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COUNSELLING
PSYCHOLOGY
BEHAVIOURISTIC APPROACHES
TO COUNSELLING:
BEHAVIOURAL COUNSELLING
AND REALITY THERAPY
NIVEDITA MENON. C
05/08/2021
BEHAVIOURISTIC APPROACH
 This approach focuses on behaviour; changing unwanted
behaviours through rewards, reinforcements, and desensitization.
 This therapy is based on the belief that behaviour is learnt in
response to past experience and can be unlearnt, or reconditioned,
without analyzing the past to find the reason for the behaviour.
 Behavioral therapy often involves the cooperation of others,
especially family and close friends, to reinforce a desired
behaviour.
BEHAVIOURAL COUNSELLING
 Behavioural Counselling is for people with mild or severe mental health
disorders.
 Generally people who find behavioural therapists are the ones suffering
from depression, anxiety, panic disorders, stress, anger issues.
 Behavioural counselling is effective in treating eating disorders,
addiction issues, PTSD, Bipolar Disorder, ADHD, OCD and even self-
harm.
 Therefore, this type of counselling not only has a positive effect on
adults but children too so that they can manage their social and personal
relationships well.
BASIC CONCEPT
 Behaviour is the product of learning.
 We are both the product and the producer of the environment.
 Focus is on overt behavior, precision in specifying goals of treatment,
development of specific treatment plans, and objective evaluation of
therapy outcomes.
 Therapy is based on the principles of learning theory.
 Normal behavior is learned through reinforcement and imitation.
 Abnormal behavior is the result of faulty learning. This approach
stresses present behaviour.
GOALS OF THERAPY
 Generally, to eliminate maladaptive behaviours and learn more
effective behaviours.
 To focus on factors influencing behaviour and find what can be
done about problematic behaviour.
 Clients have an active role in setting treatment goals and
evaluating how well these goals are being met.
ROLE OF THE COUNSELOR
 Roles of the behavioral counselor are various and include being a
consultant, a reinforcer, and a facilitator.
 The counselor is active and may supervise other people in the
client’s environment to achieve the goals of therapy.
 Counselors using social learning may model the desired behavior,
while respondent and operant conditioning counselors are more
directive and prescriptive in their approach to the therapy goals.
 Use of tests and diagnosis varies greatly among behavioural
counsellors.
THERAPEUTIC RELATIONSHIP
 The therapist is active and directive and functions as a teacher or
trainer in helping clients learn more effective behavior.
 Clients must be active in the process and experiment with new
behaviors.
 Although a quality client/therapist relationship is not viewed as
sufficient to bring about change, a good working relationship is
essential for implementing behavioral procedures.
TECHNIQUES OF THERAPY
 The main techniques are:
• systematic desensitization
• relaxation methods
• flooding
• eye movement and desensitization reprocessing
• reinforcement techniques
• modelling
• cognitive restructuring
• assertion and social skills training
• self-management programs
• behavioral rehearsal
• coaching, and various multimodal therapy techniques.
 Diagnosis or assessment is done at the outset to determine a
treatment plan. Questions are used, such as what, how, and when
but not why.
 Contracts and homework assignments are also typically used.
 Its focus on behavior, rather than on feelings, is compatible with
many cultures.
 Strengths include a collaborative relationship between counsellor
and client in working toward mutually agreed on goals, continual
assessment to determine if the techniques are suited to clients’
unique situation, assisting clients in learning practical skills, an
educational focus, and stress on self-management strategies.
 Counsellors’ need to help clients assess the possible consequences
of making behavioral changes.
 Family members may not value clients newly acquired assertive
style, so clients must be taught how to cope with resistance by
others.
 Emphasis is on assessment and evaluation techniques, thus
providing a basis for accountable practice.
 Specific problems are identified, and clients are kept informed
about progress toward their goals.
 The approach has demonstrated effectiveness in many areas of
human functioning.
