
of Alternatives
BUYER ROLES
INITIATOR
• First individual who suggests product/service should be evaluated/purchased.
INFLUENCER
• Provides view and advice which are valued by others and can subsequently influence the final
decision.
DECIDER
• The individual who will take the decision in the buying process at what, how , when and where
to buy (store choice), etc.
BUYER
• The individual who actually makes the purchase
USER
• The individual who consumes or users the service/product.
FACTORS INFLUENCING SHOPPERS’ STORE CHOICE
Kelly and Stephenson ( 1967) identified 8 factors ;
1. General store characteristics-reputation, no of stores
2. Physical characteristics – décor,cleanliness, checkout services.
3. Convenience –time, parking etc.
4. Products – variety, dependability, quality.
5. Prices charged – value special sales.
6. Personnel – courteous, helpful, friendly.
7. Advertising –informative, aggressive, believable.
8. Friends’ perception of the store- well known, liked, reccommended.
TYPES OF PURCHASING RISKS-CONSUMER PRODUCT
LINES
1.ROUTINE BUYING
2. LIMITED PROBLEM SOLVING
3. EXTENSIVE PROBLEM SOLVING.
New Task BuyingInvolvedDecision
Making
Modified Rebuy
MAJOR TYPES OF BUYING SITUATIONS-BUSINESS PRODUCTS
Straight Rebuy
ASSUMPTION ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR-BEHAVIORAL VERSUS
COGNITIVISTS VIEW
BEHAVIOURIST
COGNITIVIST
BEHAVIOURIST VERSUS COGNITIVIST
APPROACHES
BEHAVIOURIST
• Observed behaviour is all
important
• People are info transmitters
• People are all alike
• Behaviour is rational
• Human characteristics can be
studied independently.
• Emphasis is on what a person
is and does.
• Behaviour can be understood
COGNITIVIST
• What goes on in a person’s mind
is the key to comprehension.
• Behaviour is not predictable
• People are info generators
• Each person is unique
• Behaviour is irrational
• People must be studied as a
whole
• Emphasis is on what a person can
be.
• Behaviour can never be
completely understood.
THEORIES OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR
• The Engel-Kollat-Blackwell (EKB) model.
• Howard & Sheth model
• Maslow’s Hierarchy model
THE ENGEL-KOLLAT-BLACKWELL
(EKB) MODEL.
• First developed in 1968.
• A key feature of the EKB model is the differences between high
and low involvement as part of the buying process.
• High involvement is present in the high risk purchase
• Low involvement is present in the low risk purchase.
MODELS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR
THE ENGEL-KOLLAT-BLACKWELL (EKB) MODEL
• Consumers are seen as active agents following rules of behaviour, fairly easy to
follow and implement because they require only a limited amount of information
and capability of elaboration
• For instance, a consumer, being aware of a certain need and believing a certain
good category satisfies it, might fix a maximum price he/she can afford and
search for the best good available under such a constraint.
HOWARD & SHETH MODEL
• The model claims that a person’s purchase decision is often influenced by more
than one individuals.
• A family buying decision involves multiple influences from its members.
• This theory shows the concept of role structure, that is individuals members of
the family takes on roles such as collecting information, deciding on the
information budget, etc.
• The theory also states that retailers /businesses are not only dealing with a
homogeneous unit but a collection of individuals with different goals, needs,
motives and interests.
MODELS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR
HOWARD & SHETH MODEL
• Acoording to the model, the 'inputs' (stimuli) that the consumer receives from his or her
environment are:
1. significative - the 'real' (physical) aspects of the product or service (which the co make use of)
the co make use of)
2. symbolic - the ideas or images attached by the supplier (for example by advertising)
3. social - the ideas or images attached to the product or service by 'society' (for example, by
reference groups)
• The 'outputs' are what happens, the consumer's actions, as observable results of
the input stimuli.
• Between the inputs and outputs are the 'constructs', the processes which the
consumer goes through to decide upon his or her actions. Howard and Sheth
group these into two areas:
1.perceptual - those concerned with obtaining and handling information about the
product or service
2.learning - the processes of learning that lead to the decision itself
Models of Consumer Behaviour
-Howard & Sheth model
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY MODEL
• Theory of motivation developed by Abraham Maslow(1943)
• Illlustrated into low needs to high needs.
