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1. Where the Mind is Without Fear
By Rabindranath Tagore
Where the mind is without fear and the head is held high;
Where knowledge is free;
Where the world has not been broken up into fragments
By narrow domestic walls;
Where words come out from the depth of truth;
Where tireless striving stretches its arms towards perfection;
Where the clear stream of reason has not lost its way
Into the dreary desert sand of dead habit;
Where the mind is led forward by thee
Into ever-widening thought and action—
Into that heaven of freedom, my Father, let my country awake.
The poem was written when India was under the British Rule and people were
eagerly waiting to get their freedom from the British Rule. The poem is written in the
form of a prayer to the God, the Almighty for a true freedom for his country. And thus
Tagore reveals his own concept of freedom throughout the poem.
Where the Mind is Without Fear: Line by line
Explanation
Line 1-2
Where the mind is without fear and the head is held high;
In the very first line, the poet prays to the Almighty that his countrymen should be
free from any fear of oppression or forced compulsion. He wishes that everyone in
his country has his head held high in dignity. In other words, according to him, in a
truly free country every person should be fearless and should have a sense of self
dignity.
Bcom. Sem II
English Poetry
By
Dr. G. N. Khamankar,
Vivekanand Mahavidhyalaya, Bhadrawati
Where knowledge is free;
In the second line of Where the Mind is Without Fear the poet dreams of a nation
where knowledge would be free. Education should not be restricted to the upper
class only but everybody should be allowed to acquire knowledge. Not only that, the
children should learn freely from the nature and the world around them. They should
not be forced memorize some predetermined lessons. And this is Tagore’s typical
concept of education.
Line 3-4
Where the world has not been broken up into fragments
By narrow domestic walls;
In the next two lines, the poet emphasizes the unity of not only of his countrymen but
also of the entire world. He thinks there should be no division among people based
on their caste, creed, color, religion or other baseless superstitions. In other words,
prejudices and superstitions should not divide the people in groups and break their
unity.
Line 5-6
Where words come out from the depth of truth;
In line 5 of Where the Mind is Without Fear, Tagore wants a nation where people are
truthful. They should not be superficial and words should come out from the depth of
their hearts.
Where tireless striving stretches its arms towards perfection;
In the sixth line of the poem, the poet wants everyone to work hard to reach their
goal, and in the long run to reach perfection. . He thinks they should not be tired by
working. People should not be lazy and ignoring their work.
Line 7-8
Where the clear stream of reason has not lost its way
Into the dreary desert sand of dead habits;
In line 7, the poet compares ‘reason’ or logical thinking to a “clear stream’ and in the
next line compares ‘dead habits’ or superstitious beliefs to a ‘dreary desert’. He
wants the stream of reason not to lose its way into the desert of prejudices. In short,
people’s thought should be monitored by rational thinking, not by superstition; logic
should rule over old baseless beliefs.
Line 9-11
Where the mind is led forward by thee
Into ever-widening thought and action;
In line 9 and 10 the poet wishes his countrymen to be progressive and broad-
minded. He wants that their minds are “led forward” to “ever-widening thought and
action” by the Almighty. In short, we should be open-minded and do something
unusual or extraordinary, overcoming the narrowness of mind.
Into that heaven of freedom, my Father, let my country awake
In the final line of the poem, the poet addresses the God as ‘Father’. He asks him to
awaken his country into such a ‘heaven of freedom’ where the above conditions
meet.
To make it clear, the poet prays to the Almighty (my Father) to raise or lift (awake)
his country to such heights where freedom would be realised at its best (a heaven of
freedom). In turn, he is actually praying that God awakens his countrymen so that
they come out from the darkness of ignorance, prejudices, disunity and all other
evils.
Poet’s Message
Finally, In the poem the poet’s message is very clear. If all the people of a nation are not
wise enough to lead a happy and peaceful life free from all evils, they cannot enjoy their
freedom well. So to the poet, only political freedom is not so important unless you are
fearless, self dignified, knowledgeable, truthful, hard-working and broad-minded enough to
enjoy it fully.
Que.1 Give the central idea of the poem Where the Mind is Without Fear by Rabindranath
Tagore
Or What are some of the Qualities that the land of freedom should have, according to
Tagore?
Ans: Where the Mind Is Without Fear is a beautiful poem by Rabindranath Tagore.
The poem was written when India was under the British Rule and people were
eagerly waiting to get their freedom. The poem is written in the form of a prayer to
the God, the Almighty for a true freedom for his country. In this, Tagore reveals his
own concept of freedom throughout the poem.
The poet prays to the Almighty that his countrymen should be free from any fear of
oppression or forced compulsion. He wishes that everyone in his country has his
head held high in dignity. In other words, in his country every person should be
fearless and should have a sense of self dignity.