 The roles of the therapist as reinforcer, model, teacher, and
consultant are explicit.
 The approach has undergone extensive expansion, and research
literature abounds.
 No longer is it a mechanistic approach, for it now makes room
for cognitive factors and encourages self-directed programs for
behavioral change.
LIMITATIONS
 Major criticisms are that
• it may change behavior but not feelings
• that it ignores the relational factors in therapy
• that it does not provide insight
• that it ignores historical causes of present behavior
• that it involves control and manipulation by the therapist
• that it is limited in its capacity to address certain aspects of the
human condition.
 Many of these assertions are based on misconceptions, and
behavior therapists have addressed these charges.
 A basic limitation is that behavior change cannot always be
objectively assessed because of the difficulty in controlling
environmental variables.
COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR THERAPY
(CBT)
 Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) was developed by Aaron T.
Beck and et al.
 Cognitive behavior therapy is a type of psychotherapeutic
treatment that helps patients understand the thoughts and feelings
that influence behaviors.
 It’s a combination of cognitive and behavioral therapies, this
approach helps people change negative thought patterns, beliefs,
and behaviors so they can manage symptoms and enjoy more
productive, less stressful lives.
 CBT is commonly used to treat a wide range of disorders
including phobias, addictions, depression, and anxiety.
 Cognitive behaviour therapy is generally short-term and focused
on helping clients deal with a very specific problem.
 During the course of treatment, people learn how to identify and
change destructive or disturbing thought patterns that have a
negative influence on behaviour.
BASIC CONCEPT
 Individuals tend to incorporate faulty thinking, which leads to
emotional and behavioural disturbances.
 Cognitions are the major determinants of how we feel and act.
 Therapy is primarily oriented toward cognition and behaviour,
and it stresses the role of thinking, deciding, questioning, doing,
and redeciding.
 This is a Psychoeducational model, which emphasizes therapy as
a learning process, including acquiring and practicing new skills,
learning new ways of thinking, and acquiring more effective ways
of coping with problems.
 Although psychological problems may be rooted in childhood,
they are perpetuated through re-indoctrination in the now.
 A person’s belief system is the primary cause of disorders.
Internal dialogue plays a central role in one’s behaviour.
 Clients focus on examining faulty assumptions and
misconceptions and on replacing these with effective beliefs.
GOALS OF THERAPY
 To challenge clients to confront faulty beliefs with contradictory
evidence that they gather and evaluate. Helping clients seek out
their dogmatic beliefs and vigorously minimizing them. To
become aware of automatic thoughts and to change them.
THERAPEUTIC RELATIONSHIP
 The therapist functions as a teacher and the client as a student.
 The therapist is highly directive and teaches clients an ABC model of
changing their cognitions.
 The focus is on a collaborative relationship. Using a Socratic dialogue,
the therapist assists clients in identifying dysfunctional beliefs and
discovering alternative rules for living.
 The therapist promotes corrective experience that lead to learning new
skills.
 Clients gain insight into their problems and then must be actively practice
changing self-defeating thinking and acting.
TECHNIQUES OF THERAPY
 Therapists use a variety of cognitive, emotive, and behavioural
techniques; diverse methods are tailored to suit individual clients.
 An active, directive, time limited, present entered, structured
therapy.
 Some techniques include engaging in Socratic dialogue, debating
irrational beliefs, carrying out homework assignments, gathering
data on assumptions one has made, keeping a record of activities,
forming alternative interpretations, learning new coping skills,
changing one’s language and thinking patterns, role playing,
imagery, and confronting faulty beliefs.
APPLICATIONS
 Has been widely applied to the treatment of depression, anxiety,
marital problems, stress management, skill training, substance
abuse, assertion training, eating disorders, panic attacks,
performance anxiety, and social phobia.
 The approach is especially useful for assisting people in
modifying their cognitions.
 Many self-help approaches utilize its principles.
