SlideShare a Scribd company logo
CChhaapptteerr 33 
UUnnddeerrllyyiinngg TTeecchhnnoollooggyy 
Objectives 
Upon completion you will be able to: 
• Understand the different versions of wired Ethernet 
• Understand wireless Ethernet 
• Understand the types of point-to-point WANs 
• Understand the types of switched WANs, especially ATM 
• Differentiate between repeaters, bridges, routers, and hubs 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 1
Figure 3.1 Internet model 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 2
3.1 Local Area Networks 
AA llooccaall aarreeaa nneettwwoorrkk ((LLAANN)) iiss aa ddaattaa ccoommmmuunniiccaattiioonn ssyysstteemm tthhaatt aalllloowwss 
aa nnuummbbeerr ooff iinnddeeppeennddeenntt ddeevviicceess ttoo ccoommmmuunniiccaattee ddiirreeccttllyy wwiitthh eeaacchh 
ootthheerr iinn aa lliimmiitteedd ggeeooggrraapphhiicc aarreeaa ssuucchh aass aa ssiinnggllee ddeeppaarrttmmeenntt,, aa ssiinnggllee 
bbuuiillddiinngg,, oorr aa ccaammppuuss.. AA llaarrggee oorrggaanniizzaattiioonn mmaayy nneeeedd sseevveerraall ccoonnnneecctteedd 
LLAANNss..TThhee mmoosstt ppooppuullaarr LLAANNss aarree EEtthheerrnneett aanndd wwiirreelleessss LLAANNss.. WWee 
bbrriieeffllyy rreevviieeww tthheessee tteecchhnnoollooggiieess iinn tthhiiss sseeccttiioonn.. 
TThhee ttooppiiccss ddiissccuusssseedd iinn tthhiiss sseeccttiioonn iinncclluuddee:: 
WWiirreedd LLAANNss:: EEtthheerrnneett 
WWiirreelleessss LLAANNss:: IIEEEEEE 880022..1111 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 3
Figure 3.2 CSMA/CD 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 4
Figure 3.3 Ethernet layers 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 5
Figure 3.4 Ethernet frame 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 6
Figure 3.5 Ethernet implementations 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 7
Figure 3.6 Fast Ethernet implementations 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 8
Figure 3.7 Gigabit Ethernet implementations 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 9
Figure 3.8 BSSs 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 10
Figure 3.9 ESS 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 11
Figure 3.10 Physical layer 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 12
Figure 3.11 FHSS 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 13
Figure 3.12 DSSS 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 14
Figure 3.13 MAC layers in IEEE 802.11 standard 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 15
Figure 3.14 CSMA/CA 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 16
Figure 3.15 Frame 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 17
TTaabbllee 33..11 AAddddrreesssseess iinn IIEEEEEE 880022..1111 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 18
3.2 Point-to-Point WANs 
A second type of network we encounter in the Internet iiss tthhee ppooiinntt--ttoo-- 
ppooiinntt wwiiddee aarreeaa nneettwwoorrkk.. AA ppooiinntt--ttoo--ppooiinntt WWAANN ccoonnnneeccttss ttwwoo rreemmoottee 
ddeevviicceess uussiinngg aa lliinnee aavvaaiillaabbllee ffrroomm aa ppuubblliicc nneettwwoorrkk ssuucchh aass aa tteelleepphhoonnee 
nneettwwoorrkk.. WWee ddiissccuussss tthhee pphhyyssiiccaall aanndd ddaattaa lliinnkk llaayyeerrss ooff tthheessee 
tteecchhnnoollooggiieess hheerree.... 
TThhee ttooppiiccss ddiissccuusssseedd iinn tthhiiss sseeccttiioonn iinncclluuddee:: 
PPhhyyssiiccaall LLaayyeerr 
DDaattaa LLiinnkk LLaayyeerr 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 19
Figure 3.16 56K modem 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 20
NNoottee:: 
ADSL is an asymmetric communication 
technology designed for residential users; 
it is not suitable for businesses. 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 21
Figure 3.17 Bandwidth division 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 22
Figure 3.18 ADSL and DSLAM 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 23
Figure 3.19 Cable bandwidth 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 24
Figure 3.20 Cable modem configurations 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 25
TTaabbllee 33..22 TT lliinnee rraatteess 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 26
TTaabbllee 33..33 SSOONNEETT rraatteess 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 27
Figure 3.21 PPP frame 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 28
3.3 Switched WANs 
The backbone networks in the Internet are uussuuaallllyy sswwiittcchheedd WWAANNss.. AA 
sswwiittcchheedd WWAANN iiss aa wwiiddee aarreeaa nneettwwoorrkk tthhaatt ccoovveerrss aa llaarrggee aarreeaa ((aa ssttaattee oorr 
aa ccoouunnttrryy)) aanndd pprroovviiddeess aacccceessss aatt sseevveerraall ppooiinnttss ttoo tthhee uusseerrss.. IInnssiiddee tthhee 