The poet dreams of a nation where knowledge would be free. Education should not
be restricted to the upper class only but everybody should be allowed to acquire
knowledge. Not only that, the children should learn freely from the nature and the
world around them. They should not be forced memorize some predetermined
lessons. And this is Tagore’s typical concept of education.
The poet thinks there should be no division among people based on their caste,
creed, color, religion or other baseless superstitions. In other words, prejudices and
superstitions should not divide the people in groups and break their unity. Moreover,
Tagore wants a nation where people are truthful. They should not be superficial and
words should come out from the depth of their hearts. The poet wants everyone to
work hard to reach their goal, and in the long run to reach perfection. . He thinks they
should not be tired by working. People should not be lazy and ignoring their work.
The poet compares ‘reason’ or logical thinking to a “clear stream’ and in the next line
compares ‘dead habits’ or superstitious beliefs to a ‘dreary desert’. He wants the
stream of reason not to lose its way into the desert of prejudices. In short, people’s
thought should be monitored by rational thinking, not by superstition; logic should
rule over old baseless beliefs.
The poet wishes his countrymen to be progressive and broad-minded. He wants that
their minds are “led forward” to “ever-widening thought and action”. In short, we
should be open-minded and do something extraordinary.
In the final line of the poem, the poet addresses the God as ‘Father’. He asks him to
awaken his country into such a ‘heaven of freedom.’ Thus, the poet prays to the God
to raise or lift his country to such heights where freedom would be realised at its
best.
…………………………………….xxxxx………………………………………………….
2. MONEY MADNESS
D.H. Lawrence
Money is our madness, our vast collective madness.
And of course, if the multitude is mad
the individual carries his own grain of insanity around with him.
I doubt if any man living hands out a pound note without a pang;
and a real tremor, if he hands out a ten-pound note.
We quail, money makes us quail.
It has got us down; we grovel before it in strange terror.
And no wonder, for money has a fearful cruel power among men.
But it is not money we are so terrified of,
it is the collective money-madness of mankind.
For mankind says with one voice: How much is he worth?
Has he no money? Then let him eat dirt, and go cold.
And if I have no money, they will give me a little bread so I do not die,
but they will make me eat dirt with it.
I shall have to eat dirt, I shall have to eat dirt
if I have no money.
It is that that I am frightened of.
And that fear can become a delirium.
It is fear of my money-mad fellow-men.
We must have some money
to save us from eating dirt.
And this is all wrong.
Bread should be free,
shelter should be free,
fire should be free
to all and anybody, all and anybody, all over the world.
We must regain our sanity about money
before we start killing one another about it.
It‘s one thing or the other.
About the Poet
D.H. Lawrence was a major twentieth century English writer. He has
written several novels, short stories, poems, plays, essays, travel
books and translations. ‘Money Madness’ is the poet’s perception of
materialistic world. He visualizes a moneyless society through this
poem.
Summary
The poem, ‘Money Madness’ shows us the picture of a world obsessed
with money. The poet has brought out a money-centered society
wherein an individual is measured based upon one’s money power.
He says that money madness is the vast collective madness; each
individual carries her/his share of insanity. If one has to hand out a
pound note, one feels the pang and to hand out a ten-pound note, it
is a real tremor. Money has made us slaves. It has a cruel power.
The poet says that we are terrified of the collective madness. The
mankind measures an individual with money. If he has no money, he
has to eat dirt and go cold. If we do not have money, they will give a
little bread so that we do not die. The poet is afraid of eating dirt
without money. It is this fear that can become a delirium.
So, the poet says that we must have some money to save us from
eating dirt. However, D.H. Lawrence comes up with a wish to live in
a better society where bread, shelter and fire should be free to
everyone all over the world. We must come out of this money
madness and regain our sanity before we start killing one another.
Conclusion
The poem ‘Money Madness’ is the reflection of human society that
was transforming rapidly owing to industrialization. Nevertheless,
the concern expressed by D.H. Lawrence is relevant in today’s
context also. Though it may not be possible to think of our life
without money, the money madness holds its sway and it has created
a situation of unfair competition, rivalry and selfishness.
Ques.1. What does the poet consider more terrifying than monet?
Or
Why does he call this “collective madness”? What happens to an individual
when the multitude is mad?
Or How does Lawrence show that the possession of money is a kind of
madness? What evidence does he bring up to substantiate his argument?
Ans: The poem, ‘Money Madness’ shows us the picture of a world
obsessed with money. The poet has brought out a money-centered
society wherein an individual is measured based upon one’s money
power. He says that money madness is the vast collective madness;
each individual carries her/his share of insanity. If one has to hand
out a pound note, one feels the pang and to hand out a ten-pound
note, it is a real tremor. Money has made us slaves. It has a cruel
power.
The poet says that we are terrified of the collective madness. The
mankind measures an individual with money. If he has no money, he
has to eat dirt and go cold. If we do not have money, they will give a
little bread so that we do not die. The poet is afraid of eating dirt
without money. It is this fear that can become a delirium.