 Can be applied to a wide range of client populations with a
variety of specific problems.
LIMITATIONS
 Tends to play down emotions, does not focus on exploring the
unconscious or underlying conflicts, and sometimes does not give
enough weight to client’s past.
RATIONAL EMOTIVE BEHAVIOR
THERAPY (REBT)
 Rational emotive behaviour therapy, also known as REBT, is a
type of cognitive behavioural therapy.
 It was first called Rational Therapy, later Rational Emotive
Therapy, then changed to Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy.
 It was first introduced in 1955 by Dr. Albert Ellis who had
become increasing frustrated with the ineffectiveness of
psychotherapy.
 Ellis drew from his knowledge of philosophy and psychology to
devise a method which he believed was more directive, efficient,
and effective.
BASIC CONCEPT
 REBT is focused on helping clients change irrational beliefs.
 The replacement of illogical and unrealistic ideas with more
realistic and adaptive ones through direct intervention and
confrontation by the therapist.
 Ellis suggested that people mistakenly blame external events for
unhappiness.
 He argued, however, that it is our interpretation of these events
that truly lies at the heart of our psychological distress.
 To explain this process, Ellis developed what he referred to as the
ABC Model;
• A- Activating Event: Something happens in the environment
around you
• B- Beliefs: You hold a belief about the event or situation
• C- Consequence: You have an emotional response to your belief.
ROLE OF THE COUNSELLOR
 Counsellors are direct and active in their teaching and correcting
the client’s cognitions.
 Ellis believes that a good REBT counsellor must be bright,
knowledgeable, empathetic, persistent, scientific, interested in
helping others and use RET in their personal lives (Ellis, 1980).
 The counsellor does not rely heavily on the DSM-IV categories.
GOALS OF THE THERAPY
 The primary goal is to help people live rational and productive
lives.
 REBT helps people see that it is their thoughts and beliefs about
events that creates difficulties, not the events or the situations.
 It helps the client to understand that wishes and wants are not
entitlements to be demanded.
 Thinking that involves the words must, should, ought, have to,
and need are demands, not an expression of wants or desires.
 RET helps clients stop catastrophizing when wants and desires
are not met.
 It stresses the appropriateness of the emotional response to the
situation or event.
 A situation or event need not elicit more of a response than is
appropriate.
 It assists people in changing self-defeating behaviours or
cognitions.
 RET espouses acceptance and tolerance of self and of others in
order to achieve life goals.
STEPS IN RATIONAL EMOTIVE
BEHAVIOUR THERAPY
 The basic steps in REBT are 3:
i. Identifying the underlying irrational thought patterns and
beliefs: The very first step in the process is to identify the
irrational thoughts, feelings, and beliefs that lead to psychological
distress.
 In many cases, these irrational beliefs are reflected as absolutes, as
in I must, I should or I can’t.
 According to Ellis, some of the most common irrational beliefs
include:
 Feeling excessively upset over other people’s mistakes or
misconduct.
 Believing that you must be 100 percent competent and successful in
everything to be valued and worthwhile.
 Believing that you will be happier if you avoid life’s difficulties
or challenges.
 Feeling that you have no control over your own happiness; that
your contentment and joy are dependent upon external forces.
 By holding such unyielding beliefs, it becomes almost impossible
to respond to situations in a psychologically healthy way.
 Possessing such rigid expectations of ourselves and others only
leads to disappointment, recrimination, regret, and anxiety.
ii. Challenging the irrational beliefs: Once these underlying
feelings have been identified, the next step is to challenge these
mistaken beliefs.
 In order to do this, the therapist must dispute these beliefs using
very direct and even confrontational methods.
 Ellis suggested that rather than simply being warm and
supportive, the therapist needs to be blunt, honest, and logical in
order to push people toward changing their thoughts and
behaviours.
iii. Gaining insight and recognizing irrational thought patterns:
Facing irrational thought patterns can be difficult, especially
because accepting these beliefs as unhealthy is far from easy.