nneettwwoorrkk,, tthheerree iiss aa mmeesshh ooff ppooiinntt--ttoo--ppooiinntt nneettwwoorrkkss tthhaatt ccoonnnneeccttss 
sswwiittcchheess.. TThhee sswwiittcchheess,, mmuullttiippllee ppoorrtt ccoonnnneeccttoorrss,, aallllooww tthhee ccoonnnneeccttiioonn ooff 
sseevveerraall iinnppuuttss aanndd oouuttppuuttss.. 
TThhee ttooppiiccss ddiissccuusssseedd iinn tthhiiss sseeccttiioonn iinncclluuddee:: 
XX..2255 
FFrraammee RReellaayy 
AATTMM 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 29
Figure 3.22 Frame Relay network 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 30
NNoottee:: 
ne A cell nettwwoorrkk uusseess tthhee cceellll aass tthhee bbaassiicc 
uunniitt ooff ddaattaa eexxcchhaannggee.. AA cceellll iiss ddeeffiinneedd aass aa 
ssmmaallll,, ffiixxeedd--ssiizzee bblloocckk ooff iinnffoorrmmaattiioonn.. 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 31
Figure 3.23 ATM multiplexing 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 32
Figure 3.24 Architecture of an ATM network 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 33
Figure 3.25 Virtual circuits 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 34
NNoottee:: 
c Note that a virtual coonnnneeccttiioonn iiss ddeeffiinneedd bbyy 
aa ppaaiirr ooff nnuummbbeerrss:: 
tthhee VVPPII aanndd tthhee VVCCII.. 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 35
Figure 3.26 An ATM cell 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 36
Figure 3.27 ATM layers 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 37
NNoottee:: 
TThhee IIPP pprroottooccooll uusseess tthhee AAAALL55 ssuubbllaayyeerr.. 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 38
NNoottee:: 
We will discuss IP over ATM in 
Chapter 23. 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 39
3.4 Connecting Devices 
LANs or WANs do not normally operate in isolation. TThheeyy aarree ccoonnnneecctteedd 
ttoo oonnee aannootthheerr oorr ttoo tthhee IInntteerrnneett.. TToo ccoonnnneecctt LLAANNss oorr WWAANNss,, wwee uussee 
ccoonnnneeccttiinngg ddeevviicceess.. CCoonnnneeccttiinngg ddeevviicceess ccaann ooppeerraattee iinn ddiiffffeerreenntt llaayyeerrss ooff 
tthhee IInntteerrnneett mmooddeell.. WWee ddiissccuussss tthhrreeee kkiinnddss ooff ccoonnnneeccttiinngg ddeevviicceess:: 
rreeppeeaatteerrss ((oorr hhuubbss)),, bbrriiddggeess ((oorr ttwwoo--llaayyeerr sswwiittcchheess)),, aanndd rroouutteerrss ((oorr 
tthhrreeee--llaayyeerr sswwiittcchheess)).. RReeppeeaatteerrss aanndd hhuubbss ooppeerraattee iinn tthhee ffiirrsstt llaayyeerr ooff tthhee 
IInntteerrnneett mmooddeell.. BBrriiddggeess aanndd ttwwoo--llaayyeerr sswwiittcchheess ooppeerraattee iinn tthhee ffiirrsstt ttwwoo 
llaayyeerrss.. RRoouutteerrss aanndd tthhrreeee--llaayyeerr sswwiittcchheess ooppeerraattee iinn tthhee ffiirrsstt tthhrreeee llaayyeerrss 
TThhee ttooppiiccss ddiissccuusssseedd iinn tthhiiss sseeccttiioonn iinncclluuddee:: 
RReeppeeaatteerrss 
HHuubbss 
BBrriiddggeess 
RRoouutteerr 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 40
Figure 3.28 Connecting devices 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 41
Figure 3.29 Repeater 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 42
NNoottee:: 
A repeater ccoonnnneeccttss sseeggmmeennttss ooff aa LLAANN.. 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 43
NNoottee:: 
A repeater ffoorrwwaarrddss eevveerryy bbiitt;; 
iitt hhaass nnoo ffiilltteerriinngg ccaappaabbiilliittyy.. 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 44
NNoottee:: 
A repeater is a regenerator, not an amplifier. 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 45
Figure 3.30 Function of a repeater 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 46
NNoottee:: 
A bridge has a table used in filtering 
decisions. 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 47
Figure 3.31 Bridge 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 48
NNoottee:: 
A bridge does not change the physical 
(MAC) addresses in a frame. 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 49
Figure 3.32 Learning bridge 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 50
NNoottee:: 
A router is a three-layer 
(physical, data link, and network) 
device. 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 51
NNoottee:: 
A repeater or aa bbrriiddggee ccoonnnneeccttss sseeggmmeennttss ooff 
aa LLAANN.. 
AA rroouutteerr ccoonnnneeccttss iinnddeeppeennddeenntt LLAANNss oorr 
WWAANNss ttoo ccrreeaattee aann iinntteerrnneettwwoorrkk ((iinntteerrnneett)).. 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 52
Figure 3.33 Routing example 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 53
NNoottee:: 
A router changes the physical addresses 
in a packet. 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 54

