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 Chromosomes are organized structure of DNA and proteins
found in cells. they are thread-like structures located inside the
nucleus of animal and plant cells.
 Chromosomes are made up of proteins and a molecule of
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
 Chromosomes are passed on from parents to offspring.
 The term chromosome is derived from a Greek word 'chroma'
which means 'color' and 'soma' which means 'body'.
 Chromosomes play an important role that ensures DNA is
copied and distributed accurately in the process of cell division.
 In most of the organisms chromosomes are arranged in pairs in
the nucleus of the cell.
 We have 23 pairs of chromosomes
TYPES OF CHROMOSOME:
PROKARYOTIC CHROMOSOME STRUCTURE:
E.COLI CHROMOSOME:
 The bulk of DNA in E.Coli cell consists of a single circular
DNA molecule of length 4.6 million base pairs.
DNA DOMAINS:
 When the DNA from E.Coli is isolated and observed,The DNA
consists of 50-100 domains/loops.These loops are about 50-
100kb in size.
 The ends of loops are binded to a protein member core.
SUPERCOILING OF GENOME:
 The E.Coli chromosome as a whole is negatively
supercoiled.(ΔLK/LK°=-0.06).
 Some domains may not be supercoiled because the DNA has
become broken in one end.
 The attachment of the DNA to the protein member core may
act as a barrier to rotation of DNA.
DNA BINDING PROTEINS:
 Proteins HU-a small basic,positively charged,dimeric protein
which binds DNA non specifically.
 H-NS protein(formally protein H1)-A monomeric neutral
protein which binds DNA non specifically(Also called histone
like proteins-it has the effect of compacting the DNA,which is
essential for packing of DNA into nucleoid.)
HU PROTEIN H-NS PROTEIN
EUKARYOTIC CHROMOSOME STRUCTURE:
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PROKARYOTIC &
EUKARYOTIC CHROMOSOMES:
CHROMATIN STRUCTURE:
 Chromatin is comprised of histones and DNA: 147 base
pairs of DNA wraps around the 8 core histones to form the
basic chromatin unit, the nucleosome.
HISTONE PROTEINS:
NUCLEOSOMES:
 The histone octomer(made of core histone) forms a wedge
shaped disk,around when the 146bp of double helix DNA is
wrapped in 1.8 turns in a left handed direction.
 The left handed wrapping of the DNA around the nucleosome
corresponds to negative supercoiling.
 Nucleosome is a basic unit of chromatin.
 Nucleosomes are separated by spacer DNA to which histone H1
is attached.This continous string of nucleosomes represents
beach on a string forms chromatin.
ROLE OF H1:
 One molecule of histone H1 bind to the nucleosomes and act to
stabilise the point at which the DNA enter and leaves the
nucleosome core.
 In presence of H1 a further 20bp of DNA is protected from
nuclease digestion.
 A nucleosome core plus H1 is known as chromatosome.
 The larger the size of H1 compared with core histones is due to
presence of an additional c-terminal tail,which stabilises the
DNA between the nucleosome core.
LINKER DNA:
 The beads on a string structure,comprises globular
particles(nucleosomes) connected by thin strand of DNA
 These thin strands are known as linker DNA.
 The average length of linker DNA between core particles is
55bp.
HIGHER ORDER STRUCTURE:
 The 10nm fiber is further coiled to produce 30nm fiber which
has a solenoid structure with 6 nucleosomes,in every turn.
 These 30nm fibers are further organised into non condensed
loops (300nm) and then into condensed form of
chromosome(700nm)metaphase chromosome(1400nm).
 Chromatins are believed to operate directly through the histone
proteins which carry out packaging.
GENOME COMPLEXITY:
 Genome- The total DNA(genetic information) contained in an
organism or a cell is regarded as the genome.Thus the genome
is the store house of biological information.
 Genomics-The study of the structure and function of genome.
 It includes the chromosome in the nucleus and DNA in
mitochondria and chloroplasts.
 The genome of most eukaryotes are more complex and larger
than prokaryotes.
 It contains
a) Functional genes(coding sequence of DNA)
b) DNA sequence that does not code for protein.
 Coding sequence are extrons and non coding sequence are
introns.
FLOW OF GENETIC INFORMATION:
 The biological information from DNA to RNA and form
proteins.
 The DNA is trascriped to an RNA molecule(mRNA)
 And then the message is translated into a protein sequence
according to genetic code.