 Once the client has identified the problematic beliefs, the process
of actually changing these thoughts can be even more difficult.
APPLICATIONS
 REBT can be effective in the treatment of a range of
psychological disorders including anxiety disorders and phobias
as well as specific behaviours such as severe shyness and
excessive approval seeking.
 REBT’s comprehensive approach works best for individuals
desiring a scientific, present focused, and active treatment for
coping with life’s difficulties, rather than one which is mystical,
historical, and largely passive.
REALITY THERAPY
 Reality therapy is a form of counselling that views behaviours as
choices.
 It states that psychological symptoms occur not because of mental
illness, but due to people irresponsibly choosing behaviours to
fulfil their needs.
 A reality therapist’s goal is to help people accept responsibility of
these behaviours and choose more desirable actions.
 Dr. William Glasser developed this method in 1965.
 He used reality therapy in mental hospitals, prisons, and jails.
 Though there hasn’t been much research into the effectiveness of
reality therapy, it’s practiced in many cultures and countries.
 However, members of the psychiatric community have criticized
reality therapy, as it rejects the concept of mental illness.
REALITY THERAPY AND CHOICE
THEORY
 Reality therapy is based on choice theory, which Dr. Glasser also
created.
 Choice theory states that humans have five basic, genetically
driven needs called “genetic instructions.” These are:
• survival
• love and belonging
• power or achievement
• freedom or independence
• fun or enjoyment
 In choice theory, these needs don’t exist in any particular order.
 But it does state that our primary need is love and belonging,
which explains why mental distress is often related to
relationships.
 The theory also states that we choose our behaviours to satisfy
unmet needs.
 And in order to meet these needs, our behaviour must be
determined by internal forces.
BASIC PRINCIPLES
 Reality therapy applies the main principles of choice theory.
 It aims to help you recognize the reality of your choices and
choose more effective behaviours.
 The key concepts include:
i. Behaviour: Behaviour is a central component of reality therapy.
 It’s categorized into organized behaviours and reorganized
behaviours.
 Organized behaviours are past behaviours that you created to
satisfy your needs.
 The therapist will help you recognize any ineffective organized
behaviours.
 After identifying ineffective behaviours, you’ll work on changing
them into more effective behaviours or making completely new
ones.
ii. These are called reorganized behaviours.
 By presenting behaviours as choices, reality therapy can help you
feel more in control of your life and actions, according to
advocates of the technique.
ii. Control: The choice theory suggests that a person is only
controlled by themselves.
 It also states that the idea of being controlled by external factors
is ineffective for making change.
 This concept emerges in reality therapy, which states that
behavioural choices are determined by internal control.
 A reality therapist works to increase your awareness of these
controllable choices.
iii. Responsibility: In reality therapy, control is closely linked to
responsibility.
 According to Dr. Glasser, when people make poor choices, they
are irresponsibly trying to fulfil their needs.
 Based on this notion, reality therapy aims to increase your
accountability of your behaviour.
iv. Action: According to reality therapy, your actions are part of
your overall behaviour.
 It also maintains that you have control over your actions. Hence,
the therapist will focus on modifying actions to change behaviour.
 The method involves evaluating your current actions, how well
they’re satisfying your needs, and planning new actions that will
meet those needs.
v. Present moment: Reality therapy states that present behaviour
and actions aren’t influenced by the past.
 Instead, it claims that current behaviour is determined by the
present unmet needs.
 It uses a “here and now” approach to responsibility and action.
REALITY THERAPY TECHNIQUES
 Reality therapy involves different techniques to change your
current behaviour.