More Related Content

Viewers also liked

Chap 08 ip
Chap 08 ipChap 08 ip
Chap 08 ip
Noctorous Jamal
 
Chap 02 osi model
Chap 02 osi modelChap 02 osi model
Chap 02 osi model
Noctorous Jamal
 
Chap 27 next generation i pv6
Chap 27 next generation i pv6Chap 27 next generation i pv6
Chap 27 next generation i pv6
Noctorous Jamal
 
Chap 11 udp
Chap 11 udpChap 11 udp
Chap 11 udp
Noctorous Jamal
 
Chap 21 snmp
Chap 21 snmpChap 21 snmp
Chap 21 snmp
Noctorous Jamal
 
Chap 17 dns
Chap 17 dnsChap 17 dns
Chap 17 dns
Noctorous Jamal
 
Chap 12 tcp
Chap 12 tcpChap 12 tcp
Chap 12 tcp
Noctorous Jamal
 
Chap 09 icmp
Chap 09 icmpChap 09 icmp
Chap 09 icmp
Noctorous Jamal
 
Chap 28 security
Chap 28 securityChap 28 security
Chap 28 security
Noctorous Jamal
 
Chap 20 smtp, pop, imap
Chap 20 smtp, pop, imapChap 20 smtp, pop, imap
Chap 20 smtp, pop, imap
Noctorous Jamal
 
Congestion control in tcp
Congestion control in tcpCongestion control in tcp
Congestion control in tcp
samarai_apoc
 
Networking
NetworkingNetworking
Networking
Palash Sachan
 
Basic concepts of computer Networking
Basic concepts of computer NetworkingBasic concepts of computer Networking
Basic concepts of computer Networking
Hj Habib
 
Network Hardware And Software
Network Hardware And SoftwareNetwork Hardware And Software
Network Hardware And Software
Steven Cahill
 
Computer hardware and networking components
Computer hardware and networking componentsComputer hardware and networking components
Computer hardware and networking components
Manpreet Singh Bedi
 
BASIC CONCEPTS OF COMPUTER NETWORKS
BASIC CONCEPTS OF COMPUTER NETWORKS BASIC CONCEPTS OF COMPUTER NETWORKS
BASIC CONCEPTS OF COMPUTER NETWORKS
Kak Yong
 
Introduction to computer network
Introduction to computer networkIntroduction to computer network
Introduction to computer network
Ashita Agrawal
 

Viewers also liked (17)

Chap 08 ip
Chap 08 ipChap 08 ip
Chap 08 ip
 
Chap 02 osi model
Chap 02 osi modelChap 02 osi model
Chap 02 osi model
 
Chap 27 next generation i pv6
Chap 27 next generation i pv6Chap 27 next generation i pv6
Chap 27 next generation i pv6
 
Chap 11 udp
Chap 11 udpChap 11 udp
Chap 11 udp
 
Chap 21 snmp
Chap 21 snmpChap 21 snmp
Chap 21 snmp
 
Chap 17 dns
Chap 17 dnsChap 17 dns
Chap 17 dns
 
Chap 12 tcp
Chap 12 tcpChap 12 tcp
Chap 12 tcp
 
Chap 09 icmp
Chap 09 icmpChap 09 icmp
Chap 09 icmp
 
Chap 28 security
Chap 28 securityChap 28 security
Chap 28 security
 
Chap 20 smtp, pop, imap
Chap 20 smtp, pop, imapChap 20 smtp, pop, imap
Chap 20 smtp, pop, imap
 