So, the poet says that we must have some money to save us from
eating dirt. However, D.H. Lawrence comes up with a wish to live in
a better society where bread, shelter and fire should be free to
everyone all over the world. We must come out of this money
madness and regain our sanity before we start killing one another.
The poem ‘Money Madness’ is the reflection of human society that
was transforming rapidly owing to industrialization. Nevertheless,
the concern expressed by D.H. Lawrence is relevant in today’s
context also. Though it may not be possible to think of our life
without money, the money madness holds its sway and it has created
a situation of unfair competition, rivalry and selfishness.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. Leisure
W. H. DAVIES
WHAT is this life if, full of care,
We have no time to stand and stare?—
No time to stand beneath the boughs,
And stare as long as sheep and cows:
No time to see, when woods we pass,
Where squirrels hide their nuts in grass:
No time to see, in broad daylight,
Streams full of stars, like skies at night:
No time to turn at Beauty's glance,
And watch her feet, how they can dance:
No time to wait till her mouth can
Enrich that smile her eyes began?
A poor life this if, full of care,
We have no time to stand and stare.
Analysis of Leisure
Lines 1–4
What is this life if, full of care,
We have no time to stand and stare.
No time to stand beneath the boughs
And stare as long as sheep or cows.
In this poem, Davies talks about living a life that is “full of care”. One has to
understand the meaning of this phrase before moving to the next line.
Through this phrase, the poet refers to a person whose life is busy mostly
with necessities meant only for the body. Hence, they don’t have enough
time to work on their mind. The poet says they are so busy that they don’t
even have the time to simply “stand” and “stare” at the simple things of
nature. In the next couplet, the poet says in modern times, people have no
time to stand beneath the boughs and stare as long as the sheep or cows.
Lines 5–8
No time to see, when woods we pass,
Where squirrels hide their nuts in grass.
No time to see, in broad daylight,
Streams full of stars, like skies at night.
In the following couplets, Davies talks about what modern humans avoid
due to the lack of time in their busy schedules. It can also be true that they
don’t even care about such things. But, the poet cares. In the first couplet of
this section, he says people have no time to see the woods when we pass
through it. People don’t even know where squirrels hide their nuts in grass.
Thereafter, the poet refers to the streams that gleam in the daylight, like
stars in the “skies at night.” This section reflects how people have detached
themselves from nature. If one just takes a leisurely walk in the woods or
stares at the streams in daylight, he or she can see those things.
Lines 9–14
No time to turn at Beauty’s glance,
And watch her feet, how they can dance.
No time to wait till her mouth can
Enrich that smile her eyes began.
A poor life this if, full of care,
We have no time to stand and stare.
Moreover, according to the poet, people have no time to turn to a beautiful
girl and watch how her feet graciously move while she dances. Along with
that, one doesn’t wait till her mouth can enrich that smile her eyes began.
Here, the poet touches on an exciting idea. When one is about to smile, her
eyes reflect the sense of happiness first. Then one can see how the emotion
gets expressed through her face. In the last couplet, the poet remarks that a
“poor life”, a metaphorical reference to mental poverty, is that of a person
who doesn’t have time to stand and enjoy those things. The last couplet
acts as a refrain.
Summary:
In this poem, ‘Leisure’, the poet William Davies is telling us about our hectic
life. We have no time to admire the nature around us. Even we cannot
spare a few moments to stand under the branches of green trees and enjoy
the beautiful and restful shades of the trees. The common animals like
sheep and cows are better than us in enjoying life. We cannot look at them
grazing in the pastures. When we pass through some forests, we do not
have time to stop for some moments to look at the trees-tall and short, and
enjoy their natural beauty. The dark green trees provide a soothing effect
but we are always sick-hurried and cannot enjoy at least the simple beauty.
Also we cannot look at the small animals like squirrels concealing their
food-grain in the grass for the winter. During day time, when the rays of the
sun fall upon the clear water of the rivers, the water reflects and shines like
stars in the sky during night. But busy people do not have time to see this.
The natural beauty scattered all around us. Natural beauty is personified as
a young beautiful dancing girl having a smiling face. But we have no time to
stand at a place and look carefully at nature that can refresh us. As human
beings, we should spare some moments and look at nature and natural
beauty spread around us and enjoy life.
Ques. 1. What is the meaning of the word ‘Leisure’ Is the
poem in favour of it or against it?
Or
Write in your own words the summary of the poem
‘Leisure’ by W. H. Davies.
