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COMMUNICATION 
1 
Introduction 
As we know that classroom instruction, basically consists of a sequence of 
activities and experiences to bring about the behavioural changes among students. It 
is through meaningful communication that teacher and students interact with one 
another to co – ordinate their efforts to achieve the desirable behavioural changes. 
Meaning 
The word ‘Communication’ has its origin in the Latin and word ‘Communis’ 
meaning common, i.e. the communicator and the receiver have a common 
understanding of a thought, idea, message, feeling etc. 
Communication is a means of sending or receiving information. 
(Oxford Dictionary) 
Definition 
“Communication is the process of transmitting messages and interpreting 
meaning.” (Wilson 1995) 
“Communication can be regarded as a process b y which two or more persons 
exchange or share ideas, facts, feelings or impressions. The important word is 
sharing; the sharing process is called communication.” (J.E. Park) 
Communication refers to the transmission of thoughts, information and 
commands by employing the sensory channels.” (K.L. Kumar) 
Purposes of Communication 
 To encourage participation in decision making. 
 To ensure job satisfaction 
 To inform the community of the services available in the organization. 
 To induce motivation, co – operation and co – ordination in the employees. 
 To get the feed back from the personal and the public for improvement. 
 To clarify gossip rumors. 
 To delegate or decentralize authority. 
 To recruit, select, train and develop the personnel in the organization. 
 To transfer information and to have a common understanding among the 
people.
 To improve employer – employee relationship. 
Elements / Communication process 
The communication process passes through seven steps: they are – 
2 
Source or Sender: 
The person or objects which pass information or ideas to other persons is 
known as sender or source. 
Ideas: 
This is the subject’s matter of communication. This mighty be opinions, 
attitudes, feelings, view, suggestions, order etc. 
Encoding: 
Conversions of subject matter into symbols (words, actions, pictures etc.) are 
the process of encoding. Symbols are transmitted from the sender to the receiver. 
Channel: 
The symbols are transmitted through certain channels, e.g. radio, telephone, 
speech, written message, gestures etc. depending upon the relative distance between 
the sender and the receiver. 
Receiver: 
Receiver is the person to whom the message is meant for. 
Decoding: 
Receiver converts the symbols received from the sender to give him the 
meaning of the message. 
Feed Back: 
Feed back is the response from the receiver. Feed back is necessary to ensure 
that the receiver has received the message and understood it in the same sense as a 
sender wants. 
Communication Process 
Sender Ideas Encoding Channel Receiver Decoding 
Feed Back
Communication 
On the basis of flow On the basis of 
Formal In formal Verbal Non 
Downward Upward Horizontal 
3 
Classification of Communication 
On the basis of 
relationship 
On the basis of relationship 
1. Formal / official channel of communication: 
expression 
Verbal 
Oral Written 
It is the deliberately created flow of communication between various positions 
in the organization. It is concerned with work related matters. The line of 
communication is meant for the transmission of official messages with in or outside 
the organization. The line of authority and unity of command maintained. This is 
referred to “Through proper channel”. It is a deliberate attempt to regulate the flow of 
organizational communication so as to make it orderly and there by to ensure that 
information flows smoothly, accurately and timely to reach the persons to which it is 
intended. 
2. Informal communication / rumor: 
The term grapevine arouse during the US civil war. The intelligence telephone 
lines were strung loosely from tree to tree in a manner of grape vine with the result the
messages were distorted. Informal communication is the method by which people 
carry on social, no programme activities within the formal boundaries of the 
organization though it is specific channels of communication sometimes the messages 
communicated are so erratic that any action based on these may lead to a difficult to 
assign the responsibility to any one for spreading false information. Each person 
conveying the messages any add, subtract or change the original messages. 
Therefore the word ‘Rumors’ used as synonym for the whole informal communication. 
4 
On The Basis of Flow 
1. Downward Communication 
Downward communication with in the organization flow top to bottom i.e. from 
superiors to subordinates this can be oral and written. The main purpose of this 
communication is to pass on instruction, directives, orders etc. It stands as a great 
force for controlling, influencing and initiating activities of the members in the 
organization communication in this category include. 