Congestion control in tcp
Congestion control in tcpCongestion control in tcp
Congestion control in tcp
 
Networking
NetworkingNetworking
Networking
 
Basic concepts of computer Networking
Basic concepts of computer NetworkingBasic concepts of computer Networking
Basic concepts of computer Networking
 
Network Hardware And Software
Network Hardware And SoftwareNetwork Hardware And Software
Network Hardware And Software
 
Computer hardware and networking components
Computer hardware and networking componentsComputer hardware and networking components
Computer hardware and networking components
 
BASIC CONCEPTS OF COMPUTER NETWORKS
BASIC CONCEPTS OF COMPUTER NETWORKS BASIC CONCEPTS OF COMPUTER NETWORKS
BASIC CONCEPTS OF COMPUTER NETWORKS
 
Introduction to computer network
Introduction to computer networkIntroduction to computer network
Introduction to computer network
 

Similar to Chap 03 underlying technology

250361327 pengenalan-intranet-pengenalan-internet
250361327 pengenalan-intranet-pengenalan-internet250361327 pengenalan-intranet-pengenalan-internet
250361327 pengenalan-intranet-pengenalan-internet
wisnuwardanu
 
Pengenalan i-pengenalan-internet
Pengenalan i-pengenalan-internetPengenalan i-pengenalan-internet
Pengenalan i-pengenalan-internet
samuel yosivan
 
250361327 pengenalan-intranet-pengenalan-internet
250361327 pengenalan-intranet-pengenalan-internet250361327 pengenalan-intranet-pengenalan-internet
250361327 pengenalan-intranet-pengenalan-internet
wisnuwardanu
 
Pengenalan i-pengenalan-internet
Pengenalan i-pengenalan-internetPengenalan i-pengenalan-internet
Pengenalan i-pengenalan-internet
samuel yosivan
 
Pengenalan i-pengenalan-internet
Pengenalan i-pengenalan-internetPengenalan i-pengenalan-internet
Pengenalan i-pengenalan-internet
samuel yosivan
 
trabajo de instalacion electrica de casa
trabajo de instalacion electrica de casatrabajo de instalacion electrica de casa
trabajo de instalacion electrica de casa
pdc4esobenissa
 
21 local area connection
21 local area connection21 local area connection
21 local area connection
hafizhanif86
 
3 computer network - basic concepts
3   computer network - basic concepts3   computer network - basic concepts
3 computer network - basic concepts
abdulaasmi
 
Networks
NetworksNetworks
Networks
Joseph Zacharia
 
Fundamentos de redes de computadores
Fundamentos de redes de computadores   Fundamentos de redes de computadores
Fundamentos de redes de computadores
Vladimir Sejas
 
Pertemuan iv
Pertemuan ivPertemuan iv
Pertemuan iv
Syafrizal
 
Uml manuu lab BY SARFARAZ HUSAIN
Uml manuu lab BY SARFARAZ HUSAINUml manuu lab BY SARFARAZ HUSAIN
Uml manuu lab BY SARFARAZ HUSAIN
Azad public school
 
22 the internet
22 the internet22 the internet
22 the internet
hafizhanif86
 
Amplitude modulation Simulation
Amplitude modulation SimulationAmplitude modulation Simulation
Amplitude modulation Simulation
Engr. Tafseer Ahmed
 
14827 8 a d converter
14827 8 a d converter14827 8 a d converter
14827 8 a d converter
Sandeep Kumar
 
Von neumann architecture
Von neumann architectureVon neumann architecture
Von neumann architecture
Nazak Rehman
 

Similar to Chap 03 underlying technology (20)

250361327 pengenalan-intranet-pengenalan-internet
250361327 pengenalan-intranet-pengenalan-internet250361327 pengenalan-intranet-pengenalan-internet
250361327 pengenalan-intranet-pengenalan-internet
 
Pengenalan i-pengenalan-internet
Pengenalan i-pengenalan-internetPengenalan i-pengenalan-internet
Pengenalan i-pengenalan-internet
 