 Some examples include:
i. Self-evaluation
ii. Action planning
iii. Reframing
iv. Behavioural rehearsal
APPLICATIONS
 You can use reality therapy for many different scenarios and
relationships, including:
i. Individual therapy
ii. Family therapy
iii. Parenting
iv. Marriage counselling
v. Education
vi. Management
vii. Relationships with colleagues
viii. Friendships
ix. Addiction

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BEHAVIOURISTIC APPROACHES TO COUNSELLING PPT

  • 1. COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY BEHAVIOURISTIC APPROACHES TO COUNSELLING: BEHAVIOURAL COUNSELLING AND REALITY THERAPY NIVEDITA MENON. C 05/08/2021
  • 2. BEHAVIOURISTIC APPROACH  This approach focuses on behaviour; changing unwanted behaviours through rewards, reinforcements, and desensitization.  This therapy is based on the belief that behaviour is learnt in response to past experience and can be unlearnt, or reconditioned, without analyzing the past to find the reason for the behaviour.  Behavioral therapy often involves the cooperation of others, especially family and close friends, to reinforce a desired behaviour.
  • 3. BEHAVIOURAL COUNSELLING  Behavioural Counselling is for people with mild or severe mental health disorders.  Generally people who find behavioural therapists are the ones suffering from depression, anxiety, panic disorders, stress, anger issues.  Behavioural counselling is effective in treating eating disorders, addiction issues, PTSD, Bipolar Disorder, ADHD, OCD and even self- harm.  Therefore, this type of counselling not only has a positive effect on adults but children too so that they can manage their social and personal relationships well.
  • 4. BASIC CONCEPT  Behaviour is the product of learning.  We are both the product and the producer of the environment.  Focus is on overt behavior, precision in specifying goals of treatment, development of specific treatment plans, and objective evaluation of therapy outcomes.  Therapy is based on the principles of learning theory.  Normal behavior is learned through reinforcement and imitation.  Abnormal behavior is the result of faulty learning. This approach stresses present behaviour.
  • 5. GOALS OF THERAPY  Generally, to eliminate maladaptive behaviours and learn more effective behaviours.  To focus on factors influencing behaviour and find what can be done about problematic behaviour.  Clients have an active role in setting treatment goals and evaluating how well these goals are being met.
  • 6. ROLE OF THE COUNSELOR  Roles of the behavioral counselor are various and include being a consultant, a reinforcer, and a facilitator.  The counselor is active and may supervise other people in the client’s environment to achieve the goals of therapy.  Counselors using social learning may model the desired behavior, while respondent and operant conditioning counselors are more directive and prescriptive in their approach to the therapy goals.  Use of tests and diagnosis varies greatly among behavioural counsellors.
  • 7. THERAPEUTIC RELATIONSHIP  The therapist is active and directive and functions as a teacher or trainer in helping clients learn more effective behavior.  Clients must be active in the process and experiment with new behaviors.  Although a quality client/therapist relationship is not viewed as sufficient to bring about change, a good working relationship is essential for implementing behavioral procedures.
  • 8. TECHNIQUES OF THERAPY  The main techniques are: • systematic desensitization • relaxation methods • flooding • eye movement and desensitization reprocessing • reinforcement techniques • modelling • cognitive restructuring • assertion and social skills training • self-management programs • behavioral rehearsal • coaching, and various multimodal therapy techniques.
  • 9.  Diagnosis or assessment is done at the outset to determine a treatment plan. Questions are used, such as what, how, and when but not why.  Contracts and homework assignments are also typically used.  Its focus on behavior, rather than on feelings, is compatible with many cultures.  Strengths include a collaborative relationship between counsellor and client in working toward mutually agreed on goals, continual assessment to determine if the techniques are suited to clients’ unique situation, assisting clients in learning practical skills, an educational focus, and stress on self-management strategies.  Counsellors’ need to help clients assess the possible consequences of making behavioral changes.  Family members may not value clients newly acquired assertive style, so clients must be taught how to cope with resistance by others.
