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Wood, pulp and paper

1   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Summary



                         From Tree to Pulp

                         From Pulp to Paper

                         Different kinds of paper

                         Paper characteristics




2   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Summary



                                From Tree to Pulp

                                From Pulp to Paper

                                Different kinds of paper

                                Paper characteristics




3   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Wood is use for ……..

                                              World production by area -   source FAO 2009




                        More info about the sustainability of the paper industry:
                        http://www.twosides.info/#page=Latest-5
4   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Wood is used for….by continent

100%
          Production by area by                                                woodfuel                               sawnwood
90%       continent - source FAO 2009                     87%
                                                                               wood based panels                      industrial roundwood
80%
                                                                               pulp, paper & paperboard
70%


60%                               57%
                                                                                                                               55%

                         49%                                                        49%
50%


40%                                                                                                                                                38%
                                                                                                    34%

30%
                                                                                                                                         22%
                                                  19%
20%                                                                                                                              17%        17%
         14% 14%            16%
                                                                                                                    14%                        14%
                                                    12%
                                                                        10%                                                                              9%
10%                 7%                       7%                                           8%                   8%
                                        5%                                                                6%              6%
                                                                                               3%
                                                                1% 0%         1%
    0%
                 Europe            Asia & Pacific                Afrique             Latin America &            North America          Western & Central Asia
                                                                                        Caribbean

5    | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Which part of a tree does the paper industry use ?


                                                         Wood left-overs,
                                                         wood shavings :
            Construction wood :                          for pulp and
            for carpentry,                               panelling
            furniture or
            construction




                                                          Bark :
                                                          for energy
          Sawdust :
                                                          or compost
          for panelling or energy



6   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Hardwood and Softwood…




                                             hardwood




softwood




 7   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Hardwood and Softwood…




                                             hardwood




softwood




 8   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Chemical composition of wood




9   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Pulp making : practically : Debarking




             Cutting logs with
              rotating saws
                                        Logs rotated in
                                        drum with water

                                                            Debarked logs



10   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Pulp making : practically : Chipping




                         Chipper

                                          Chip Screen



                                                           Chips Chips Chips!


11   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
From Tree to Pulp : Mechanical Pulp


     2 Major processes :


     Mechanical pulp

     The wood is only mechanically
     treated (grounded)


     The yield is about 98%, rests
     products (barks) are used as
     fertilizer or for heating


     1 ton of wood produces 980kg
     mechanical pulp


     All the lignin remains in the pulp



12    | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Stonegroundwood process




                                  Debarking



                              Bark is used to produce energy                                   (bleaching)
Pine                                                                               Washing

                                       logs
                                                               Grinding




                                          water                           exit of the fibres
  13   | [Wood, pulp and paper]                                      rotating stone
From Tree to Pulp : Chemical Pulp



            Chemical pulp


     The wood is treated :
     • mechanically (grounded),
     • thermally (heated up in boiling water)
     • chemically


     All the lignin is removed from the
     wood

     The yield is about 50%:
     With 1 ton of wood, we
     produce about 500kg chemical pulp




14    | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Chemical pulp process



                                                          chips
                                                                      cooking
                                  debarking                                                        bleaching

                                                                                        washing
pine/birch                                                                 sorting

                                                Liqueur de cuisson
                                                fraiche
  Chemical recovery
                                                                       Cooking liquor
                      Causticising



                                              steam


                                                                                     evaporation
                                                      production of
                                                      electricity
  15   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Chemical pulp mill




            Cooking vessel




16   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Different types of pulp…..


           Between Mechanical process & Chemical process, we have intermediate processes :
           TMP and CTMP. These processes only remove part of the lignin, up to the level desired.