250361327 pengenalan-intranet-pengenalan-internet
250361327 pengenalan-intranet-pengenalan-internet250361327 pengenalan-intranet-pengenalan-internet
250361327 pengenalan-intranet-pengenalan-internet
 
Pengenalan i-pengenalan-internet
Pengenalan i-pengenalan-internetPengenalan i-pengenalan-internet
Pengenalan i-pengenalan-internet
 
Pengenalan i-pengenalan-internet
Pengenalan i-pengenalan-internetPengenalan i-pengenalan-internet
Pengenalan i-pengenalan-internet
 
Ieee standards
Ieee standardsIeee standards
Ieee standards
 
trabajo de instalacion electrica de casa
trabajo de instalacion electrica de casatrabajo de instalacion electrica de casa
trabajo de instalacion electrica de casa
 
21 local area connection
21 local area connection21 local area connection
21 local area connection
 
3 computer network - basic concepts
3   computer network - basic concepts3   computer network - basic concepts
3 computer network - basic concepts
 
Networks
NetworksNetworks
Networks
 
84640 633554912394375000
84640 63355491239437500084640 633554912394375000
84640 633554912394375000
 
Fundamentos de redes de computadores
Fundamentos de redes de computadores   Fundamentos de redes de computadores
Fundamentos de redes de computadores
 
Pertemuan iv
Pertemuan ivPertemuan iv
Pertemuan iv
 
Uml manuu lab BY SARFARAZ HUSAIN
Uml manuu lab BY SARFARAZ HUSAINUml manuu lab BY SARFARAZ HUSAIN
Uml manuu lab BY SARFARAZ HUSAIN
 
22 the internet
22 the internet22 the internet
22 the internet
 
Central processing unit
Central processing unitCentral processing unit
Central processing unit
 
Amplitude modulation Simulation
Amplitude modulation SimulationAmplitude modulation Simulation
Amplitude modulation Simulation
 
14827 8 a d converter
14827 8 a d converter14827 8 a d converter
14827 8 a d converter
 
Corporation
CorporationCorporation
Corporation
 
Von neumann architecture
Von neumann architectureVon neumann architecture
Von neumann architecture
 

More from Noctorous Jamal

Chap 24 mobile ip
Chap 24 mobile ipChap 24 mobile ip
Chap 24 mobile ip
Noctorous Jamal
 
Chap 23 ip over atm
Chap 23 ip over atmChap 23 ip over atm
Chap 23 ip over atm
Noctorous Jamal
 
Chap 19 ftp & tftp
Chap 19 ftp & tftpChap 19 ftp & tftp
Chap 19 ftp & tftp
Noctorous Jamal
 
Chap 14 rip, ospf
Chap 14 rip, ospfChap 14 rip, ospf
Chap 14 rip, ospf
Noctorous Jamal
 
Chap 13 stream control transmission protocol
Chap 13 stream control transmission protocolChap 13 stream control transmission protocol
Chap 13 stream control transmission protocol
Noctorous Jamal
 
Chap 10 igmp
Chap 10 igmpChap 10 igmp
Chap 10 igmp
Noctorous Jamal
 
Chap 07 arp & rarp
Chap 07 arp & rarpChap 07 arp & rarp
Chap 07 arp & rarp
Noctorous Jamal
 
Chap 06 delivery and routing of ip packets
Chap 06 delivery and routing of ip packetsChap 06 delivery and routing of ip packets
Chap 06 delivery and routing of ip packets
Noctorous Jamal
 
Chap 05 ip addresses classfless
Chap 05 ip addresses classflessChap 05 ip addresses classfless
Chap 05 ip addresses classfless
Noctorous Jamal
 
Lecture 8 The Communication System Finalterm Slides
Lecture 8  The Communication System Finalterm SlidesLecture 8  The Communication System Finalterm Slides
Lecture 8 The Communication System Finalterm Slides
Noctorous Jamal
 
Lecture 7 The Communication System Finalterm Slides
Lecture 7  The Communication System Finalterm SlidesLecture 7  The Communication System Finalterm Slides
Lecture 7 The Communication System Finalterm Slides
Noctorous Jamal
 
Lecture 6 The Communication System Finalterm Slides
Lecture 6  The Communication System Finalterm SlidesLecture 6  The Communication System Finalterm Slides
Lecture 6 The Communication System Finalterm Slides
Noctorous Jamal
 

More from Noctorous Jamal (12)