  • 10.  Emphasis is on assessment and evaluation techniques, thus providing a basis for accountable practice.  Specific problems are identified, and clients are kept informed about progress toward their goals.  The approach has demonstrated effectiveness in many areas of human functioning.  The roles of the therapist as reinforcer, model, teacher, and consultant are explicit.  The approach has undergone extensive expansion, and research literature abounds.  No longer is it a mechanistic approach, for it now makes room for cognitive factors and encourages self-directed programs for behavioral change.
  • 11. LIMITATIONS  Major criticisms are that • it may change behavior but not feelings • that it ignores the relational factors in therapy • that it does not provide insight • that it ignores historical causes of present behavior • that it involves control and manipulation by the therapist • that it is limited in its capacity to address certain aspects of the human condition.  Many of these assertions are based on misconceptions, and behavior therapists have addressed these charges.  A basic limitation is that behavior change cannot always be objectively assessed because of the difficulty in controlling environmental variables.
  • 12. COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR THERAPY (CBT)  Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) was developed by Aaron T. Beck and et al.  Cognitive behavior therapy is a type of psychotherapeutic treatment that helps patients understand the thoughts and feelings that influence behaviors.  It’s a combination of cognitive and behavioral therapies, this approach helps people change negative thought patterns, beliefs, and behaviors so they can manage symptoms and enjoy more productive, less stressful lives.
  • 13.  CBT is commonly used to treat a wide range of disorders including phobias, addictions, depression, and anxiety.  Cognitive behaviour therapy is generally short-term and focused on helping clients deal with a very specific problem.  During the course of treatment, people learn how to identify and change destructive or disturbing thought patterns that have a negative influence on behaviour.
  • 14. BASIC CONCEPT  Individuals tend to incorporate faulty thinking, which leads to emotional and behavioural disturbances.  Cognitions are the major determinants of how we feel and act.  Therapy is primarily oriented toward cognition and behaviour, and it stresses the role of thinking, deciding, questioning, doing, and redeciding.  This is a Psychoeducational model, which emphasizes therapy as a learning process, including acquiring and practicing new skills, learning new ways of thinking, and acquiring more effective ways of coping with problems.
  • 15.  Although psychological problems may be rooted in childhood, they are perpetuated through re-indoctrination in the now.  A person’s belief system is the primary cause of disorders. Internal dialogue plays a central role in one’s behaviour.  Clients focus on examining faulty assumptions and misconceptions and on replacing these with effective beliefs.
  • 16. GOALS OF THERAPY  To challenge clients to confront faulty beliefs with contradictory evidence that they gather and evaluate. Helping clients seek out their dogmatic beliefs and vigorously minimizing them. To become aware of automatic thoughts and to change them.
  • 17. THERAPEUTIC RELATIONSHIP  The therapist functions as a teacher and the client as a student.  The therapist is highly directive and teaches clients an ABC model of changing their cognitions.  The focus is on a collaborative relationship. Using a Socratic dialogue, the therapist assists clients in identifying dysfunctional beliefs and discovering alternative rules for living.  The therapist promotes corrective experience that lead to learning new skills.  Clients gain insight into their problems and then must be actively practice changing self-defeating thinking and acting.
  • 18. TECHNIQUES OF THERAPY  Therapists use a variety of cognitive, emotive, and behavioural techniques; diverse methods are tailored to suit individual clients.  An active, directive, time limited, present entered, structured therapy.  Some techniques include engaging in Socratic dialogue, debating irrational beliefs, carrying out homework assignments, gathering data on assumptions one has made, keeping a record of activities, forming alternative interpretations, learning new coping skills, changing one’s language and thinking patterns, role playing, imagery, and confronting faulty beliefs.
  • 19. APPLICATIONS  Has been widely applied to the treatment of depression, anxiety, marital problems, stress management, skill training, substance abuse, assertion training, eating disorders, panic attacks, performance anxiety, and social phobia.  The approach is especially useful for assisting people in modifying their cognitions.  Many self-help approaches utilize its principles.  Can be applied to a wide range of client populations with a variety of specific problems.
