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Wollo University
Institution of Technology
College Of Engineering
Department Of Mechanical Engineering
Course Title: Manufacturing process one(I)
Course Number: IEng2100
Ects’5: 2 Lectures. 3 Lab
Target group :- Industrial Engineering 2nd year
Semester: II
Instructor Name; Ahmed D. (MSc in Manufacturing Engineering)
KIOT Kombolcha
ahmedin13@ymail.com
1
Chapter one
Contents to be discussed
 Introduction on Manufacturing process
 Production Process Vs. Manufacturing Process
 Classification of manufacturing process
 process operation
 Assembly operation
 Selection of manufacturing process
Introduction on Manufacturing Process
What is manufacturing?
Literal:- Manufacture = Manus (hand) + Factus (make)
Made by hand
Technological:-Application of physical and chemical processes to make parts
or products, including assembly of products.
CIRP definition:-Design + production + assembly
• (CIRP = International Academy for Production Eng.)
As per oxford English dictionary manufacture refers “to make or
produce goods in large quantities, using machinery”.
1.2 Working definition of manufacturing
There are two types of working definitions available for manufacturing:
technical process and as an economic process.
Technologically: Manufacturing is the application of physical and
chemical processes to alter the geometry, properties and or appearance of
a given starting material to make parts or product as shown in Figure 1.1
Fig 1.1 Definition of manufacturing in terms
of technology
Economically: Manufacturing is the transformation of materials
into items of greater value by means of one or more process and or
assembly operation as shown in Figure 1.2
Fig 1.2 Definition of manufacturing in terms of economic value
1.3 PRODUCTION PROCESS Vs. MANUFACTURING PROCESS
 PRODUCTION PROCESS: The art of converting raw material into finished
goods with application of different types of tools, equipment's, machine
tools, manufacturing set ups and manufacturing processes, is known as
PRODUCTION.
 MANUFACTURING PROCESS:- part of the production process which is
directly concerned with the change of form or dimensions of the part being
produced.
 It does not include the transportation, handling or storage of parts, as they are
not directly concerned with the changes into the form or dimensions of the
part produced.
1.4 Classification of manufacturing processes
Manufacturing processes can be classified as
Processing operation
Assembly operation.
In processing operation the work material is transformed from one
state to other advanced state.
Through this operation value is added to the work material by
changing the geometry; shape properties, appearance etc. of the
starting work material.
Usually processing operations are performed on individual
component. But in some cases like aerospace industry, the
processing operations are performed on assembled items also.
In assembly operation two or more components are joined to
create a new entity.
The new entity is called assembly, subassembly based on its state in the
product.
 If the entity is an intermediate state of the product, it is called
subassembly. Some other terms are also referred based on the joining
process.
 The assembly created by welding operation is called weld met.
Figure 1.3: Classification of manufacturing
process
1.5 Basic Manufacturing Processes
The basic manufacturing processes can be classified as:
Casting, foundry, or molding processes
 Forming or metalworking processes
 Machining (material removal) processes
Joining and assembly
Surface treatments (finishing)
 Rapid prototyping
 Heat treating
 Other
Casting: the metal is heated sufficiently to make it into liquid and then
poured into moulds of desired shapes. They can be expendable mold and
permanent mold.
Forming and Shaping: Large group of manufacturing processes in which
plastic deformation is used to change the shape of metal work pieces .
Some processes are rolling, forging, extrusion, drawing, sheet forming,
powder metallurgy.
Machining: The process of removing the undesired or unwanted
material from the work piece or job or component to produce a required
shape using a cutting . Some machining operations are turning, boring,
drilling, milling, planning, shaping, broaching, grinding, ultrasonic
machining, chemical machining, electrical discharge machining (EDM),
electrochemical machining, high-energy beam machining e.t.c
Joining: widely used in fabrication and assembly work. For which two
or more pieces of metal parts are joined together to produce desired
shape and size of the product. Some of the important and common
joining processes are welding, brazing, soldering, diffusion bonding,
adhesive bonding, mechanical joining
Surface Finishing(surface treatment): Surface finishing processes are
utilized for imparting intended surface finish on the surface of a job, By
imparting a surface finishing process, dimension of part is not changed
functionally; either a very negligible amount of material is removed from
the certain material is added to the surface of the job e.g honing,
lapping, polishing, burnishing, deburring, surface treating, coating,
plating
Heat treating is can be carried out to enhance various properties , affect
the physical properties and also make a marked change in the internal
structure of the metal. e.g Annealing, Normalizing, Case-hardening
1.6 Selection of manufacturing process
There are hundreds of manufacturing processes. You are likely to
already be familiar with the most common, e.g. casting, forming,
molding and machining.