Ans: In this poem, ‘Leisure’, the poet William Davies is telling us about our
hectic life. We have no time to admire the nature around us. Even we
cannot spare a few moments to stand under the branches of green trees
and enjoy the beautiful and restful shades of the trees. The common
animals like sheep and cows are better than us in enjoying life. We cannot
look at them grazing in the pastures. When we pass through some forests,
we do not have time to stop for some moments to look at the trees-tall and
short, and enjoy their natural beauty. The dark green trees provide a
soothing effect but we are always sick-hurried and cannot enjoy at least the
simple beauty. Also we cannot look at the small animals like squirrels
concealing their food-grain in the grass for the winter. During day time,
when the rays of the sun fall upon the clear water of the rivers, the water
reflects and shines like stars in the sky during night. But busy people do not
have time to see this. The natural beauty scattered all around us. Natural
beauty is personified as a young beautiful dancing girl having a smiling
face. But we have no time to stand at a place and look carefully at nature
that can refresh us. As human beings, we should spare some moments
and look at nature and natural beauty spread around us and enjoy life.
Leisure Questions & Answers for practice
Word Galaxy
 Leisure – free time
 Stare – a long fixed look on something with eyes wide open
 Boughs – main branches of a tree
 Glance – a brief or hurried look
 Enrich – to improve the quality
 Broad – having a distance larger than usual from side to side; wide
Question 1: What does ‘leisure’ mean in this poem?
Answer: In this poem, the word ‘leisure’ means having free time to pursue one’s
passion or to spend time with nature and admire its beauty.
Question 2: Who are ‘we’ in the poem?
Answer: The word ‘We’ in the poem refers to people who have no time to enjoy
nature.
Question 3: The words ‘No time’ are repeated seven times in
the poem. What is the poet trying to say?
Answer: The words ‘No time’ are repeated seven times in the poem to highlight
that we humans are so busy in our daily work that we have no time to admire
nature and its beauty.
Question 4: If the poet was living in a town, what would he see
on the roads?
Answer: If the poet had been living in a town, he would have seen traffic on the
roads and people around him rushing to their work.
Leisure Questions & Answers
Question 5: How can we live a better life?
Answer: We can live a better life by using our leisure time creatively to
strengthen and admire the beautiful things around us.
Question 6: What does the poet wish to see in his free time?
Answer: In his free time, the poet wished to stand beneath boughs and stare
for long like wandering sheep or cows. If he had free time, while passing through
woods he would be able to spot where squirrels hid their nuts in grass. The poet
would like to watch streams sparkling in broad daylight. He wished, he had the
time to admire nature’s beauty in its various forms.
Question 7: When and where can we see the squirrels hiding
their nuts?
Answer: We can see the squirrels hiding their nuts in grass when we are passing
by the woods.
Question 8: How do the streams look in broad daylight?
Answer: The streams shine like stars in the night sky, in broad daylight.
Question 9: Quote the lines from the poem where the poet
poses a rhetorical question to his readers?
Answer: The lines from the poem are:-
“What is this life if, full of care
We have no time to stand and stare”
Rhetorical question – The poet asks a question to which he does not expect
anyone to reply since the answer to it is very obvious. He asks whether life has
any value if a man cannot find the time to take a break from his hectic schedule
and stare at nature.
Leisure Questions & Answers
Question 10: Which ‘life’ is the poet talking about? What is it
that we don’t have the time to do but the cows and the sheep
have?
Answer: The poet is talking about one’s extremely busy and stressful life. We
don’t have the time to stand and stare beneath the boughs like cows and sheep.
Question 11: Why do you think the word ‘Beauty’ is written
with a capital ‘B’?
Answer: The word ‘Beauty’ is written with a capital ‘B’ to show the importance
of the nature’s beauty.
Question 12: The movements in nature are beautiful like a
dancer. Based on your own observation, describe movements
of two things in nature that are beautiful.
Answer: The movements of the leaves and the waves are beautiful.
Question 13: How, according to the poet, is our life poor?
Answer: The poet says people neither have time for themselves nor for nature.
People are very busy to even stand and admire the beauty of nature around
them. Hence, according to the poet, our life is poor.
Question 14: Read the lines and answer the questions:
(a) Who is referred to as ‘her’?
Answer: Beauty is referred to as ‘her’ in the poem.
(b) To what has the poet compared ‘her’ in the poem?
Answer: The poet has personified Beauty as a dancer.
(c) What does the poet lament about?
Answer: The poet laments that we have no time to watch beauty dance and
watch her smile.
(d) Give the antonym of ‘enrich’.
Answer: Reduce/deplete
Question 15: Write figure of speech in the following lines:
(a)
Answer: Simile – Humans are compared to sheep or cows.
(b)
Answer: Personification – Beauty is given the human quality of dancing.
(c)
Answer: Alliteration – repetitive effect of the word ‘s’.
Question 16: Is ‘Beauty’ a male or a female? Justify with
reference to the poem.
Answer: In the poem, Nature is personified as a beautiful dancing maiden.
‘Beauty’ is referred to as ‘her’. Hence, ‘Beauty’ is a female according to the poem.
Question 17: What kind of life is it according to the poet when
we have no time to admire nature?