         Trees                    Trees              Trees           Trees              Secondary fibre

         Logs                     Logs               Logs            Logs               Deinking

         Debarking                Debarking          Debarking       Debarking          Washing

         Grinding                 Steaming           Chemical pre-   Chemical           Recycled
                                                     softening       cooking            Pulp
         Mechanical               Grinding
         Pulp                                        Grinding        Chemical
                                  Thermo-                            Pulp
                                  Mechanical         Chemi -
                                  Pulp               Thermo -
                                                     Mechanical
                                                     Pulp
                                                                       Wood Free             Recycled
                                Wood Containing Papers
                                                                            Papers             Papers
                           Light Wood Containing Papers
17   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Under the microscope…




                          Chemical pulp       Mechanical pulp   Recycled pulp




        Pine                          Birch     Birch

18   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Different pulp for different kinds of paper




                100 % chemical pulp                  100% mechanical pulp




                Strength is higher                   Less strength
                Less stiffness                        Higher stiffness
                Less bulk                             High bulk
                Easy to bleach                       Lower brightness
                Lower opacity                         High opacity
                Smooth surface                       Rougher surface
                Brightness stable with time          Trend to yellowing




19   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Bleaching of the pulp
                    Without bleaching, the pulp is brown




                    Therefore, depending on the level of brightness we want to achieve, we need to « bleach »
                    the pulp with chemicals. We can make it step by step with different chemicals :




                                              2nd step             3rd step              4th step



20   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Bleaching of the pulp


                                1
                                    No                        Elemental
                                               (Cl2)           Chlorine
                                                               Free




                                2         No
                                                   (Cl2)
                                                                   Total
                                    And
                                                                    Chlorine
                                                                    Free
                                          No
                                                  (ClO2)
21   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Summary



                            From Tree to Pulp

                            From Pulp to Paper

                            Different kinds of paper

                            Paper characteristics




22   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Integrated or not integrated……
                   Papermills do not always make their own pulp

                they are so called “non integrated mills” (those who produce their own pulp are … integrated
                mills); they received the pulp in units with a dryness of around 90%....




                                                                            PULP PRODUCTION within SFPE


                                                                                        ALFELD
                                                                                       EHINGEN
                                                                                      GRATKORN
                                                                                      KIRKNIEMI
                                                                                       LANAKEN
                                                                                     STOCKSTADT


23   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Just before the paper machine



                                 Water




                                         Hydrapulper   Refining   Cleaning & Screening
     Softwood pulp


                        Dyes/Filler



     Hardwood pulp


                                                                   Waste Filter System



                        Recycled Water




24    | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Pulper




25   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Refining

                                                 Drawing of a refiner
        Fibres are cut, frayed and hydrated                Admission of
                                                              the pulp




                               discs



                                                                   Feeding screw
                                                                          Refiner discs
                                              Outflow of              Refining chamber
                                                    the
                                                   pulp




Slide
 26 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
26
Refining

                        Fibres before refining   fibers after refining




27   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Cleaning and screening

                           Cleaned pulp




Pulp entry
                                                          Pulp entry




                                                          Rejected
                                                          material

                                          Screened pulp


 28                 Rejected material
      | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Just before the paper machine
                    Before the pulp is sent to the papermaking machine various additives are included.

                    Water
                    Papermaking uses a lot of water and this is why mills are built next to rivers.
                    A kilo of paper will use 100 litres of water.
                    The water systems are virtually closed where excess water is continuously recycled.

                    Colouring
                    Optical Brightening Agents are added that react with ultra violet light and give the paper a
                    blue whiteness.
                    Dyers are also added.

                    Binders
                    Both latex and starch are used to keep the fillers bound with the pulp. Starch also adds
                    stiffness.

                    Other additives
                    Anti bacterial, retention aids, pH buffers, …etc

                    Fillers




29   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Fillers




                                       Clay
                  Calcium carbonate



                                       Talc     Titane dioxyde



                                       Gypsum


                                Clay
30   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Paper machine




                                    Up to 80 km/hour

                                    Up to 10 meters wide,
                                    430 meters long

                                    Cost: a few hundreds
                                    millions €

                                    18 months to be built




31   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Paper machine




                    The function of the paper machine is mainly to remove water



32   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Wire section




                Moisture           Moisture
                content            content
                  99.9%             80%




33   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Wire section




34   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Forming the web




                         Fourdrinier former




                                              Twin wire
                            Twin wire
                            hybrid former
                            Duo former