For any given product, there will be multiple manufacturing
processes that you’ll need to select from.
 The process you choose will depend on many factors called the
process selection drivers.
•These process selection drivers include the following:
•Quantity of the product
•Cost for tooling, manufacturing machines and equipment
•Time required for processing
•Level of skilled labor required
•Process supervision
•Energy consumption
•Availability of material and cost of material
•Capabilities required to processes material
•Product dimensions and size
•Surface finish required
•Design tolerances
•Waste produced by the process
•Maintenance costs
•Other costs
Figure 1.4 schematically outlines the steps to select a suitable
manufacturing process for a given part provided the material and
the shape of the part are finalized.
The manufacturing requirements are expressed as constraints on
material, shape, size, tolerance, roughness, and other process
related parameters.
The constraints are used to screen out processes that are
incapable of meeting them, using process selection diagrams.
The surviving processes are then ranked according to
economic measures and then the top ranked candidates are
explored for supporting information to be enabled as final
choice.
Figure 1.4 Schematic flow chart of the procedure for process selection[2
1.6.1 Selection charts
Process-Material matrix:-indicating the general compatibility
between manufacturing process and engineering material.
The processes are also broadly classified as shaping, joining and
finishing.
The dot indicates that the pair of the material and the process is
compatible. For example, sand casting or die casting process cannot
be used for processing of composite materials.
Thus, an initial screening of processes for a given material can be
easily performed based Figure 1.5
chapter one mfg process.pptx
Process-Shape matrix:- Various manufacturing processes are
capable of making these shapes. For example, a typical turning
operation creates axisymmetric shapes while extrusion, drawing
and rolling make prismatic shapes – both circular and non-circular
Figure 1.6Process–Shape matrix with the dot indicating a compatibility
between the shape and the corresponding manufacturing process [2]
Process-Mass bar-chart:- Large components can be built up by
joining smaller ones, It can be noted that sand casting
process, for example, is capable of producing large
component while die
casting or investment casting processes can make
relatively smaller sized parts.
Figure 1.7 Process–Mass bar chart indicating compatibility between t
requisite mass of a part and the corresponding manufacturing proces
[2]
Process-Section thickness bar-chart: The selection of a
manufacturing process also depends on the section thickness of the
part to be made.
 Each process has its limit over the range of the section thickness,
which it can produce. For example, surface tension and the typical
nature of heat flow limit the minimum section and slenderness of
gravity-die cast shapes.
Bulk deformation processes cover a wider range of section
thickness. Limits on forging pressures also set a lower limit on the
section thickness and slenderness that can be forged.
Powder forming methods are more limited in the section
thicknesses they can create, but they can be used for ceramics and
very hard metals that cannot be shaped in other ways.
Special techniques such as electro-forming, plasma spraying allow
manufacturing of slender shapes.
Figure 1.8 Process–Section thickness bar chart indicating compatibility between
the manufacturing process and the range of section thickness that each process
can produce [2]
Process – Dimensional Tolerance bar-charts: Tolerance and
surface roughness that a specific manufacturing process can provide
is an important characteristic.
Manufacturing processes vary in the levels of tolerance and
roughness they can achieve economically. For example, die casting
process with the permanent metallic dies can give
better surface finish compared to the same achievable in sand
casting.
 Machining is capable of delivering high dimensional accuracy and
surface finish when the process parameters are controlled properly.
Grinding can be adopted to achieve very high tolerance while such
precision and finishing operations are generally expensive.
Figure 1.9 Process – Tolerance Limit bar chart indicating compatibility between
the manufacturing process and tolerance limit [2]
Figure 1.91 Process – Surface roughness Limit bar chart indicating compatibility between
the manufacturing process and minimum surface roughness limit [2
Following are some generic steps which are often followed in
the selection of manufacturing process such as:
• keep things standard
• keep things simple
design the parts so that they are easy to assemble
• do not specify more performance than is needed
How to use the process selection charts?
The charts described above provide a quick overview and
comparison of the capabilities of various manufacturing processes.
However, these charts must be used sufficiently carefully for a
given shape, material, dimension, requisite tolerances and surface
roughness considering the both the capabilities and limitations of
various processes.
Often, the major cost associated with a given part lies from the
wrong choice of manufacturing process(es).
Economic criteria for selection
The choice of the process also depends on the batch size that is
required to produce. Often manual processing is suitable when the
quantity to be produced is low. However, the cost to manufacture
increases with the increase in batch size e.g. the manual cost that
warrants automated manufacturing process for medium to large
batch size.
Figure 3.8.9 typically represents the broad relation between various
manufacturing processes and the corresponding economic batch
size.
