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PAPER – 101
FOOD AND NUTRITION
A PRESENTATION BY:
DR. KUMKUM PANDEY
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
DEPARTMENT OF HOME SCIENCE
DDM PG COLLEGE, FIROZABAD, U.P.
UNIT: 1 CONCEPT OF NUTRITION
(A) Definition: Food, nutrition and balanced diet
(B) Types of Nutrition: Optimum nutrition, under nutrition,
over nutrition, malnutrition
(A) DEFINITION: FOOD, NUTRITION
AND BALANCED DIET
FOOD
“Food can be defined as anything edible that can be solid, semisolid
or liquid which when swallowed, digested and assimilated in the
body, proves useful to it. These substances not only keep the person
alive, but also provide energy used for growth and development,
regulate the body processes and protect the body from diseases”.
According to Rajmal P. Devdas
On the other hand “any substance intended to be, or reasonably
expected to be, ingested by humans, which provides nutrients
needed to maintain life considered as food”. It means
whether in liquid, concentrated, solid, frozen, dried or dehydrated
form, that are sold for ingestion or chewing by humans an are
consumed for their taste or nutritional value.
• “Food: does not include alcoholic beverages, dietary
supplements, soft drinks or tobacco”.
FUNCTIONAL FOOD
• DeFelice (2007) “Any substances that is a food or part of a food that
provides medical and/or health benefits, including the prevention and
treatment of disease”.
• “Foods or food components that may have health benefits that reduce
the risk of specific diseases or other health concerns”
(National Institute of Nutrition, 2000)
NUTRITION
• Nutrition is the science that interprets
the nutrients and other substances in food in
relation to maintenance, growth,
reproduction, health and disease of an
organism. It includes food
intake, absorption, assimilation, biosynthesis,
catabolism and excretion.
• Nutrition is a critical part of health and development. Better nutrition is
related to improved infant, child and maternal health, stronger immune
systems, safer pregnancy and childbirth, lower risk of non-communicable
diseases (such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease), and longevity.
• People with adequate nutrition are more productive and can create
opportunities to gradually break the cycles of poverty and hunger.
(World Health Organization)
AIMS OF NUTRITION
To educate people about good nutrition so that they can have complete
physical and mental development.
To educate about the cheap and easily available food sources so that
every body can get adequate nutrition.
Food described dependences of other related factors on nutrition like
food related habits, care of food, personal hygiene and sanitation so that
people can get proper nutrition.
BALANCED DIET
• A balanced diet means “getting the right types and
amounts of foods and drinks to supply nutrition and
energy for maintaining body cells, tissues, and organs,
and for supporting normal growth and development”.
It is the diet that contain a variety of foods which fulfills the need for
energy , amino acids , vitamins , minerals and other nutrients
necessary for maintaining health, provides extra nutrients to withstand
short duration of illness.
BALANCED DIET MUST CONTAIN-
All these nutrients are present in the
foods that we eat. Different food
items have different proportions of
nutrients present in them. The
requirements of the nutrients depend
on the age, gender, and health of a
person.
Balanced diet should be planned according to-
 Kinds of food produced in the
region
 Economic capacity
 Religion of the person
 Habit and interest of the people
 Customs
 Tastes
IMPORTANCE OF A BALANCED DIET
The following are the importance of a balanced diet :
• Leads to a good physical and a good mental health.
• Helps in proper growth of the body.
• Increases the capacity to work
• Increases the ability to fight or resist diseases.
COMPONENTS OF A BALANCED DIET
Some components of a balanced diet are as follows :
• Fats: Some part of our energy requirement is fulfilled by fats. Fats can be found in fatty foods
such as butter, ghee, oil, cheese, etc.
• Proteins: We need proteins for growth purposes and to repair the wear and tear of the
body. Protein also helps in building muscle. It is found in dairy products, sprouts, meat, eggs,
chicken, etc
• Carbohydrates: We need the energy to process and it is fulfilled by carbohydrates. Carbs
provide us energy. Carbohydrates can be found in rice, wheat, chapati, bread, etc. Cereals are
our staple food.
• Minerals and Vitamins: Vitamins, Minerals, and Fibre improve the body’s resistance to disease.
We mainly obtain it from vegetables and fruits. Deficiency diseases like Anemia, Goitre, etc can
be caused due to lack of mineral in the body.
(B) Types of Nutrition:
Optimum Nutrition
under nutrition, over
nutrition, malnutrition
OPTIMUM NUTRITION
The term "Optimum Nutrition" can be
defined as eating the right amounts of
nutrients on a proper schedule to achieve
the best performance & the longest
possible lifetime in good health,
assuming that external negative
influences like accidents & infectious
diseases can be avoided.
MALNUTRITION
• Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a
diet in which one or more nutrients are either not
enough or are too much such that the diet causes
health problems. It may involve calories, protein,
carbohydrates, vitamins or minerals.
MALNUTRITION
• Malnutrition refers to deficiencies, excesses or imbalances in a person’s
intake of energy and/or nutrients.
• The term malnutrition covers 2 broad groups of conditions. One is
‘undernutrition, and the other is overnutrition that causes obesity
and diet-related noncommunicable diseases (such as heart disease,
stroke, diabetes and cancer).
(According to WHO)
Over
nutrition
Under
nutrition
Malnutrition
• Undernutrition denotes insufficient intake of energy and nutrients to
meet an individual's needs to maintain good health.