Chap 24 mobile ip
Chap 24 mobile ipChap 24 mobile ip
Chap 24 mobile ip
 
Chap 23 ip over atm
Chap 23 ip over atmChap 23 ip over atm
Chap 23 ip over atm
 
Chap 19 ftp & tftp
Chap 19 ftp & tftpChap 19 ftp & tftp
Chap 19 ftp & tftp
 
Chap 14 rip, ospf
Chap 14 rip, ospfChap 14 rip, ospf
Chap 14 rip, ospf
 
Chap 13 stream control transmission protocol
Chap 13 stream control transmission protocolChap 13 stream control transmission protocol
Chap 13 stream control transmission protocol
 
Chap 10 igmp
Chap 10 igmpChap 10 igmp
Chap 10 igmp
 
Chap 07 arp & rarp
Chap 07 arp & rarpChap 07 arp & rarp
Chap 07 arp & rarp
 
Chap 06 delivery and routing of ip packets
Chap 06 delivery and routing of ip packetsChap 06 delivery and routing of ip packets
Chap 06 delivery and routing of ip packets
 
Chap 05 ip addresses classfless
Chap 05 ip addresses classflessChap 05 ip addresses classfless
Chap 05 ip addresses classfless
 
Lecture 8 The Communication System Finalterm Slides
Lecture 8  The Communication System Finalterm SlidesLecture 8  The Communication System Finalterm Slides
Lecture 8 The Communication System Finalterm Slides
 
Lecture 7 The Communication System Finalterm Slides
Lecture 7  The Communication System Finalterm SlidesLecture 7  The Communication System Finalterm Slides
Lecture 7 The Communication System Finalterm Slides
 
Lecture 6 The Communication System Finalterm Slides
Lecture 6  The Communication System Finalterm SlidesLecture 6  The Communication System Finalterm Slides
Lecture 6 The Communication System Finalterm Slides
 