35   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Press section


             The water is removed
             by pressure of the sheet in the nip

                                                        Press felts
                                                                           water
                                                      water


                                                                      paperweb


                                            about 50% of the water is removed
                                            in the press section


36   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Press section




37   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Pre - drying section



                                            The water is removed by
                                             evaporation

                                            The moisture content of the
                                             paper is around 5-8%

                                            The basis paper is ready to be
                                             coated (for coated papers) or
                                             sized (for uncoated papers)




38   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Pre drying section




Water
content




  39   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Fibrous support
                                   Fibrous support + sizing = uncoated paper

                                Fibrous support + (sizing) + coating = coated paper

                                                                                      ~ 0.1 mm




40   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Size press




                                                    Absorption

                                                    Hydrodynamic pressure


                                                    Mechanical pressure




                                                    Split of the starch layer




                                    A few g/m²/face is applied;

                                 the layer is mainly made of starch

41   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Post - drying section




                                             The water is removed by
                                              evaporation

                                             The moisture content of the
                                              paper is around 5-8%

                                             The basis paper is ready to be
                                              coated (for coated papers) or
                                              calendered/rewinded for
                                              uncoated papers




42   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Why coating papers ?




                     Uncoated              Coated




43   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Why coating papers ?




     uncoated paper               light weight coated high weight coated


                                Print quality improves

44   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Why coating papers ?




        base paper              light weight coated   high weight coated




                               More and more coating

                               BRIGHTNESS
                               SMOOTHNESS
                               GLOSS
                               PRINTING QUALITY

Slide
 45 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
45
What is the coating colour made of ?
       What is coating ?

     Le couchageis made of
          Coating

                                Mineral pigments
                                Binders
                                Additives
                                Water (35-45%)



                    + or – coating will lead to different kind of papers :
                    LWC, MWC, modern, classic

                    On-line or Off-line coating

                    Single, double, triple coated
46   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
How do we coat ? Blade coating


                                Base paper        Coating




                                                Blade




                                                Coating tank




47   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
How do we coat ? Blade coating



                      Scanner   Hot air dryer      Infra red dryers   Hot air dryer   Scanner




                                                Blade coating heads

48   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Blade coater




49   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Cross section of a coated paper


                                              fibres




                                fillers          coating


50   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Surface of the coated paper



                                Satin?             Gloss?




              Silk?                                    Matt?




                                Satimat?          Demi-mat?


51   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Satin or Mat ?


                                 Satin   Mat



 150x




5000x




 52   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Classification of paper surfaces




                                     Gloss              Satin / Silk      Matt


      5000x




Gloss                              > 70 %                30 - 40 %       <15%
Smoothness                       1500 - 3000 sec       300 - 900 sec   50 - 200 sec


                           Marketing evaluation, no strict rule/norm
 53   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
How do me make the surface ? Calendering




                                Pressure
                                Temperature
                                Moisture
            MAT, BRILLANT, DEMI MAT, SILK, ...
                                Hardness of the rolls
                                Number of rolls

54   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Supercalendering


                                                             Uncalendered
                                     Steel       Steel       Paper


                                      Soft        Soft      Blow rolls to
                                                            cool sheet and
                                     Steel
                                                            prevent
                                                 Steel
                                                            wrinkling in nip
              The soft
The soft rolls
              rolls can              Soft        Soft
are usually
              be of a
made of                                                     Reversing nip
              cotton,
synthetic
              paper or               Soft        Soft
covering
              synthetic
              covering
                                    Steel       Steel



                                    Soft        Soft


                                    Steel       Steel


                                                            Calendered
                                    Soft        Soft        Paper


                                  Bottom Bottom
                                  driver roll driver roll




  55   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Rewinding




56   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Rewinding




                                                         Mother Reel

                                                  Slitting




                                                                                          Reels for
                                                                                         delivery or
         Drop 3                                                                           sheeting

                 Drop 2

                         Drop 1
                                  Pos. 1/A   Pos. 2/B        Pos. 3/C   Pos. 4/D   Pos. 5/E