• Comprises of physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem and self actualization.
• Can be applied by retailers to understand a targeted segment’s needs and wants
and offer the right product at the right price, promotion and place.
Physiological Needs
(hunger, thirst)
Safety Needs
(security, protection)
Social Needs
(sense of belonging, love)
Esteem N(self-esteem)
Self
Actualization
(Self-development)
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
Awareness: Consumer is aware of
product, but lacks information.
Interest: Consumer seeks
Information about new product.
Evaluation: Consumer considers
trying new product.
Trial: Consumer tries new
product on a small scale.
Adoption: Consumer decides
to make regular use of product.
STAGES IN THE ADOPTION PROCESS
ADOPTER CATEGORIES
PercentageofAdopters
Time of Adoption
Early Late
Innovators
Early
Adopters
Early Majority
2.5%
13.5%
34% 34%
16%
Laggards
Late Majority
Divisibility
Can the innovation
be used on a
trial basis?
Complexity
Is the innovation
difficult to
understand or use?
Communicability
Can results be easily
observed or described
to others?
Compatibility
Does the innovation
fit the values and
experience of the
target market?
Relative Advantage
Is the innovation
superior to existing
products?
INFLUENCE OF PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS
ON RATE OF ADOPTION

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CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MODELS

  • 2. CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOR • Consumer Buying Behavior refers to the buying behavior of final consumers - individuals & households who buy goods and services for personal consumption. • All these consumers make up the consumer market. • The central question for marketers is: • “How do consumers respond to various marketing efforts the company might use?”
  • 3. High Involvement Significant differences between brands Few differences between brands Low Involvement TYPES OF BUYING DECISION BEHAVIOR –LAWSON’S MODEL Complex Buying Behavior Variety- Seeking Behavior Dissonance- Reducing Buying Behavior Habitual Buying Behavior
  • 4. MODEL OF BUYER BEHAVIOR LAWSON’S MODEL Marketing and Other Stimuli Marketing Product Price Place Promotion Other Economic Technological Political Cultural Buyer’s Black Box Buyer Characteristics Buyer Decision Process Buyer Responses Product Choice Brand Choice Dealer Choice Purchase Timing Purchase Amount
  • 5. FACTORS INFLUENCING CONSUMER BEHAVIOR-LAWSON’S MODEL Social Reference groups Family Roles and status Personal Age and life-cycle Occupation Economic situation Lifestyle Personality and self-concept Psycho- logical Motivation Perception Learning Beliefs and attitudes Buyer Culture Sub- culture Social class Cultural
  • 6. SOURCES OF EXTERNAL INFLUENCES ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR-WILKIE (1990) SCOPE STRENGTH IMMEDIACY CULTURE general High Long-term SUBCULTURE general High Long-term FAMILY specific High Long-term FRIENDS specific High/low Long term/short term MKT STIMULI specific low Long term/short term SCOPE – the sweep or reach of the impact STRENGTH- the power to impact behaviour IMMEDIACY – direct or focused influence on behaviour; the impact is felt with no or little influence coming into play.
  • 7. BUYER DECISION PROCESS -LAWSON’S MODEL Postpurchase Behavior Purchase Decision Information Search Need Recognition Evaluation of Alternatives
  • 8. BUYER ROLES INITIATOR • First individual who suggests product/service should be evaluated/purchased. INFLUENCER • Provides view and advice which are valued by others and can subsequently influence the final decision. DECIDER • The individual who will take the decision in the buying process at what, how , when and where to buy (store choice), etc. BUYER • The individual who actually makes the purchase USER • The individual who consumes or users the service/product.
  • 9. FACTORS INFLUENCING SHOPPERS’ STORE CHOICE Kelly and Stephenson ( 1967) identified 8 factors ; 1. General store characteristics-reputation, no of stores 2. Physical characteristics – décor,cleanliness, checkout services. 3. Convenience –time, parking etc. 4. Products – variety, dependability, quality. 5. Prices charged – value special sales. 6. Personnel – courteous, helpful, friendly. 7. Advertising –informative, aggressive, believable. 8. Friends’ perception of the store- well known, liked, reccommended.
  • 10. TYPES OF PURCHASING RISKS-CONSUMER PRODUCT LINES 1.ROUTINE BUYING 2. LIMITED PROBLEM SOLVING 3. EXTENSIVE PROBLEM SOLVING.