  • 20. LIMITATIONS  Tends to play down emotions, does not focus on exploring the unconscious or underlying conflicts, and sometimes does not give enough weight to client’s past.
  • 21. RATIONAL EMOTIVE BEHAVIOR THERAPY (REBT)  Rational emotive behaviour therapy, also known as REBT, is a type of cognitive behavioural therapy.  It was first called Rational Therapy, later Rational Emotive Therapy, then changed to Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy.  It was first introduced in 1955 by Dr. Albert Ellis who had become increasing frustrated with the ineffectiveness of psychotherapy.  Ellis drew from his knowledge of philosophy and psychology to devise a method which he believed was more directive, efficient, and effective.
  • 22. BASIC CONCEPT  REBT is focused on helping clients change irrational beliefs.  The replacement of illogical and unrealistic ideas with more realistic and adaptive ones through direct intervention and confrontation by the therapist.  Ellis suggested that people mistakenly blame external events for unhappiness.  He argued, however, that it is our interpretation of these events that truly lies at the heart of our psychological distress.
  • 23.  To explain this process, Ellis developed what he referred to as the ABC Model; • A- Activating Event: Something happens in the environment around you • B- Beliefs: You hold a belief about the event or situation • C- Consequence: You have an emotional response to your belief.
  • 24. ROLE OF THE COUNSELLOR  Counsellors are direct and active in their teaching and correcting the client’s cognitions.  Ellis believes that a good REBT counsellor must be bright, knowledgeable, empathetic, persistent, scientific, interested in helping others and use RET in their personal lives (Ellis, 1980).  The counsellor does not rely heavily on the DSM-IV categories.
  • 25. GOALS OF THE THERAPY  The primary goal is to help people live rational and productive lives.  REBT helps people see that it is their thoughts and beliefs about events that creates difficulties, not the events or the situations.  It helps the client to understand that wishes and wants are not entitlements to be demanded.  Thinking that involves the words must, should, ought, have to, and need are demands, not an expression of wants or desires.  RET helps clients stop catastrophizing when wants and desires are not met.
  • 26.  It stresses the appropriateness of the emotional response to the situation or event.  A situation or event need not elicit more of a response than is appropriate.  It assists people in changing self-defeating behaviours or cognitions.  RET espouses acceptance and tolerance of self and of others in order to achieve life goals.
  • 27. STEPS IN RATIONAL EMOTIVE BEHAVIOUR THERAPY  The basic steps in REBT are 3: i. Identifying the underlying irrational thought patterns and beliefs: The very first step in the process is to identify the irrational thoughts, feelings, and beliefs that lead to psychological distress.  In many cases, these irrational beliefs are reflected as absolutes, as in I must, I should or I can’t.  According to Ellis, some of the most common irrational beliefs include:  Feeling excessively upset over other people’s mistakes or misconduct.  Believing that you must be 100 percent competent and successful in everything to be valued and worthwhile.
  • 28.  Believing that you will be happier if you avoid life’s difficulties or challenges.  Feeling that you have no control over your own happiness; that your contentment and joy are dependent upon external forces.  By holding such unyielding beliefs, it becomes almost impossible to respond to situations in a psychologically healthy way.  Possessing such rigid expectations of ourselves and others only leads to disappointment, recrimination, regret, and anxiety. ii. Challenging the irrational beliefs: Once these underlying feelings have been identified, the next step is to challenge these mistaken beliefs.  In order to do this, the therapist must dispute these beliefs using very direct and even confrontational methods.  Ellis suggested that rather than simply being warm and supportive, the therapist needs to be blunt, honest, and logical in order to push people toward changing their thoughts and behaviours.