Answer: The poet is telling us about our hectic life. We have no time to admire
the nature around us. Even we cannot spare a few moments to stand under the
branches of green trees and enjoy the beautiful and restful shades of the
trees. We are busy in our own life and he (the poet) has criticised humans on
the fact that we are like a machine and run everyday without noticing the little
detail about our surrounding.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bcom Sem II poetry 2.pdf

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Bcom Sem II poetry 2.pdf

  • 1. 1. Where the Mind is Without Fear By Rabindranath Tagore Where the mind is without fear and the head is held high; Where knowledge is free; Where the world has not been broken up into fragments By narrow domestic walls; Where words come out from the depth of truth; Where tireless striving stretches its arms towards perfection; Where the clear stream of reason has not lost its way Into the dreary desert sand of dead habit; Where the mind is led forward by thee Into ever-widening thought and action— Into that heaven of freedom, my Father, let my country awake. The poem was written when India was under the British Rule and people were eagerly waiting to get their freedom from the British Rule. The poem is written in the form of a prayer to the God, the Almighty for a true freedom for his country. And thus Tagore reveals his own concept of freedom throughout the poem. Where the Mind is Without Fear: Line by line Explanation Line 1-2 Where the mind is without fear and the head is held high; In the very first line, the poet prays to the Almighty that his countrymen should be free from any fear of oppression or forced compulsion. He wishes that everyone in his country has his head held high in dignity. In other words, according to him, in a truly free country every person should be fearless and should have a sense of self dignity. Bcom. Sem II English Poetry By Dr. G. N. Khamankar, Vivekanand Mahavidhyalaya, Bhadrawati
  • 2. Where knowledge is free; In the second line of Where the Mind is Without Fear the poet dreams of a nation where knowledge would be free. Education should not be restricted to the upper class only but everybody should be allowed to acquire knowledge. Not only that, the children should learn freely from the nature and the world around them. They should not be forced memorize some predetermined lessons. And this is Tagore’s typical concept of education. Line 3-4 Where the world has not been broken up into fragments By narrow domestic walls; In the next two lines, the poet emphasizes the unity of not only of his countrymen but also of the entire world. He thinks there should be no division among people based on their caste, creed, color, religion or other baseless superstitions. In other words, prejudices and superstitions should not divide the people in groups and break their unity. Line 5-6 Where words come out from the depth of truth; In line 5 of Where the Mind is Without Fear, Tagore wants a nation where people are truthful. They should not be superficial and words should come out from the depth of their hearts. Where tireless striving stretches its arms towards perfection; In the sixth line of the poem, the poet wants everyone to work hard to reach their goal, and in the long run to reach perfection. . He thinks they should not be tired by working. People should not be lazy and ignoring their work. Line 7-8 Where the clear stream of reason has not lost its way Into the dreary desert sand of dead habits; In line 7, the poet compares ‘reason’ or logical thinking to a “clear stream’ and in the next line compares ‘dead habits’ or superstitious beliefs to a ‘dreary desert’. He wants the stream of reason not to lose its way into the desert of prejudices. In short, people’s thought should be monitored by rational thinking, not by superstition; logic should rule over old baseless beliefs. Line 9-11 Where the mind is led forward by thee Into ever-widening thought and action; In line 9 and 10 the poet wishes his countrymen to be progressive and broad- minded. He wants that their minds are “led forward” to “ever-widening thought and
  • 3. action” by the Almighty. In short, we should be open-minded and do something unusual or extraordinary, overcoming the narrowness of mind. Into that heaven of freedom, my Father, let my country awake In the final line of the poem, the poet addresses the God as ‘Father’. He asks him to awaken his country into such a ‘heaven of freedom’ where the above conditions meet. To make it clear, the poet prays to the Almighty (my Father) to raise or lift (awake) his country to such heights where freedom would be realised at its best (a heaven of freedom). In turn, he is actually praying that God awakens his countrymen so that they come out from the darkness of ignorance, prejudices, disunity and all other evils. Poet’s Message Finally, In the poem the poet’s message is very clear. If all the people of a nation are not wise enough to lead a happy and peaceful life free from all evils, they cannot enjoy their freedom well. So to the poet, only political freedom is not so important unless you are fearless, self dignified, knowledgeable, truthful, hard-working and broad-minded enough to enjoy it fully. Que.1 Give the central idea of the poem Where the Mind is Without Fear by Rabindranath Tagore Or What are some of the Qualities that the land of freedom should have, according to Tagore? Ans: Where the Mind Is Without Fear is a beautiful poem by Rabindranath Tagore. The poem was written when India was under the British Rule and people were eagerly waiting to get their freedom. The poem is written in the form of a prayer to the God, the Almighty for a true freedom for his country. In this, Tagore reveals his own concept of freedom throughout the poem. The poet prays to the Almighty that his countrymen should be free from any fear of oppression or forced