 Orders and instruction about the job 
 Organizational policies and procedures 
 Feed back of subordinate’s performance 
 Reprimands criticism upward etc 
 Questions inviting upward communication 
2. Upward Communication 
Upward communication flows from the bottom to the top i.e. from the 
subordinates to superiors in the form of suggestion, complaints and reports etc. This 
also can be oral or written. This may include: 
 Problems relating to work 
 Performance appraisal of the subordinates 
 Feed back of the instructions etc 
 Opinions attitudes and feelings 
 Reports about the subordinates work performance 
3. Horizontal Communication 
It is the flow information between people of the same hierarchical levels. This 
type of communication helps to improving understanding between equals.
On The Basis Of Expression 
1. Verbal and non verbal communication 
The verbal communication involves use of a spoken on written word and 
depend upon language. Non verbal communication accompanies and affects the 
communication. This includes: 
5 
 Facial 
 Expression 
 Body Posture 
 Touch 
 Eye movements 
Oral Communication: 
In this type of communication, information, instruction, directives, suggestions 
etc are conveyed through face to face conversion, telephone interviews lectures 
conference and other medias. 
Disadvantages 
 Absence of any permanent records of communication. 
 Possibility of misunderstanding when the words are not clearly heard and 
understand. 
Written Communication: 
Written communication can take the form of orders, instructions, letters, 
grievances, bulletin and notice boards. 
Disadvantages 
 Difficulty is to maintain the secrecy of the matter communicated. 
 If the language is not clear to the understanding of the personnel, it creates 
confusion and misunderstandings. 
Levels of Communication 
Communication occurs at the 
i. Intrapersonal 
ii. Interpersonal & 
iii. Public levels 
i) Intrapersonal Communication:
It occurs within an individual. It is the self talk or an internal dialogue that 
occurs constantly and consciously. The goal of the intrapersonal communication is 
self – awareness, which is influenced by the self concept and feelings of self worth. 
Positive self concept and self awareness that comes through internal dialogue can 
help nurses express themselves appropriately to others. 
For example: When a nurse walks into the client’s room and thinks, “He looks 
uncomfortable, I’d better turn him on his side”, the communication is intrapersonal. 
In another situation when a nurse notes a grimaced facial expression on the 
face of a client and thinks “Is this client in pain? What do I need to do for the client? 
When was the last dose of pain medication administrated”. 
ii) Interpersonal Communication: 
It is the interaction between two people or in a small group. It is often face – to 
face and is the type most frequently used in nursing situations. Healthy interpersonal 
communication allows problem solving; sharing of ideas, decision making and 
personal growth. In nursing, there are many situations that challenge interpersonal 
communication skills. Each encounter with a client, such as 
6 
 Collecting a blood specimen 
 Taking a healthy history requires. 
Exchange of information. Meeting with staff members, physicians, social 
workers and therapists, tests the nurse’s skill with people who have different opinions 
and experiences. Being a member of nursing committee challenges the nurse’s ability 
to express ideas clearly and decisively. Interpersonal communication is the heart of 
nursing practice. A nurse can help a client by communicating at a meaningful 
interpersonal level. 
iii) Public Communication: 
It is interaction with large groups of people. 
For example – Giving a lecture to a roomful of students and speaking to a 
consumer group on health promotion. 
Being a competent communication with an audience requires the ability to 
envision oneself speaking to a group. Special platform skills such as use of posture, 
body movements and tone of voice help the speaker to express ideas. 
Communication Barriers 
Effective communication might be the result of accurate transmission of 
information / ideas by the sender and its receipt and the correct understanding by the
receiver. Very often the communication process may be blocked or distorted causing 
undesired effects. Therefore, one has to reduce the barriers in communication. 