57   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Reels packaging




58   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Sheeting




59   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Sheeting




60   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Sheeting - slitting




61   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Sheeting - cutting




62   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Sheets packaging




63   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Summary



                                 From Tree to Pulp

                                 From Pulp to Paper

                                 Different kinds of paper

                                 Paper characteristics




64   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Publication papers & end-uses




65   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Summary



                                 From Tree to Pulp

                                 From Pulp to Paper

                                 Different kinds of paper

                                 Paper characteristics




66   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Grammage (g/m²), Thickness (µm), Bulk (cm³/g)




           Substance or basis weight :                  Thickness or Caliper :
           weight in grams of 1 m² paper                Distance between one face of the paper
                                                        and the other



                                Bulk (cm³/g) = Thickness (µm) / grammage (g/m²)




67   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
ISO-brightness (%) and CIE whiteness

                      ISO brightness is a measurement of reflected blue light off the paper surface.
                      This is expressed as a percentage in comparison with an ultimate reference.
                      The ISO standard only measures a portion of the reflected light.

                      The CIE whiteness measures the
                      reflected light of the whole spectrum.

                       For both measures, the higher the
                      value, the brighter or whiter the
                      paper is.




68   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Opacity (%)
                    Opacity is related to the ability of light to
                    pass through paper.

                    The higher the percentage, the more
                    opaque the paper is.

                    Opacity isn't always determined by
                    thickness or weight; a thinner paper may
                    have more opacity than a thicker paper
                    if opacifying agents are used.




                                                                          High           Low
                                                                         opacity       opacity


                       Opacity (ISO 2471) can be defined as the ratio of reflectance
                       from a paper sheet backed by a perfect black and from a
                       sufficiently thick stack of identical sheets of paper.

69   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Gloss (%)
                      Gloss is an optical phenomenon caused when evaluating the appearance of a surface.
                      The evaluation of gloss describes the capacity of a
                      surface to reflect directed light.

                      The measure can be made on the paper itself (paper gloss) or on a printed area (print
                      gloss). Gloss papers are generally the most calendered
                      and thus the thinnest.
                                                                                                         Gloss
                      Please note we cannot compare gloss measures made                                  paper
                      according to different norms (Tappi T480 & DIN 54502
                      are the most common).




                    Gloss paper => smooth => high gloss
                                                                                                            Mat paper
                    Matt paper => rough => low gloss



70   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Smoothness Bekk. (sec)
                      Known also as “roughness”


                      This method measures how long it takes for a certain amount of air to escape from
                      between the paper surface and a smooth metal disc.
                      The smoother the paper, the less openings there are between paper surface and metal
                      disc, so the longer it will take for the air to escape.
                      The higher the figure is, the rougher the surface is.




                                 Mat paper                                          Silk paper
71   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Fiber orientation




             The paper fibers naturally take up
             alignment roughly parallel to the
             direction of travel of the web on
             the PM :




             this becomes the grain direction or
             the Machine Direction (MD).

             the other direction is called Cross Direction (CD).


             This influences the strength characteristics of the finished paper.




72   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Grain direction




                                         64

        SG                                                           64 x 45

                                                                                               Jumbo-reel
                          45


                                    64
                                                                          45 x 64
         LG                                   45


                                •   Long Grain: fibres // long side (LG) : 45 X 64
                                •   Short Grain: fibres // short side (SG) : 64 x 45

                                The first dimension is by convention always the dimension cross the web

73   | [Wood, pulp and paper]
Questions ?




                          Will be happy to answer your technical questions :
                          Françoise Accou
                          +32 492.582.287
                          francoise.accou@sappi.com


74   | [Wood, pulp and paper]

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Basics of wood, pulp and paper november 2012