compulsion. He wishes that everyone in his country has his head held high in dignity. In other words, in his country every person should be fearless and should have a sense of self dignity. The poet dreams of a nation where knowledge would be free. Education should not be restricted to the upper class only but everybody should be allowed to acquire knowledge. Not only that, the children should learn freely from the nature and the world around them. They should not be forced memorize some predetermined lessons. And this is Tagore’s typical concept of education. The poet thinks there should be no division among people based on their caste, creed, color, religion or other baseless superstitions. In other words, prejudices and superstitions should not divide the people in groups and break their unity. Moreover, Tagore wants a nation where people are truthful. They should not be superficial and words should come out from the depth of their hearts. The poet wants everyone to
  • 4. work hard to reach their goal, and in the long run to reach perfection. . He thinks they should not be tired by working. People should not be lazy and ignoring their work. The poet compares ‘reason’ or logical thinking to a “clear stream’ and in the next line compares ‘dead habits’ or superstitious beliefs to a ‘dreary desert’. He wants the stream of reason not to lose its way into the desert of prejudices. In short, people’s thought should be monitored by rational thinking, not by superstition; logic should rule over old baseless beliefs. The poet wishes his countrymen to be progressive and broad-minded. He wants that their minds are “led forward” to “ever-widening thought and action”. In short, we should be open-minded and do something extraordinary. In the final line of the poem, the poet addresses the God as ‘Father’. He asks him to awaken his country into such a ‘heaven of freedom.’ Thus, the poet prays to the God to raise or lift his country to such heights where freedom would be realised at its best. …………………………………….xxxxx…………………………………………………. 2. MONEY MADNESS D.H. Lawrence Money is our madness, our vast collective madness. And of course, if the multitude is mad the individual carries his own grain of insanity around with him. I doubt if any man living hands out a pound note without a pang; and a real tremor, if he hands out a ten-pound note. We quail, money makes us quail. It has got us down; we grovel before it in strange terror. And no wonder, for money has a fearful cruel power among men. But it is not money we are so terrified of, it is the collective money-madness of mankind. For mankind says with one voice: How much is he worth? Has he no money? Then let him eat dirt, and go cold.
  • 5. And if I have no money, they will give me a little bread so I do not die, but they will make me eat dirt with it. I shall have to eat dirt, I shall have to eat dirt if I have no money. It is that that I am frightened of. And that fear can become a delirium. It is fear of my money-mad fellow-men. We must have some money to save us from eating dirt. And this is all wrong. Bread should be free, shelter should be free, fire should be free to all and anybody, all and anybody, all over the world. We must regain our sanity about money before we start killing one another about it. It‘s one thing or the other. About the Poet D.H. Lawrence was a major twentieth century English writer. He has written several novels, short stories, poems, plays, essays, travel books and translations. ‘Money Madness’ is the poet’s perception of materialistic world. He visualizes a moneyless society through this poem. Summary The poem, ‘Money Madness’ shows us the picture of a world obsessed with money. The poet has brought out a money-centered society wherein an individual is measured based upon one’s money power. He says that money madness is the vast collective madness; each individual carries her/his share of insanity. If one has to hand out a pound note, one feels the pang and to hand out a ten-pound note, it is a real tremor. Money has made us slaves. It has a cruel power.
  • 6. The poet says that we are terrified of the collective madness. The mankind measures an individual with money. If he has no money, he has to eat dirt and go cold. If we do not have money, they will give a little bread so that we do not die. The poet is afraid of eating dirt without money. It is this fear that can become a delirium. So, the poet says that we must have some money to save us from eating dirt. However, D.H. Lawrence comes up with a wish to live in a better society where bread, shelter and fire should be free to everyone all over the world. We must come out of this money madness and regain our sanity before we start killing one another. Conclusion The poem ‘Money Madness’ is the reflection of human society that was transforming rapidly owing to industrialization. Nevertheless, the concern expressed by D.H. Lawrence is relevant in today’s context also. Though it may not be possible to think of our life without money, the money madness holds its sway and it has created a situation of unfair competition, rivalry and selfishness. Ques.1. What does the poet consider more terrifying than monet? Or Why does he call this “collective madness”? What happens to an individual when the multitude is mad? Or How does Lawrence show that the possession of money is a kind of madness? What evidence does he bring up to substantiate his argument? Ans: The poem, ‘Money Madness’ shows us the picture of a world obsessed with money. The poet has brought out a money-centered society wherein an individual is measured based upon one’s money power. He says that money madness is the vast collective madness; each individual carries her/his share of insanity. If one has to hand out a pound note, one feels the pang and to hand out a ten-pound note, it is a real tremor. Money has made us slaves. It has a cruel power. The poet says that we are terrified of the collective madness. The mankind measures an individual with money. If he has no money, he has to eat dirt and go cold. If we do not have money, they will give a little bread so that we do not die. The poet is afraid of eating dirt without money. It is this fear that can become a delirium. So, the poet says that we must have some money to save us from eating dirt. However, D.H. Lawrence comes up with a wish to live in a better society where bread, shelter and fire should be free to