The barriers to communication may be: 
i) Barriers arising from the linguistic capacity of the sender and the receiver: 
7 
1. Badly expressed message 
2. Faulty translations 
3. Faulty assumptions 
4. Use of technical language 
ii) Barriers causing from the emotional or psychological status of the sender 
and receiver: 
1. Immaturity 
2. Inattention 
3. Prejudice, Jealously, anger, anxiety, 
4. Lack of interest 
5. Failure to communicate 
6. Phobias 
iii) Barriers arising within the organizational structure: 
1. Complexity in organizational structure involving a number of managerial levels 
2. Organizational policies not supportive to the flow of communication. 
3. Organizational rules and regulations not supportive to the flow of 
communication. 
iv) Barriers arising from the individuals: 
1. Unwillingness to communicate 
2. Lack of time 
3. Lack of confidence 
4. Fear of being criticized 
5. Disorders of the sense organs 
v) Barriers arising from the environmental factors: 
1. Geographical distance. 
2. Mechanical / Electrical failures 
3. Noise.
How To Make Communication Effective 
1. Have clarity in idea - The sender must be clear about what he wants to 
8 
communicate. 
2. Use two – way communication - The sender makes use of feedback to ensure 
that the massage has reached the message has reached the receiver in the 
way he wants. 
3. Have adequacy of the message that is to be communicated. 
4. Use appropriate language and symbols by the use of words, pictures, gestures 
etc. 
5. Have credibility in communication. The sender must maintain trust credibility. 
6. Be sensitive to the receiver’s needs, feelings and perceptions. 
7. Be a good listener, follow LADDER pattern, 
L – Look at the person & maintain good eye contact. 
A – Ask appropriate questions. 
D – Don’t interrupt. 
D – Don’t change subject. 
E – Express emotions with control 
R – Responsively listen. 
Summary 
So far today we seen about the Communication, types & How To Make 
Communication Effective, 
Conclusion 
Nurses who work in the health field use special skill, or “interpersonal 
techniques” to assist clients in adapting to difficulties or changes in life experiences. 
For it effective communication is very necessary. 
Bibliography 
 Basavanthappa B.T., (2003), “Nursing Education”, 1st ed., Jaypee Borthers 
Publication, India, Pp. – 418-422. 
 Mohanthy J. (2004), “Trands In Educational Technology”, 1st ed., Neelkamal 
Publication, India, Pp. – 153-166. 
 Nancy, (2001), “Principles and Practice Of Nursing”, Reprint ed., N.R. 
Publishing House, India, Pp. – 162-168.
 Park J.E., (2006), “Essentials of Preventive and Social Medicine”, 16th ed., 
Banarsidas Bhanot, Merut, India, Pp. – 617-620. 
 Potter and Perry, (2002), “Fundamentals of Nursing”, Revised ed., W.B. 
Saundars Co., Philadelphia, Pp. – 115-120. 
 Sorensen & Luckmenn, (1994), “Basic Nursing, A Psycho Physiological 
Approach”, 3rd ed., W.B. Saundars Co., Philadelphia, Pp. – 423-442. 
9

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Communicationc

  • 1. COMMUNICATION 1 Introduction As we know that classroom instruction, basically consists of a sequence of activities and experiences to bring about the behavioural changes among students. It is through meaningful communication that teacher and students interact with one another to co – ordinate their efforts to achieve the desirable behavioural changes. Meaning The word ‘Communication’ has its origin in the Latin and word ‘Communis’ meaning common, i.e. the communicator and the receiver have a common understanding of a thought, idea, message, feeling etc. Communication is a means of sending or receiving information. (Oxford Dictionary) Definition “Communication is the process of transmitting messages and interpreting meaning.” (Wilson 1995) “Communication can be regarded as a process b y which two or more persons exchange or share ideas, facts, feelings or impressions. The important word is sharing; the sharing process is called communication.” (J.E. Park) Communication refers to the transmission of thoughts, information and commands by employing the sensory channels.” (K.L. Kumar) Purposes of Communication  To encourage participation in decision making.  To ensure job satisfaction  To inform the community of the services available in the organization.  To induce motivation, co – operation and co – ordination in the employees.  To get the feed back from the personal and the public for improvement.  To clarify gossip rumors.  To delegate or decentralize authority.  To recruit, select, train and develop the personnel in the organization.  To transfer information and to have a common understanding among the people.