Chromosome structure

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Chromosome structure

  • 1.
  • 2.  Chromosomes are organized structure of DNA and proteins found in cells. they are thread-like structures located inside the nucleus of animal and plant cells.  Chromosomes are made up of proteins and a molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).  Chromosomes are passed on from parents to offspring.  The term chromosome is derived from a Greek word 'chroma' which means 'color' and 'soma' which means 'body'.
  • 3.  Chromosomes play an important role that ensures DNA is copied and distributed accurately in the process of cell division.  In most of the organisms chromosomes are arranged in pairs in the nucleus of the cell.  We have 23 pairs of chromosomes
  • 6. E.COLI CHROMOSOME:  The bulk of DNA in E.Coli cell consists of a single circular DNA molecule of length 4.6 million base pairs.
  • 7. DNA DOMAINS:  When the DNA from E.Coli is isolated and observed,The DNA consists of 50-100 domains/loops.These loops are about 50- 100kb in size.  The ends of loops are binded to a protein member core. SUPERCOILING OF GENOME:  The E.Coli chromosome as a whole is negatively supercoiled.(ΔLK/LK°=-0.06).  Some domains may not be supercoiled because the DNA has become broken in one end.  The attachment of the DNA to the protein member core may act as a barrier to rotation of DNA.
  • 8. DNA BINDING PROTEINS:  Proteins HU-a small basic,positively charged,dimeric protein which binds DNA non specifically.  H-NS protein(formally protein H1)-A monomeric neutral protein which binds DNA non specifically(Also called histone like proteins-it has the effect of compacting the DNA,which is essential for packing of DNA into nucleoid.)
  • 9. HU PROTEIN H-NS PROTEIN
  • 11. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PROKARYOTIC & EUKARYOTIC CHROMOSOMES:
  • 12. CHROMATIN STRUCTURE:  Chromatin is comprised of histones and DNA: 147 base pairs of DNA wraps around the 8 core histones to form the basic chromatin unit, the nucleosome.
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16.
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21.
  • 22. NUCLEOSOMES:  The histone octomer(made of core histone) forms a wedge shaped disk,around when the 146bp of double helix DNA is wrapped in 1.8 turns in a left handed direction.  The left handed wrapping of the DNA around the nucleosome corresponds to negative supercoiling.  Nucleosome is a basic unit of chromatin.  Nucleosomes are separated by spacer DNA to which histone H1 is attached.This continous string of nucleosomes represents beach on a string forms chromatin.
  • 23.
  • 24. ROLE OF H1:  One molecule of histone H1 bind to the nucleosomes and act to stabilise the point at which the DNA enter and leaves the nucleosome core.  In presence of H1 a further 20bp of DNA is protected from nuclease digestion.  A nucleosome core plus H1 is known as chromatosome.  The larger the size of H1 compared with core histones is due to presence of an additional c-terminal tail,which stabilises the DNA between the nucleosome core.
  • 25. LINKER DNA:  The beads on a string structure,comprises globular particles(nucleosomes) connected by thin strand of DNA  These thin strands are known as linker DNA.  The average length of linker DNA between core particles is 55bp.
  • 26. HIGHER ORDER STRUCTURE:  The 10nm fiber is further coiled to produce 30nm fiber which has a solenoid structure with 6 nucleosomes,in every turn.  These 30nm fibers are further organised into non condensed loops (300nm) and then into condensed form of chromosome(700nm)metaphase chromosome(1400nm).  Chromatins are believed to operate directly through the histone proteins which carry out packaging.
  • 27.
  • 28. GENOME COMPLEXITY:  Genome- The total DNA(genetic information) contained in an organism or a cell is regarded as the genome.Thus the genome is the store house of biological information.  Genomics-The study of the structure and function of genome.  It includes the chromosome in the nucleus and DNA in mitochondria and chloroplasts.
  • 29.  The genome of most eukaryotes are more complex and larger than prokaryotes.  It contains a) Functional genes(coding sequence of DNA) b) DNA sequence that does not code for protein.  Coding sequence are extrons and non coding sequence are introns.
  • 30. FLOW OF GENETIC INFORMATION:  The biological information from DNA to RNA and form proteins.  The DNA is trascriped to an RNA molecule(mRNA)  And then the message is translated into a protein sequence according to genetic code.