  • 11. New Task BuyingInvolvedDecision Making Modified Rebuy MAJOR TYPES OF BUYING SITUATIONS-BUSINESS PRODUCTS Straight Rebuy
  • 12. ASSUMPTION ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR-BEHAVIORAL VERSUS COGNITIVISTS VIEW BEHAVIOURIST COGNITIVIST
  • 13. BEHAVIOURIST VERSUS COGNITIVIST APPROACHES BEHAVIOURIST • Observed behaviour is all important • People are info transmitters • People are all alike • Behaviour is rational • Human characteristics can be studied independently. • Emphasis is on what a person is and does. • Behaviour can be understood COGNITIVIST • What goes on in a person’s mind is the key to comprehension. • Behaviour is not predictable • People are info generators • Each person is unique • Behaviour is irrational • People must be studied as a whole • Emphasis is on what a person can be. • Behaviour can never be completely understood.
  • 14. THEORIES OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR • The Engel-Kollat-Blackwell (EKB) model. • Howard & Sheth model • Maslow’s Hierarchy model
  • 15. THE ENGEL-KOLLAT-BLACKWELL (EKB) MODEL. • First developed in 1968. • A key feature of the EKB model is the differences between high and low involvement as part of the buying process. • High involvement is present in the high risk purchase • Low involvement is present in the low risk purchase.
  • 16. MODELS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR THE ENGEL-KOLLAT-BLACKWELL (EKB) MODEL • Consumers are seen as active agents following rules of behaviour, fairly easy to follow and implement because they require only a limited amount of information and capability of elaboration • For instance, a consumer, being aware of a certain need and believing a certain good category satisfies it, might fix a maximum price he/she can afford and search for the best good available under such a constraint.
  • 17. HOWARD & SHETH MODEL • The model claims that a person’s purchase decision is often influenced by more than one individuals. • A family buying decision involves multiple influences from its members. • This theory shows the concept of role structure, that is individuals members of the family takes on roles such as collecting information, deciding on the information budget, etc. • The theory also states that retailers /businesses are not only dealing with a homogeneous unit but a collection of individuals with different goals, needs, motives and interests.
  • 18. MODELS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR HOWARD & SHETH MODEL • Acoording to the model, the 'inputs' (stimuli) that the consumer receives from his or her environment are: 1. significative - the 'real' (physical) aspects of the product or service (which the co make use of) the co make use of) 2. symbolic - the ideas or images attached by the supplier (for example by advertising) 3. social - the ideas or images attached to the product or service by 'society' (for example, by reference groups)
  • 19. • The 'outputs' are what happens, the consumer's actions, as observable results of the input stimuli. • Between the inputs and outputs are the 'constructs', the processes which the consumer goes through to decide upon his or her actions. Howard and Sheth group these into two areas: 1.perceptual - those concerned with obtaining and handling information about the product or service 2.learning - the processes of learning that lead to the decision itself Models of Consumer Behaviour -Howard & Sheth model
  • 20. MASLOW’S HIERARCHY MODEL • Theory of motivation developed by Abraham Maslow(1943) • Illlustrated into low needs to high needs. • Comprises of physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem and self actualization. • Can be applied by retailers to understand a targeted segment’s needs and wants and offer the right product at the right price, promotion and place.
  • 21. Physiological Needs (hunger, thirst) Safety Needs (security, protection) Social Needs (sense of belonging, love) Esteem N(self-esteem) Self Actualization (Self-development) MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
  • 22. Awareness: Consumer is aware of product, but lacks information. Interest: Consumer seeks Information about new product. Evaluation: Consumer considers trying new product. Trial: Consumer tries new product on a small scale. Adoption: Consumer decides to make regular use of product. STAGES IN THE ADOPTION PROCESS
  • 23. ADOPTER CATEGORIES PercentageofAdopters Time of Adoption Early Late Innovators Early Adopters Early Majority 2.5% 13.5% 34% 34% 16% Laggards Late Majority
  • 24. Divisibility Can the innovation be used on a trial basis? Complexity Is the innovation difficult to understand or use? Communicability Can results be easily observed or described to others? Compatibility Does the innovation fit the values and experience of the target market? Relative Advantage Is the innovation superior to existing products? INFLUENCE OF PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS ON RATE OF ADOPTION