  • 2.  To improve employer – employee relationship. Elements / Communication process The communication process passes through seven steps: they are – 2 Source or Sender: The person or objects which pass information or ideas to other persons is known as sender or source. Ideas: This is the subject’s matter of communication. This mighty be opinions, attitudes, feelings, view, suggestions, order etc. Encoding: Conversions of subject matter into symbols (words, actions, pictures etc.) are the process of encoding. Symbols are transmitted from the sender to the receiver. Channel: The symbols are transmitted through certain channels, e.g. radio, telephone, speech, written message, gestures etc. depending upon the relative distance between the sender and the receiver. Receiver: Receiver is the person to whom the message is meant for. Decoding: Receiver converts the symbols received from the sender to give him the meaning of the message. Feed Back: Feed back is the response from the receiver. Feed back is necessary to ensure that the receiver has received the message and understood it in the same sense as a sender wants. Communication Process Sender Ideas Encoding Channel Receiver Decoding Feed Back
  • 3. Communication On the basis of flow On the basis of Formal In formal Verbal Non Downward Upward Horizontal 3 Classification of Communication On the basis of relationship On the basis of relationship 1. Formal / official channel of communication: expression Verbal Oral Written It is the deliberately created flow of communication between various positions in the organization. It is concerned with work related matters. The line of communication is meant for the transmission of official messages with in or outside the organization. The line of authority and unity of command maintained. This is referred to “Through proper channel”. It is a deliberate attempt to regulate the flow of organizational communication so as to make it orderly and there by to ensure that information flows smoothly, accurately and timely to reach the persons to which it is intended. 2. Informal communication / rumor: The term grapevine arouse during the US civil war. The intelligence telephone lines were strung loosely from tree to tree in a manner of grape vine with the result the
  • 4. messages were distorted. Informal communication is the method by which people carry on social, no programme activities within the formal boundaries of the organization though it is specific channels of communication sometimes the messages communicated are so erratic that any action based on these may lead to a difficult to assign the responsibility to any one for spreading false information. Each person conveying the messages any add, subtract or change the original messages. Therefore the word ‘Rumors’ used as synonym for the whole informal communication. 4 On The Basis of Flow 1. Downward Communication Downward communication with in the organization flow top to bottom i.e. from superiors to subordinates this can be oral and written. The main purpose of this communication is to pass on instruction, directives, orders etc. It stands as a great force for controlling, influencing and initiating activities of the members in the organization communication in this category include.  Orders and instruction about the job  Organizational policies and procedures  Feed back of subordinate’s performance  Reprimands criticism upward etc  Questions inviting upward communication 2. Upward Communication Upward communication flows from the bottom to the top i.e. from the subordinates to superiors in the form of suggestion, complaints and reports etc. This also can be oral or written. This may include:  Problems relating to work  Performance appraisal of the subordinates  Feed back of the instructions etc  Opinions attitudes and feelings  Reports about the subordinates work performance 3. Horizontal Communication It is the flow information between people of the same hierarchical levels. This type of communication helps to improving understanding between equals.
  • 5. On The Basis Of Expression 1. Verbal and non verbal communication The verbal communication involves use of a spoken on written word and depend upon language. Non verbal communication accompanies and affects the communication. This includes: 5  Facial  Expression  Body Posture  Touch  Eye movements Oral Communication: In this type of communication, information, instruction, directives, suggestions etc are conveyed through face to face conversion, telephone interviews lectures conference and other medias. Disadvantages  Absence of any permanent records of communication.  Possibility of misunderstanding when the words are not clearly heard and understand. Written Communication: Written communication can take the form of orders, instructions, letters, grievances, bulletin and notice boards. Disadvantages  Difficulty is to maintain the secrecy of the matter communicated.  If the language is not clear to the understanding of the personnel, it creates confusion and misunderstandings. Levels of Communication Communication occurs at the i. Intrapersonal ii. Interpersonal & iii. Public levels i) Intrapersonal Communication:
  • 6. It occurs within an individual. It is the self talk or an internal dialogue that occurs constantly and consciously. The goal of the intrapersonal communication is self – awareness, which is influenced by the self concept and feelings of self worth. Positive self concept and self awareness that comes through internal dialogue can help nurses express themselves appropriately to others. For example: When a nurse walks into the client’s room and thinks, “He looks uncomfortable, I’d better turn him on his side”, the communication is intrapersonal. In another situation when a nurse notes a grimaced facial expression on the face of a client and thinks “Is this client in pain? What do I need to do for the client? When was the last dose of pain medication administrated”. ii) Interpersonal Communication: It is the interaction between two people or in a small group. It is often face – to face and is the type most frequently used in nursing situations. Healthy interpersonal communication allows problem solving; sharing of ideas, decision making and personal growth. In nursing, there are many situations that challenge interpersonal communication skills. Each encounter with a client, such as 6  Collecting a blood specimen  Taking a healthy history requires. Exchange of information. Meeting with staff members, physicians, social workers and therapists, tests the nurse’s skill with people who have different opinions and experiences. Being a member of nursing committee challenges the nurse’s ability to express ideas clearly and decisively. Interpersonal communication is the heart of nursing practice. A nurse can help a client by communicating at a meaningful interpersonal level. iii) Public Communication: It is interaction with large groups of people. For example – Giving a lecture to a roomful of students and speaking to a consumer group on health promotion. Being a competent communication with an audience requires the ability to envision oneself speaking to a group. Special platform skills such as use of posture, body movements and tone of voice help the speaker to express ideas. Communication Barriers Effective communication might be the result of accurate transmission of information / ideas by the sender and its receipt and the correct understanding by the
  • 7. receiver. Very often the communication process may be blocked or distorted causing undesired effects. Therefore, one has to reduce the barriers in communication. The barriers to communication may be: i) Barriers arising from the linguistic capacity of the sender and the receiver: 7 1. Badly expressed message 2. Faulty translations 3. Faulty assumptions 4. Use of technical language ii) Barriers causing from the emotional or psychological status of the sender and receiver: 1. Immaturity 2. Inattention 3. Prejudice, Jealously, anger, anxiety, 4. Lack of interest 5. Failure to communicate 6. Phobias iii) Barriers arising within the organizational structure: 1. Complexity in organizational structure involving a number of managerial levels 2. Organizational policies not supportive to the flow of communication. 3. Organizational rules and regulations not supportive to the flow of communication. iv) Barriers arising from the individuals: 1. Unwillingness to communicate 2. Lack of time 3. Lack of confidence 4. Fear of being criticized 5. Disorders of the sense organs v) Barriers arising from the environmental factors: 1. Geographical distance. 2. Mechanical / Electrical failures 3. Noise.
  • 8. How To Make Communication Effective 1. Have clarity in idea - The sender must be clear about what he wants to 8 communicate. 2. Use two – way communication - The sender makes use of feedback to ensure that the massage has reached the message has reached the receiver in the way he wants. 3. Have adequacy of the message that is to be communicated. 4. Use appropriate language and symbols by the use of words, pictures, gestures etc. 5. Have credibility in communication. The sender must maintain trust credibility. 6. Be sensitive to the receiver’s needs, feelings and perceptions. 7. Be a good listener, follow LADDER pattern, L – Look at the person & maintain good eye contact. A – Ask appropriate questions. D – Don’t interrupt. D – Don’t change subject. E – Express emotions with control R – Responsively listen. Summary So far today we seen about the Communication, types & How To Make Communication Effective, Conclusion Nurses who work in the health field use special skill, or “interpersonal techniques” to assist clients in adapting to difficulties or changes in life experiences. For it effective communication is very necessary. Bibliography  Basavanthappa B.T., (2003), “Nursing Education”, 1st ed., Jaypee Borthers Publication, India, Pp. – 418-422.  Mohanthy J. (2004), “Trands In Educational Technology”, 1st ed., Neelkamal Publication, India, Pp. – 153-166.  Nancy, (2001), “Principles and Practice Of Nursing”, Reprint ed., N.R. Publishing House, India, Pp. – 162-168.
  • 9.  Park J.E., (2006), “Essentials of Preventive and Social Medicine”, 16th ed., Banarsidas Bhanot, Merut, India, Pp. – 617-620.  Potter and Perry, (2002), “Fundamentals of Nursing”, Revised ed., W.B. Saundars Co., Philadelphia, Pp. – 115-120.  Sorensen & Luckmenn, (1994), “Basic Nursing, A Psycho Physiological Approach”, 3rd ed., W.B. Saundars Co., Philadelphia, Pp. – 423-442. 9