• Overnutrition is a form of malnutrition in which the intake of nutrients
is oversupplied. The amount of nutrients exceeds the amount required
for normal growth, development, and metabolism.
Concept of nutrition, Food, nutrition, malnutrition and balanced diet

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Concept of nutrition, Food, nutrition, malnutrition and balanced diet

  • 1. PAPER – 101 FOOD AND NUTRITION A PRESENTATION BY: DR. KUMKUM PANDEY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR DEPARTMENT OF HOME SCIENCE DDM PG COLLEGE, FIROZABAD, U.P.
  • 2. UNIT: 1 CONCEPT OF NUTRITION (A) Definition: Food, nutrition and balanced diet (B) Types of Nutrition: Optimum nutrition, under nutrition, over nutrition, malnutrition
  • 3. (A) DEFINITION: FOOD, NUTRITION AND BALANCED DIET FOOD “Food can be defined as anything edible that can be solid, semisolid or liquid which when swallowed, digested and assimilated in the body, proves useful to it. These substances not only keep the person alive, but also provide energy used for growth and development, regulate the body processes and protect the body from diseases”. According to Rajmal P. Devdas
  • 4. On the other hand “any substance intended to be, or reasonably expected to be, ingested by humans, which provides nutrients needed to maintain life considered as food”. It means whether in liquid, concentrated, solid, frozen, dried or dehydrated form, that are sold for ingestion or chewing by humans an are consumed for their taste or nutritional value. • “Food: does not include alcoholic beverages, dietary supplements, soft drinks or tobacco”.
  • 5. FUNCTIONAL FOOD • DeFelice (2007) “Any substances that is a food or part of a food that provides medical and/or health benefits, including the prevention and treatment of disease”. • “Foods or food components that may have health benefits that reduce the risk of specific diseases or other health concerns” (National Institute of Nutrition, 2000)
  • 6. NUTRITION • Nutrition is the science that interprets the nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism. It includes food intake, absorption, assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism and excretion.
  • 7. • Nutrition is a critical part of health and development. Better nutrition is related to improved infant, child and maternal health, stronger immune systems, safer pregnancy and childbirth, lower risk of non-communicable diseases (such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease), and longevity. • People with adequate nutrition are more productive and can create opportunities to gradually break the cycles of poverty and hunger. (World Health Organization)
  • 8. AIMS OF NUTRITION To educate people about good nutrition so that they can have complete physical and mental development. To educate about the cheap and easily available food sources so that every body can get adequate nutrition. Food described dependences of other related factors on nutrition like food related habits, care of food, personal hygiene and sanitation so that people can get proper nutrition.
  • 9. BALANCED DIET • A balanced diet means “getting the right types and amounts of foods and drinks to supply nutrition and energy for maintaining body cells, tissues, and organs, and for supporting normal growth and development”. It is the diet that contain a variety of foods which fulfills the need for energy , amino acids , vitamins , minerals and other nutrients necessary for maintaining health, provides extra nutrients to withstand short duration of illness.
  • 10. BALANCED DIET MUST CONTAIN- All these nutrients are present in the foods that we eat. Different food items have different proportions of nutrients present in them. The requirements of the nutrients depend on the age, gender, and health of a person.
  • 11. Balanced diet should be planned according to-  Kinds of food produced in the region  Economic capacity  Religion of the person  Habit and interest of the people  Customs  Tastes
  • 12. IMPORTANCE OF A BALANCED DIET The following are the importance of a balanced diet : • Leads to a good physical and a good mental health. • Helps in proper growth of the body. • Increases the capacity to work • Increases the ability to fight or resist diseases.
  • 13. COMPONENTS OF A BALANCED DIET Some components of a balanced diet are as follows : • Fats: Some part of our energy requirement is fulfilled by fats. Fats can be found in fatty foods such as butter, ghee, oil, cheese, etc. • Proteins: We need proteins for growth purposes and to repair the wear and tear of the body. Protein also helps in building muscle. It is found in dairy products, sprouts, meat, eggs, chicken, etc • Carbohydrates: We need the energy to process and it is fulfilled by carbohydrates. Carbs provide us energy. Carbohydrates can be found in rice, wheat, chapati, bread, etc. Cereals are our staple food. • Minerals and Vitamins: Vitamins, Minerals, and Fibre improve the body’s resistance to disease. We mainly obtain it from vegetables and fruits. Deficiency diseases like Anemia, Goitre, etc can be caused due to lack of mineral in the body.
  • 14. (B) Types of Nutrition: Optimum Nutrition under nutrition, over nutrition, malnutrition
  • 15. OPTIMUM NUTRITION The term "Optimum Nutrition" can be defined as eating the right amounts of nutrients on a proper schedule to achieve the best performance & the longest possible lifetime in good health, assuming that external negative influences like accidents & infectious diseases can be avoided.
  • 16. MALNUTRITION • Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems. It may involve calories, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins or minerals.
  • 17. MALNUTRITION • Malnutrition refers to deficiencies, excesses or imbalances in a person’s intake of energy and/or nutrients. • The term malnutrition covers 2 broad groups of conditions. One is ‘undernutrition, and the other is overnutrition that causes obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases (such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes and cancer). (According to WHO)
  • 19. • Undernutrition denotes insufficient intake of energy and nutrients to meet an individual's needs to maintain good health. • Overnutrition is a form of malnutrition in which the intake of nutrients is oversupplied. The amount of nutrients exceeds the amount required for normal growth, development, and metabolism.