Chap 03 underlying technology

  • 1. CChhaapptteerr 33 UUnnddeerrllyyiinngg TTeecchhnnoollooggyy Objectives Upon completion you will be able to: • Understand the different versions of wired Ethernet • Understand wireless Ethernet • Understand the types of point-to-point WANs • Understand the types of switched WANs, especially ATM • Differentiate between repeaters, bridges, routers, and hubs TCP/IP Protocol Suite 1
  • 2. Figure 3.1 Internet model TCP/IP Protocol Suite 2
  • 3. 3.1 Local Area Networks AA llooccaall aarreeaa nneettwwoorrkk ((LLAANN)) iiss aa ddaattaa ccoommmmuunniiccaattiioonn ssyysstteemm tthhaatt aalllloowwss aa nnuummbbeerr ooff iinnddeeppeennddeenntt ddeevviicceess ttoo ccoommmmuunniiccaattee ddiirreeccttllyy wwiitthh eeaacchh ootthheerr iinn aa lliimmiitteedd ggeeooggrraapphhiicc aarreeaa ssuucchh aass aa ssiinnggllee ddeeppaarrttmmeenntt,, aa ssiinnggllee bbuuiillddiinngg,, oorr aa ccaammppuuss.. AA llaarrggee oorrggaanniizzaattiioonn mmaayy nneeeedd sseevveerraall ccoonnnneecctteedd LLAANNss..TThhee mmoosstt ppooppuullaarr LLAANNss aarree EEtthheerrnneett aanndd wwiirreelleessss LLAANNss.. WWee bbrriieeffllyy rreevviieeww tthheessee tteecchhnnoollooggiieess iinn tthhiiss sseeccttiioonn.. TThhee ttooppiiccss ddiissccuusssseedd iinn tthhiiss sseeccttiioonn iinncclluuddee:: WWiirreedd LLAANNss:: EEtthheerrnneett WWiirreelleessss LLAANNss:: IIEEEEEE 880022..1111 TCP/IP Protocol Suite 3
  • 4. Figure 3.2 CSMA/CD TCP/IP Protocol Suite 4
  • 5. Figure 3.3 Ethernet layers TCP/IP Protocol Suite 5
  • 6. Figure 3.4 Ethernet frame TCP/IP Protocol Suite 6
  • 7. Figure 3.5 Ethernet implementations TCP/IP Protocol Suite 7
  • 8. Figure 3.6 Fast Ethernet implementations TCP/IP Protocol Suite 8
  • 9. Figure 3.7 Gigabit Ethernet implementations TCP/IP Protocol Suite 9
  • 10. Figure 3.8 BSSs TCP/IP Protocol Suite 10
  • 11. Figure 3.9 ESS TCP/IP Protocol Suite 11
  • 12. Figure 3.10 Physical layer TCP/IP Protocol Suite 12
  • 13. Figure 3.11 FHSS TCP/IP Protocol Suite 13
  • 14. Figure 3.12 DSSS TCP/IP Protocol Suite 14
  • 15. Figure 3.13 MAC layers in IEEE 802.11 standard TCP/IP Protocol Suite 15
  • 16. Figure 3.14 CSMA/CA TCP/IP Protocol Suite 16
  • 17. Figure 3.15 Frame TCP/IP Protocol Suite 17
  • 18. TTaabbllee 33..11 AAddddrreesssseess iinn IIEEEEEE 880022..1111 TCP/IP Protocol Suite 18
  • 19. 3.2 Point-to-Point WANs A second type of network we encounter in the Internet iiss tthhee ppooiinntt--ttoo-- ppooiinntt wwiiddee aarreeaa nneettwwoorrkk.. AA ppooiinntt--ttoo--ppooiinntt WWAANN ccoonnnneeccttss ttwwoo rreemmoottee ddeevviicceess uussiinngg aa lliinnee aavvaaiillaabbllee ffrroomm aa ppuubblliicc nneettwwoorrkk ssuucchh aass aa tteelleepphhoonnee nneettwwoorrkk.. WWee ddiissccuussss tthhee pphhyyssiiccaall aanndd ddaattaa lliinnkk llaayyeerrss ooff tthheessee tteecchhnnoollooggiieess hheerree.... TThhee ttooppiiccss ddiissccuusssseedd iinn tthhiiss sseeccttiioonn iinncclluuddee:: PPhhyyssiiccaall LLaayyeerr DDaattaa LLiinnkk LLaayyeerr TCP/IP Protocol Suite 19
  • 20. Figure 3.16 56K modem TCP/IP Protocol Suite 20
  • 21. NNoottee:: ADSL is an asymmetric communication technology designed for residential users; it is not suitable for businesses. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 21
  • 22. Figure 3.17 Bandwidth division TCP/IP Protocol Suite 22
  • 23. Figure 3.18 ADSL and DSLAM TCP/IP Protocol Suite 23
  • 24. Figure 3.19 Cable bandwidth TCP/IP Protocol Suite 24
  • 25. Figure 3.20 Cable modem configurations TCP/IP Protocol Suite 25
  • 26. TTaabbllee 33..22 TT lliinnee rraatteess TCP/IP Protocol Suite 26
  • 27. TTaabbllee 33..33 SSOONNEETT rraatteess TCP/IP Protocol Suite 27
  • 28. Figure 3.21 PPP frame TCP/IP Protocol Suite 28
  • 29. 3.3 Switched WANs The backbone networks in the Internet are uussuuaallllyy sswwiittcchheedd WWAANNss.. AA sswwiittcchheedd WWAANN iiss aa wwiiddee aarreeaa nneettwwoorrkk tthhaatt ccoovveerrss aa llaarrggee aarreeaa ((aa ssttaattee oorr aa ccoouunnttrryy)) aanndd pprroovviiddeess aacccceessss aatt sseevveerraall ppooiinnttss ttoo tthhee uusseerrss.. IInnssiiddee tthhee nneettwwoorrkk,, tthheerree iiss aa mmeesshh ooff ppooiinntt--ttoo--ppooiinntt nneettwwoorrkkss tthhaatt ccoonnnneeccttss sswwiittcchheess.. TThhee sswwiittcchheess,, mmuullttiippllee ppoorrtt ccoonnnneeccttoorrss,, aallllooww tthhee ccoonnnneeccttiioonn ooff sseevveerraall iinnppuuttss aanndd oouuttppuuttss.. TThhee ttooppiiccss ddiissccuusssseedd iinn tthhiiss sseeccttiioonn iinncclluuddee:: XX..2255 FFrraammee RReellaayy AATTMM TCP/IP Protocol Suite 29