  • 1. Wood, pulp and paper 1 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 2. Summary  From Tree to Pulp  From Pulp to Paper  Different kinds of paper  Paper characteristics 2 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 3. Summary  From Tree to Pulp  From Pulp to Paper  Different kinds of paper  Paper characteristics 3 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 4. Wood is use for …….. World production by area - source FAO 2009 More info about the sustainability of the paper industry: http://www.twosides.info/#page=Latest-5 4 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 5. Wood is used for….by continent 100% Production by area by woodfuel sawnwood 90% continent - source FAO 2009 87% wood based panels industrial roundwood 80% pulp, paper & paperboard 70% 60% 57% 55% 49% 49% 50% 40% 38% 34% 30% 22% 19% 20% 17% 17% 14% 14% 16% 14% 14% 12% 10% 9% 10% 7% 7% 8% 8% 5% 6% 6% 3% 1% 0% 1% 0% Europe Asia & Pacific Afrique Latin America & North America Western & Central Asia Caribbean 5 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 6. Which part of a tree does the paper industry use ? Wood left-overs, wood shavings : Construction wood : for pulp and for carpentry, panelling furniture or construction Bark : for energy Sawdust : or compost for panelling or energy 6 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 7. Hardwood and Softwood… hardwood softwood 7 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 8. Hardwood and Softwood… hardwood softwood 8 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 9. Chemical composition of wood 9 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 10. Pulp making : practically : Debarking Cutting logs with rotating saws Logs rotated in drum with water Debarked logs 10 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 11. Pulp making : practically : Chipping Chipper Chip Screen Chips Chips Chips! 11 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 12. From Tree to Pulp : Mechanical Pulp 2 Major processes : Mechanical pulp The wood is only mechanically treated (grounded) The yield is about 98%, rests products (barks) are used as fertilizer or for heating 1 ton of wood produces 980kg mechanical pulp All the lignin remains in the pulp 12 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 13. Stonegroundwood process Debarking Bark is used to produce energy (bleaching) Pine Washing logs Grinding water exit of the fibres 13 | [Wood, pulp and paper] rotating stone
  • 14. From Tree to Pulp : Chemical Pulp Chemical pulp The wood is treated : • mechanically (grounded), • thermally (heated up in boiling water) • chemically All the lignin is removed from the wood The yield is about 50%: With 1 ton of wood, we produce about 500kg chemical pulp 14 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 15. Chemical pulp process chips cooking debarking bleaching washing pine/birch sorting Liqueur de cuisson fraiche Chemical recovery Cooking liquor Causticising steam evaporation production of electricity 15 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 16. Chemical pulp mill Cooking vessel 16 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 17. Different types of pulp….. Between Mechanical process & Chemical process, we have intermediate processes : TMP and CTMP. These processes only remove part of the lignin, up to the level desired. Trees Trees Trees Trees Secondary fibre Logs Logs Logs Logs Deinking Debarking Debarking Debarking Debarking Washing Grinding Steaming Chemical pre- Chemical Recycled softening cooking Pulp Mechanical Grinding Pulp Grinding Chemical Thermo- Pulp Mechanical Chemi - Pulp Thermo - Mechanical Pulp Wood Free Recycled Wood Containing Papers Papers Papers Light Wood Containing Papers 17 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 18. Under the microscope… Chemical pulp Mechanical pulp Recycled pulp Pine Birch Birch 18 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 19. Different pulp for different kinds of paper 100 % chemical pulp 100% mechanical pulp Strength is higher Less strength Less stiffness  Higher stiffness Less bulk  High bulk Easy to bleach Lower brightness Lower opacity  High opacity Smooth surface Rougher surface Brightness stable with time Trend to yellowing 19 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 20. Bleaching of the pulp Without bleaching, the pulp is brown Therefore, depending on the level of brightness we want to achieve, we need to « bleach » the pulp with chemicals. We can make it step by step with different chemicals : 2nd step 3rd step 4th step 20 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 21. Bleaching of the pulp 1 No  Elemental (Cl2) Chlorine Free 2 No (Cl2)  Total And Chlorine Free No (ClO2) 21 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 22. Summary  From Tree to Pulp  From Pulp to Paper  Different kinds of paper  Paper characteristics 22 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 23. Integrated or not integrated…… Papermills do not always make their own pulp they are so called “non integrated mills” (those who produce their own pulp are … integrated mills); they received the pulp in units with a dryness of around 90%.... PULP PRODUCTION within SFPE ALFELD EHINGEN GRATKORN KIRKNIEMI LANAKEN STOCKSTADT 23 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 24. Just before the paper machine Water Hydrapulper Refining Cleaning & Screening Softwood pulp Dyes/Filler Hardwood pulp Waste Filter System Recycled Water 24 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 25. Pulper 25 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 26. Refining Drawing of a refiner Fibres are cut, frayed and hydrated Admission of the pulp discs Feeding screw Refiner discs Outflow of Refining chamber the pulp Slide 26 | [Wood, pulp and paper] 26