Figure 1.92 Schematic Process vis-à-vis Economic Batch Size (in units) of various
manufacturing processes [2]
chapter one mfg process.pptx

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chapter one mfg process.pptx

  • 1. Wollo University Institution of Technology College Of Engineering Department Of Mechanical Engineering Course Title: Manufacturing process one(I) Course Number: IEng2100 Ects’5: 2 Lectures. 3 Lab Target group :- Industrial Engineering 2nd year Semester: II Instructor Name; Ahmed D. (MSc in Manufacturing Engineering) KIOT Kombolcha ahmedin13@ymail.com 1
  • 2. Chapter one Contents to be discussed  Introduction on Manufacturing process  Production Process Vs. Manufacturing Process  Classification of manufacturing process  process operation  Assembly operation  Selection of manufacturing process
  • 3. Introduction on Manufacturing Process What is manufacturing? Literal:- Manufacture = Manus (hand) + Factus (make) Made by hand Technological:-Application of physical and chemical processes to make parts or products, including assembly of products. CIRP definition:-Design + production + assembly • (CIRP = International Academy for Production Eng.) As per oxford English dictionary manufacture refers “to make or produce goods in large quantities, using machinery”.
  • 4. 1.2 Working definition of manufacturing There are two types of working definitions available for manufacturing: technical process and as an economic process. Technologically: Manufacturing is the application of physical and chemical processes to alter the geometry, properties and or appearance of a given starting material to make parts or product as shown in Figure 1.1 Fig 1.1 Definition of manufacturing in terms of technology
  • 5. Economically: Manufacturing is the transformation of materials into items of greater value by means of one or more process and or assembly operation as shown in Figure 1.2 Fig 1.2 Definition of manufacturing in terms of economic value
  • 6. 1.3 PRODUCTION PROCESS Vs. MANUFACTURING PROCESS  PRODUCTION PROCESS: The art of converting raw material into finished goods with application of different types of tools, equipment's, machine tools, manufacturing set ups and manufacturing processes, is known as PRODUCTION.  MANUFACTURING PROCESS:- part of the production process which is directly concerned with the change of form or dimensions of the part being produced.  It does not include the transportation, handling or storage of parts, as they are not directly concerned with the changes into the form or dimensions of the part produced.
  • 7. 1.4 Classification of manufacturing processes Manufacturing processes can be classified as Processing operation Assembly operation. In processing operation the work material is transformed from one state to other advanced state. Through this operation value is added to the work material by changing the geometry; shape properties, appearance etc. of the starting work material. Usually processing operations are performed on individual component. But in some cases like aerospace industry, the processing operations are performed on assembled items also.
  • 8. In assembly operation two or more components are joined to create a new entity. The new entity is called assembly, subassembly based on its state in the product.  If the entity is an intermediate state of the product, it is called subassembly. Some other terms are also referred based on the joining process.  The assembly created by welding operation is called weld met.
  • 9. Figure 1.3: Classification of manufacturing process
  • 10. 1.5 Basic Manufacturing Processes The basic manufacturing processes can be classified as: Casting, foundry, or molding processes  Forming or metalworking processes  Machining (material removal) processes Joining and assembly Surface treatments (finishing)  Rapid prototyping  Heat treating  Other
  • 11. Casting: the metal is heated sufficiently to make it into liquid and then poured into moulds of desired shapes. They can be expendable mold and permanent mold. Forming and Shaping: Large group of manufacturing processes in which plastic deformation is used to change the shape of metal work pieces . Some processes are rolling, forging, extrusion, drawing, sheet forming, powder metallurgy.
  • 12. Machining: The process of removing the undesired or unwanted material from the work piece or job or component to produce a required shape using a cutting . Some machining operations are turning, boring, drilling, milling, planning, shaping, broaching, grinding, ultrasonic machining, chemical machining, electrical discharge machining (EDM), electrochemical machining, high-energy beam machining e.t.c Joining: widely used in fabrication and assembly work. For which two or more pieces of metal parts are joined together to produce desired shape and size of the product. Some of the important and common joining processes are welding, brazing, soldering, diffusion bonding, adhesive bonding, mechanical joining
  • 13. Surface Finishing(surface treatment): Surface finishing processes are utilized for imparting intended surface finish on the surface of a job, By imparting a surface finishing process, dimension of part is not changed functionally; either a very negligible amount of material is removed from the certain material is added to the surface of the job e.g honing, lapping, polishing, burnishing, deburring, surface treating, coating, plating Heat treating is can be carried out to enhance various properties , affect the physical properties and also make a marked change in the internal structure of the metal. e.g Annealing, Normalizing, Case-hardening
  • 14. 1.6 Selection of manufacturing process There are hundreds of manufacturing processes. You are likely to already be familiar with the most common, e.g. casting, forming, molding and machining. For any given product, there will be multiple manufacturing processes that you’ll need to select from.  The process you choose will depend on many factors called the process selection drivers.