  • 7. everyone all over the world. We must come out of this money madness and regain our sanity before we start killing one another. The poem ‘Money Madness’ is the reflection of human society that was transforming rapidly owing to industrialization. Nevertheless, the concern expressed by D.H. Lawrence is relevant in today’s context also. Though it may not be possible to think of our life without money, the money madness holds its sway and it has created a situation of unfair competition, rivalry and selfishness. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3. Leisure W. H. DAVIES WHAT is this life if, full of care, We have no time to stand and stare?— No time to stand beneath the boughs, And stare as long as sheep and cows: No time to see, when woods we pass, Where squirrels hide their nuts in grass: No time to see, in broad daylight, Streams full of stars, like skies at night: No time to turn at Beauty's glance, And watch her feet, how they can dance:
  • 8. No time to wait till her mouth can Enrich that smile her eyes began? A poor life this if, full of care, We have no time to stand and stare. Analysis of Leisure Lines 1–4 What is this life if, full of care, We have no time to stand and stare. No time to stand beneath the boughs And stare as long as sheep or cows. In this poem, Davies talks about living a life that is “full of care”. One has to understand the meaning of this phrase before moving to the next line. Through this phrase, the poet refers to a person whose life is busy mostly with necessities meant only for the body. Hence, they don’t have enough time to work on their mind. The poet says they are so busy that they don’t even have the time to simply “stand” and “stare” at the simple things of nature. In the next couplet, the poet says in modern times, people have no time to stand beneath the boughs and stare as long as the sheep or cows. Lines 5–8 No time to see, when woods we pass, Where squirrels hide their nuts in grass. No time to see, in broad daylight,
  • 9. Streams full of stars, like skies at night. In the following couplets, Davies talks about what modern humans avoid due to the lack of time in their busy schedules. It can also be true that they don’t even care about such things. But, the poet cares. In the first couplet of this section, he says people have no time to see the woods when we pass through it. People don’t even know where squirrels hide their nuts in grass. Thereafter, the poet refers to the streams that gleam in the daylight, like stars in the “skies at night.” This section reflects how people have detached themselves from nature. If one just takes a leisurely walk in the woods or stares at the streams in daylight, he or she can see those things. Lines 9–14 No time to turn at Beauty’s glance, And watch her feet, how they can dance. No time to wait till her mouth can Enrich that smile her eyes began. A poor life this if, full of care, We have no time to stand and stare. Moreover, according to the poet, people have no time to turn to a beautiful girl and watch how her feet graciously move while she dances. Along with that, one doesn’t wait till her mouth can enrich that smile her eyes began. Here, the poet touches on an exciting idea. When one is about to smile, her eyes reflect the sense of happiness first. Then one can see how the emotion gets expressed through her face. In the last couplet, the poet remarks that a “poor life”, a metaphorical reference to mental poverty, is that of a person who doesn’t have time to stand and enjoy those things. The last couplet acts as a refrain.
  • 10. Summary: In this poem, ‘Leisure’, the poet William Davies is telling us about our hectic life. We have no time to admire the nature around us. Even we cannot spare a few moments to stand under the branches of green trees and enjoy the beautiful and restful shades of the trees. The common animals like sheep and cows are better than us in enjoying life. We cannot look at them grazing in the pastures. When we pass through some forests, we do not have time to stop for some moments to look at the trees-tall and short, and enjoy their natural beauty. The dark green trees provide a soothing effect but we are always sick-hurried and cannot enjoy at least the simple beauty. Also we cannot look at the small animals like squirrels concealing their food-grain in the grass for the winter. During day time, when the rays of the sun fall upon the clear water of the rivers, the water reflects and shines like stars in the sky during night. But busy people do not have time to see this. The natural beauty scattered all around us. Natural beauty is personified as a young beautiful dancing girl having a smiling face. But we have no time to stand at a place and look carefully at nature that can refresh us. As human beings, we should spare some moments and look at nature and natural beauty spread around us and enjoy life. Ques. 1. What is the meaning of the word ‘Leisure’ Is the poem in favour of it or against it? Or Write in your own words the summary of the poem ‘Leisure’ by W. H. Davies. Ans: In this poem, ‘Leisure’, the poet William Davies is telling us about our hectic life. We have no time to admire the nature around us. Even we cannot spare a few moments to stand under the branches of green trees and enjoy the beautiful and restful shades of the trees. The common animals like sheep and cows are better than us in enjoying life. We cannot look at them grazing in the pastures. When we pass through some forests, we do not have time to stop for some moments to look at the trees-tall and short, and enjoy their natural beauty. The dark green trees provide a soothing effect but we are always sick-hurried and cannot enjoy at least the simple beauty. Also we cannot look at the small animals like squirrels