  • 27. Refining Fibres before refining fibers after refining 27 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 28. Cleaning and screening Cleaned pulp Pulp entry Pulp entry Rejected material Screened pulp 28 Rejected material | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 29. Just before the paper machine Before the pulp is sent to the papermaking machine various additives are included. Water Papermaking uses a lot of water and this is why mills are built next to rivers. A kilo of paper will use 100 litres of water. The water systems are virtually closed where excess water is continuously recycled. Colouring Optical Brightening Agents are added that react with ultra violet light and give the paper a blue whiteness. Dyers are also added. Binders Both latex and starch are used to keep the fillers bound with the pulp. Starch also adds stiffness. Other additives Anti bacterial, retention aids, pH buffers, …etc Fillers 29 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 30. Fillers Clay Calcium carbonate Talc Titane dioxyde Gypsum Clay 30 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 31. Paper machine Up to 80 km/hour Up to 10 meters wide, 430 meters long Cost: a few hundreds millions € 18 months to be built 31 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 32. Paper machine The function of the paper machine is mainly to remove water 32 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 33. Wire section Moisture Moisture content content 99.9% 80% 33 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 34. Wire section 34 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 35. Forming the web Fourdrinier former Twin wire Twin wire hybrid former Duo former 35 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 36. Press section The water is removed by pressure of the sheet in the nip Press felts water water paperweb about 50% of the water is removed in the press section 36 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 37. Press section 37 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 38. Pre - drying section  The water is removed by evaporation  The moisture content of the paper is around 5-8%  The basis paper is ready to be coated (for coated papers) or sized (for uncoated papers) 38 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 39. Pre drying section Water content 39 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 40. Fibrous support Fibrous support + sizing = uncoated paper Fibrous support + (sizing) + coating = coated paper ~ 0.1 mm 40 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 41. Size press Absorption Hydrodynamic pressure Mechanical pressure Split of the starch layer A few g/m²/face is applied; the layer is mainly made of starch 41 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 42. Post - drying section  The water is removed by evaporation  The moisture content of the paper is around 5-8%  The basis paper is ready to be coated (for coated papers) or calendered/rewinded for uncoated papers 42 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 43. Why coating papers ? Uncoated Coated 43 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 44. Why coating papers ? uncoated paper light weight coated high weight coated Print quality improves 44 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 45. Why coating papers ? base paper light weight coated high weight coated More and more coating BRIGHTNESS SMOOTHNESS GLOSS PRINTING QUALITY Slide 45 | [Wood, pulp and paper] 45
  • 46. What is the coating colour made of ? What is coating ? Le couchageis made of Coating Mineral pigments Binders Additives Water (35-45%) + or – coating will lead to different kind of papers : LWC, MWC, modern, classic On-line or Off-line coating Single, double, triple coated 46 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 47. How do we coat ? Blade coating Base paper Coating Blade Coating tank 47 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 48. How do we coat ? Blade coating Scanner Hot air dryer Infra red dryers Hot air dryer Scanner Blade coating heads 48 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 49. Blade coater 49 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 50. Cross section of a coated paper fibres fillers coating 50 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 51. Surface of the coated paper Satin? Gloss? Silk? Matt? Satimat? Demi-mat? 51 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 52. Satin or Mat ? Satin Mat 150x 5000x 52 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 53. Classification of paper surfaces Gloss Satin / Silk Matt 5000x Gloss > 70 % 30 - 40 % <15% Smoothness 1500 - 3000 sec 300 - 900 sec 50 - 200 sec Marketing evaluation, no strict rule/norm 53 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 54. How do me make the surface ? Calendering  Pressure  Temperature  Moisture MAT, BRILLANT, DEMI MAT, SILK, ...  