  • 15. •These process selection drivers include the following: •Quantity of the product •Cost for tooling, manufacturing machines and equipment •Time required for processing •Level of skilled labor required •Process supervision •Energy consumption •Availability of material and cost of material •Capabilities required to processes material
  • 16. •Product dimensions and size •Surface finish required •Design tolerances •Waste produced by the process •Maintenance costs •Other costs Figure 1.4 schematically outlines the steps to select a suitable manufacturing process for a given part provided the material and the shape of the part are finalized. The manufacturing requirements are expressed as constraints on material, shape, size, tolerance, roughness, and other process related parameters.
  • 17. The constraints are used to screen out processes that are incapable of meeting them, using process selection diagrams. The surviving processes are then ranked according to economic measures and then the top ranked candidates are explored for supporting information to be enabled as final choice.
  • 18. Figure 1.4 Schematic flow chart of the procedure for process selection[2
  • 19. 1.6.1 Selection charts Process-Material matrix:-indicating the general compatibility between manufacturing process and engineering material. The processes are also broadly classified as shaping, joining and finishing. The dot indicates that the pair of the material and the process is compatible. For example, sand casting or die casting process cannot be used for processing of composite materials. Thus, an initial screening of processes for a given material can be easily performed based Figure 1.5
  • 21. Process-Shape matrix:- Various manufacturing processes are capable of making these shapes. For example, a typical turning operation creates axisymmetric shapes while extrusion, drawing and rolling make prismatic shapes – both circular and non-circular
  • 22. Figure 1.6Process–Shape matrix with the dot indicating a compatibility between the shape and the corresponding manufacturing process [2]
  • 23. Process-Mass bar-chart:- Large components can be built up by joining smaller ones, It can be noted that sand casting process, for example, is capable of producing large component while die casting or investment casting processes can make relatively smaller sized parts.
  • 24. Figure 1.7 Process–Mass bar chart indicating compatibility between t requisite mass of a part and the corresponding manufacturing proces [2]
  • 25. Process-Section thickness bar-chart: The selection of a manufacturing process also depends on the section thickness of the part to be made.  Each process has its limit over the range of the section thickness, which it can produce. For example, surface tension and the typical nature of heat flow limit the minimum section and slenderness of gravity-die cast shapes. Bulk deformation processes cover a wider range of section thickness. Limits on forging pressures also set a lower limit on the section thickness and slenderness that can be forged. Powder forming methods are more limited in the section thicknesses they can create, but they can be used for ceramics and very hard metals that cannot be shaped in other ways. Special techniques such as electro-forming, plasma spraying allow manufacturing of slender shapes.
  • 26. Figure 1.8 Process–Section thickness bar chart indicating compatibility between the manufacturing process and the range of section thickness that each process can produce [2]
  • 27. Process – Dimensional Tolerance bar-charts: Tolerance and surface roughness that a specific manufacturing process can provide is an important characteristic. Manufacturing processes vary in the levels of tolerance and roughness they can achieve economically. For example, die casting process with the permanent metallic dies can give better surface finish compared to the same achievable in sand casting.  Machining is capable of delivering high dimensional accuracy and surface finish when the process parameters are controlled properly. Grinding can be adopted to achieve very high tolerance while such precision and finishing operations are generally expensive.
  • 28. Figure 1.9 Process – Tolerance Limit bar chart indicating compatibility between the manufacturing process and tolerance limit [2]
  • 29. Figure 1.91 Process – Surface roughness Limit bar chart indicating compatibility between the manufacturing process and minimum surface roughness limit [2
  • 30. Following are some generic steps which are often followed in the selection of manufacturing process such as: • keep things standard • keep things simple design the parts so that they are easy to assemble • do not specify more performance than is needed
  • 31. How to use the process selection charts? The charts described above provide a quick overview and comparison of the capabilities of various manufacturing processes. However, these charts must be used sufficiently carefully for a given shape, material, dimension, requisite tolerances and surface roughness considering the both the capabilities and limitations of various processes. Often, the major cost associated with a given part lies from the wrong choice of manufacturing process(es).
  • 32. Economic criteria for selection The choice of the process also depends on the batch size that is required to produce. Often manual processing is suitable when the quantity to be produced is low. However, the cost to manufacture increases with the increase in batch size e.g. the manual cost that warrants automated manufacturing process for medium to large batch size. Figure 3.8.9 typically represents the broad relation between various manufacturing processes and the corresponding economic batch size.
  • 33. Figure 1.92 Schematic Process vis-à-vis Economic Batch Size (in units) of various manufacturing processes [2]