  • 30. Figure 3.22 Frame Relay network TCP/IP Protocol Suite 30
  • 31. NNoottee:: ne A cell nettwwoorrkk uusseess tthhee cceellll aass tthhee bbaassiicc uunniitt ooff ddaattaa eexxcchhaannggee.. AA cceellll iiss ddeeffiinneedd aass aa ssmmaallll,, ffiixxeedd--ssiizzee bblloocckk ooff iinnffoorrmmaattiioonn.. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 31
  • 32. Figure 3.23 ATM multiplexing TCP/IP Protocol Suite 32
  • 33. Figure 3.24 Architecture of an ATM network TCP/IP Protocol Suite 33
  • 34. Figure 3.25 Virtual circuits TCP/IP Protocol Suite 34
  • 35. NNoottee:: c Note that a virtual coonnnneeccttiioonn iiss ddeeffiinneedd bbyy aa ppaaiirr ooff nnuummbbeerrss:: tthhee VVPPII aanndd tthhee VVCCII.. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 35
  • 36. Figure 3.26 An ATM cell TCP/IP Protocol Suite 36
  • 37. Figure 3.27 ATM layers TCP/IP Protocol Suite 37
  • 38. NNoottee:: TThhee IIPP pprroottooccooll uusseess tthhee AAAALL55 ssuubbllaayyeerr.. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 38
  • 39. NNoottee:: We will discuss IP over ATM in Chapter 23. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 39
  • 40. 3.4 Connecting Devices LANs or WANs do not normally operate in isolation. TThheeyy aarree ccoonnnneecctteedd ttoo oonnee aannootthheerr oorr ttoo tthhee IInntteerrnneett.. TToo ccoonnnneecctt LLAANNss oorr WWAANNss,, wwee uussee ccoonnnneeccttiinngg ddeevviicceess.. CCoonnnneeccttiinngg ddeevviicceess ccaann ooppeerraattee iinn ddiiffffeerreenntt llaayyeerrss ooff tthhee IInntteerrnneett mmooddeell.. WWee ddiissccuussss tthhrreeee kkiinnddss ooff ccoonnnneeccttiinngg ddeevviicceess:: rreeppeeaatteerrss ((oorr hhuubbss)),, bbrriiddggeess ((oorr ttwwoo--llaayyeerr sswwiittcchheess)),, aanndd rroouutteerrss ((oorr tthhrreeee--llaayyeerr sswwiittcchheess)).. RReeppeeaatteerrss aanndd hhuubbss ooppeerraattee iinn tthhee ffiirrsstt llaayyeerr ooff tthhee IInntteerrnneett mmooddeell.. BBrriiddggeess aanndd ttwwoo--llaayyeerr sswwiittcchheess ooppeerraattee iinn tthhee ffiirrsstt ttwwoo llaayyeerrss.. RRoouutteerrss aanndd tthhrreeee--llaayyeerr sswwiittcchheess ooppeerraattee iinn tthhee ffiirrsstt tthhrreeee llaayyeerrss TThhee ttooppiiccss ddiissccuusssseedd iinn tthhiiss sseeccttiioonn iinncclluuddee:: RReeppeeaatteerrss HHuubbss BBrriiddggeess RRoouutteerr TCP/IP Protocol Suite 40
  • 41. Figure 3.28 Connecting devices TCP/IP Protocol Suite 41
  • 42. Figure 3.29 Repeater TCP/IP Protocol Suite 42
  • 43. NNoottee:: A repeater ccoonnnneeccttss sseeggmmeennttss ooff aa LLAANN.. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 43
  • 44. NNoottee:: A repeater ffoorrwwaarrddss eevveerryy bbiitt;; iitt hhaass nnoo ffiilltteerriinngg ccaappaabbiilliittyy.. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 44
  • 45. NNoottee:: A repeater is a regenerator, not an amplifier. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 45
  • 46. Figure 3.30 Function of a repeater TCP/IP Protocol Suite 46
  • 47. NNoottee:: A bridge has a table used in filtering decisions. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 47
  • 48. Figure 3.31 Bridge TCP/IP Protocol Suite 48
  • 49. NNoottee:: A bridge does not change the physical (MAC) addresses in a frame. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 49
  • 50. Figure 3.32 Learning bridge TCP/IP Protocol Suite 50
  • 51. NNoottee:: A router is a three-layer (physical, data link, and network) device. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 51
  • 52. NNoottee:: A repeater or aa bbrriiddggee ccoonnnneeccttss sseeggmmeennttss ooff aa LLAANN.. AA rroouutteerr ccoonnnneeccttss iinnddeeppeennddeenntt LLAANNss oorr WWAANNss ttoo ccrreeaattee aann iinntteerrnneettwwoorrkk ((iinntteerrnneett)).. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 52
  • 53. Figure 3.33 Routing example TCP/IP Protocol Suite 53
  • 54. NNoottee:: A router changes the physical addresses in a packet. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 54