  • 29. iii. Gaining insight and recognizing irrational thought patterns: Facing irrational thought patterns can be difficult, especially because accepting these beliefs as unhealthy is far from easy.  Once the client has identified the problematic beliefs, the process of actually changing these thoughts can be even more difficult.
  • 30. APPLICATIONS  REBT can be effective in the treatment of a range of psychological disorders including anxiety disorders and phobias as well as specific behaviours such as severe shyness and excessive approval seeking.  REBT’s comprehensive approach works best for individuals desiring a scientific, present focused, and active treatment for coping with life’s difficulties, rather than one which is mystical, historical, and largely passive.
  • 31. REALITY THERAPY  Reality therapy is a form of counselling that views behaviours as choices.  It states that psychological symptoms occur not because of mental illness, but due to people irresponsibly choosing behaviours to fulfil their needs.  A reality therapist’s goal is to help people accept responsibility of these behaviours and choose more desirable actions.  Dr. William Glasser developed this method in 1965.  He used reality therapy in mental hospitals, prisons, and jails.  Though there hasn’t been much research into the effectiveness of reality therapy, it’s practiced in many cultures and countries.  However, members of the psychiatric community have criticized reality therapy, as it rejects the concept of mental illness.
  • 32. REALITY THERAPY AND CHOICE THEORY  Reality therapy is based on choice theory, which Dr. Glasser also created.  Choice theory states that humans have five basic, genetically driven needs called “genetic instructions.” These are: • survival • love and belonging • power or achievement • freedom or independence • fun or enjoyment
  • 33.  In choice theory, these needs don’t exist in any particular order.  But it does state that our primary need is love and belonging, which explains why mental distress is often related to relationships.  The theory also states that we choose our behaviours to satisfy unmet needs.  And in order to meet these needs, our behaviour must be determined by internal forces.
  • 34. BASIC PRINCIPLES  Reality therapy applies the main principles of choice theory.  It aims to help you recognize the reality of your choices and choose more effective behaviours.  The key concepts include: i. Behaviour: Behaviour is a central component of reality therapy.  It’s categorized into organized behaviours and reorganized behaviours.  Organized behaviours are past behaviours that you created to satisfy your needs.  The therapist will help you recognize any ineffective organized behaviours.
  • 35.  After identifying ineffective behaviours, you’ll work on changing them into more effective behaviours or making completely new ones. ii. These are called reorganized behaviours.  By presenting behaviours as choices, reality therapy can help you feel more in control of your life and actions, according to advocates of the technique. ii. Control: The choice theory suggests that a person is only controlled by themselves.  It also states that the idea of being controlled by external factors is ineffective for making change.  This concept emerges in reality therapy, which states that behavioural choices are determined by internal control.  A reality therapist works to increase your awareness of these controllable choices.
  • 36. iii. Responsibility: In reality therapy, control is closely linked to responsibility.  According to Dr. Glasser, when people make poor choices, they are irresponsibly trying to fulfil their needs.  Based on this notion, reality therapy aims to increase your accountability of your behaviour. iv. Action: According to reality therapy, your actions are part of your overall behaviour.  It also maintains that you have control over your actions. Hence, the therapist will focus on modifying actions to change behaviour.  The method involves evaluating your current actions, how well they’re satisfying your needs, and planning new actions that will meet those needs.
  • 37. v. Present moment: Reality therapy states that present behaviour and actions aren’t influenced by the past.  Instead, it claims that current behaviour is determined by the present unmet needs.  It uses a “here and now” approach to responsibility and action.
  • 38. REALITY THERAPY TECHNIQUES  Reality therapy involves different techniques to change your current behaviour.  Some examples include: i. Self-evaluation ii. Action planning iii. Reframing iv. Behavioural rehearsal
  • 39. APPLICATIONS  You can use reality therapy for many different scenarios and relationships, including: i. Individual therapy ii. Family therapy iii. Parenting iv. Marriage counselling v. Education vi. Management vii. Relationships with colleagues viii. Friendships ix. Addiction