  • 11. concealing their food-grain in the grass for the winter. During day time, when the rays of the sun fall upon the clear water of the rivers, the water reflects and shines like stars in the sky during night. But busy people do not have time to see this. The natural beauty scattered all around us. Natural beauty is personified as a young beautiful dancing girl having a smiling face. But we have no time to stand at a place and look carefully at nature that can refresh us. As human beings, we should spare some moments and look at nature and natural beauty spread around us and enjoy life. Leisure Questions & Answers for practice Word Galaxy  Leisure – free time  Stare – a long fixed look on something with eyes wide open  Boughs – main branches of a tree  Glance – a brief or hurried look  Enrich – to improve the quality  Broad – having a distance larger than usual from side to side; wide Question 1: What does ‘leisure’ mean in this poem? Answer: In this poem, the word ‘leisure’ means having free time to pursue one’s passion or to spend time with nature and admire its beauty. Question 2: Who are ‘we’ in the poem? Answer: The word ‘We’ in the poem refers to people who have no time to enjoy nature. Question 3: The words ‘No time’ are repeated seven times in the poem. What is the poet trying to say? Answer: The words ‘No time’ are repeated seven times in the poem to highlight that we humans are so busy in our daily work that we have no time to admire nature and its beauty. Question 4: If the poet was living in a town, what would he see on the roads? Answer: If the poet had been living in a town, he would have seen traffic on the roads and people around him rushing to their work. Leisure Questions & Answers Question 5: How can we live a better life? Answer: We can live a better life by using our leisure time creatively to strengthen and admire the beautiful things around us.
  • 12. Question 6: What does the poet wish to see in his free time? Answer: In his free time, the poet wished to stand beneath boughs and stare for long like wandering sheep or cows. If he had free time, while passing through woods he would be able to spot where squirrels hid their nuts in grass. The poet would like to watch streams sparkling in broad daylight. He wished, he had the time to admire nature’s beauty in its various forms. Question 7: When and where can we see the squirrels hiding their nuts? Answer: We can see the squirrels hiding their nuts in grass when we are passing by the woods. Question 8: How do the streams look in broad daylight? Answer: The streams shine like stars in the night sky, in broad daylight. Question 9: Quote the lines from the poem where the poet poses a rhetorical question to his readers? Answer: The lines from the poem are:- “What is this life if, full of care We have no time to stand and stare” Rhetorical question – The poet asks a question to which he does not expect anyone to reply since the answer to it is very obvious. He asks whether life has any value if a man cannot find the time to take a break from his hectic schedule and stare at nature. Leisure Questions & Answers Question 10: Which ‘life’ is the poet talking about? What is it that we don’t have the time to do but the cows and the sheep have? Answer: The poet is talking about one’s extremely busy and stressful life. We don’t have the time to stand and stare beneath the boughs like cows and sheep. Question 11: Why do you think the word ‘Beauty’ is written with a capital ‘B’? Answer: The word ‘Beauty’ is written with a capital ‘B’ to show the importance of the nature’s beauty. Question 12: The movements in nature are beautiful like a dancer. Based on your own observation, describe movements of two things in nature that are beautiful. Answer: The movements of the leaves and the waves are beautiful. Question 13: How, according to the poet, is our life poor?
  • 13. Answer: The poet says people neither have time for themselves nor for nature. People are very busy to even stand and admire the beauty of nature around them. Hence, according to the poet, our life is poor. Question 14: Read the lines and answer the questions: (a) Who is referred to as ‘her’? Answer: Beauty is referred to as ‘her’ in the poem. (b) To what has the poet compared ‘her’ in the poem? Answer: The poet has personified Beauty as a dancer. (c) What does the poet lament about? Answer: The poet laments that we have no time to watch beauty dance and watch her smile. (d) Give the antonym of ‘enrich’. Answer: Reduce/deplete Question 15: Write figure of speech in the following lines: (a) Answer: Simile – Humans are compared to sheep or cows. (b) Answer: Personification – Beauty is given the human quality of dancing. (c) Answer: Alliteration – repetitive effect of the word ‘s’.
  • 14. Question 16: Is ‘Beauty’ a male or a female? Justify with reference to the poem. Answer: In the poem, Nature is personified as a beautiful dancing maiden. ‘Beauty’ is referred to as ‘her’. Hence, ‘Beauty’ is a female according to the poem. Question 17: What kind of life is it according to the poet when we have no time to admire nature? Answer: The poet is telling us about our hectic life. We have no time to admire the nature around us. Even we cannot spare a few moments to stand under the branches of green trees and enjoy the beautiful and restful shades of the trees. We are busy in our own life and he (the poet) has criticised humans on the fact that we are like a machine and run everyday without noticing the little detail about our surrounding. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------