Hardness of the rolls  Number of rolls 54 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 55. Supercalendering Uncalendered Steel Steel Paper Soft Soft Blow rolls to cool sheet and Steel prevent Steel wrinkling in nip The soft The soft rolls rolls can Soft Soft are usually be of a made of Reversing nip cotton, synthetic paper or Soft Soft covering synthetic covering Steel Steel Soft Soft Steel Steel Calendered Soft Soft Paper Bottom Bottom driver roll driver roll 55 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 56. Rewinding 56 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 57. Rewinding Mother Reel Slitting Reels for delivery or Drop 3 sheeting Drop 2 Drop 1 Pos. 1/A Pos. 2/B Pos. 3/C Pos. 4/D Pos. 5/E 57 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 58. Reels packaging 58 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 59. Sheeting 59 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 60. Sheeting 60 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 61. Sheeting - slitting 61 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 62. Sheeting - cutting 62 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 63. Sheets packaging 63 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 64. Summary  From Tree to Pulp  From Pulp to Paper  Different kinds of paper  Paper characteristics 64 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 65. Publication papers & end-uses 65 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 66. Summary  From Tree to Pulp  From Pulp to Paper  Different kinds of paper  Paper characteristics 66 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 67. Grammage (g/m²), Thickness (µm), Bulk (cm³/g) Substance or basis weight : Thickness or Caliper : weight in grams of 1 m² paper Distance between one face of the paper and the other Bulk (cm³/g) = Thickness (µm) / grammage (g/m²) 67 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 68. ISO-brightness (%) and CIE whiteness ISO brightness is a measurement of reflected blue light off the paper surface. This is expressed as a percentage in comparison with an ultimate reference. The ISO standard only measures a portion of the reflected light. The CIE whiteness measures the reflected light of the whole spectrum. For both measures, the higher the value, the brighter or whiter the paper is. 68 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 69. Opacity (%) Opacity is related to the ability of light to pass through paper. The higher the percentage, the more opaque the paper is. Opacity isn't always determined by thickness or weight; a thinner paper may have more opacity than a thicker paper if opacifying agents are used. High Low opacity opacity Opacity (ISO 2471) can be defined as the ratio of reflectance from a paper sheet backed by a perfect black and from a sufficiently thick stack of identical sheets of paper. 69 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 70. Gloss (%) Gloss is an optical phenomenon caused when evaluating the appearance of a surface. The evaluation of gloss describes the capacity of a surface to reflect directed light. The measure can be made on the paper itself (paper gloss) or on a printed area (print gloss). Gloss papers are generally the most calendered and thus the thinnest. Gloss Please note we cannot compare gloss measures made paper according to different norms (Tappi T480 & DIN 54502 are the most common). Gloss paper => smooth => high gloss Mat paper Matt paper => rough => low gloss 70 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 71. Smoothness Bekk. (sec) Known also as “roughness” This method measures how long it takes for a certain amount of air to escape from between the paper surface and a smooth metal disc. The smoother the paper, the less openings there are between paper surface and metal disc, so the longer it will take for the air to escape. The higher the figure is, the rougher the surface is. Mat paper Silk paper 71 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 72. Fiber orientation The paper fibers naturally take up alignment roughly parallel to the direction of travel of the web on the PM : this becomes the grain direction or the Machine Direction (MD). the other direction is called Cross Direction (CD). This influences the strength characteristics of the finished paper. 72 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 73. Grain direction 64 SG 64 x 45 Jumbo-reel 45 64 45 x 64 LG 45 • Long Grain: fibres // long side (LG) : 45 X 64 • Short Grain: fibres // short side (SG) : 64 x 45 The first dimension is by convention always the dimension cross the web 73 | [Wood, pulp and paper]
  • 74. Questions ? Will be happy to answer your technical questions : Françoise Accou +32 492.582.287 francoise.accou@sappi.com 74 | [Wood, pulp and paper]