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BASAL GANGLIA:
In correlation with
MOVEMENT DISORDERS
Dr. Pavithra Arunachaleeswaran
JR, Department of Psychiatry
SSIMS RC
BASAL GANGLIA: ganglia ?
• Ganglion – collection of neuronal cell bodies
outside the CNS
• Nuclei – collection of cell bodies within the CNS
surrounded by white matter.
• Basal ganglia is a misnomer  Basal Nuclei
• Basal Ganglia – collection of nuclei that are
found deep in the base of the forebrain.
• DEVELOPED – telencephalon  relate to the
functions of the cerebral cortex. Parts developed
from diencephalon and mesencephalon as well.
CAUDATE:
• C shaped structure divided
into
• HEAD
• BODY
• TAIL
• The caudate nucleus is
associated with the contour
of the lateral ventricles:
• HEAD – frontal horn
• TAIL – temporal horn
• Head continuous with
PUTAMEN
• TAIL terminates in
AMYGDALA
PUTAMEN
• Putamen in relation to the
brain:
• Medial to INSULA
• Bounded laterally by
EXTERNAL CAPSULE
• Medially by the GLOBUS
PALLIDUS separated by
lateral medullary lamina
• Continuous with the head of
the caudate nucleus
• Though continuity of
neurons with the caudate
nucleus, the 2 structures are
separated by fibers of
ANTERIOR LIMB OF
INTERNAL CAPSULE
GLOBUS PALLIDUS
• Derived from the
DIENCEPHALON
• Lentiform nucleus
• Medial to the PUTAMEN,
separated by the LATERAL
MEDULLARY LAMINA
• DIVISIONS:
• GLOBUS PALLIDUS INERNA
• GLOBUS PALLIDUS
EXTERNA
• Separated by the MEDIAL
MEDULLARY LAMINA
SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS
• Subthalamic nucleus (of
LUYS)
• Derived fron
DIENCEPHALON
• Inputs to Gpi. Important
sources of modulation of
basal ganglia
• Large celled nucleus –
• Dorsomedial to posterior
limb of internal capsule
• Dorsal to substantia nigra
• Ventral to thalamus
• Lateral and caudal to
hypothalamus
SUBSTANTIA NIGRA
• Substantia nigra
• In the midbrain
• Between tegmentum & basis
pedunculi
• MESENNCHEPHALIC origin
• COMPONENTS:
• Pars compacta
• dorsal cell-rich portion
• Pigmented (neuromelanin )
neurons = DOPAMINE
• Principal source of striatal
dopamine
• Pars Reticularis
• Ventral cell – sparse portion
• GABA Neurotransmitter
FUNCTION & CIRCUITARY
INITIATION OF
BEHAVIOR
SUPPRESSION OF
UNWANTED
BEHAVIOR
OCCULOMOTOR LOOP
PREFRONTAL LOOP
LIMBIC LOOP
DIRECT PATHWAY
INDIRECT PATHWAY
BODY MOVEMENT LOOP
INDIRECT
PATHWAY
DIRECT
PATHWAY
DOPAMINERGIC EFFECT
CHOLINERGIC EFFECT
CLINICAL IMPLICATION:
MOVEMENT
DISORDERS
HYPOKINETIC HYPERKINETIC
HYPOKINETIC
PARKINSONS DISEASE
HYPOKINETIC
PARKINSONS
DISEASE
BALLISMUS
CHOREA
ATHETOSIS
HYPERKINETIC
HYPERKINETIC
HUNTINGTON CHOREA
HYPERKINETIC
HEMIBALLISMUS
SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS LESION
Direct pathway still UP
Indirect pathway DOWN
MORE MOTOR ACTIVITY
SUMMARY: BASAL GANGLIA – MOVEMENT DISORDERS
DISORDER REGION
PARKINSON C/L SUBSTANTIA NIGRA
CHOREA
HUNTINGTON CHOREA
CAUDATE / PUTAMEN
STIATO-PALLIDAL CELLS
ATHETOSIS C/L PUTAMEN / THALAMUS
HEMIBALLISMUS C/L SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS
THANK YOU!

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Basal ganglia