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Pradnya Wadekar Bapat
Asst. Professor
Appasaheb Birnale college of Pharmacy, Sangli
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 2
Asava/Arishta
 Asava/Arishta are the ayurvedic dosage form
processed by soaking the drug in powdered
form / decoction form (Kasaya), in a solution of
sugar or jaggery for a specific period of time to
undergo fermentation (Sadahan) leading to
formation of alcohol.
 Arishta or Asava treatment is suggested for a
variety of diseases and conditions
 The difference between arishta and asava is
simple arishta is prepared from the
essence/decoction of medicinal herbs while
asava is prepared from fresh herbs
Drug powdered (according to Patha)
Prepare decoction
Filter prepared Decoction
Into velssel, decoction + sugar /jaggery/honey, boil
+Dravyas+Dhatakai pushpa
Close the earthen lid sealed edges with clay
smeared cloth
Place vessel in cellar fro specific time period for
Sadhana
Filter
Arishta
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 3
Into vessel, sugar /jaggery/honey, boil
+powdered drug (Patha)
Close the earthen lid sealed edges with clay smeared cloth
Place vessel in cellar fro specific time period for Sadhana
Filter
Asava
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 4
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 5
Properties:
 Should be Clear
 No foam should be produced
 Should not become sour on standing
 It has characteristic, aromatic & alcoholic
odour
 During fermentation, Alcohol is produced
which facilitates extraction of active
constituents contained in the drug
 Alcohol also serve as preservative in the
product
 Earlier, The wooden pots are fumigated with
pippali powder and also smeared with ghee
before the fermentation liquids are pour into
them
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 6
Shelf Life:
 Much longer time
Storage Conditions:
 Should be stored in air tight container
 Narrow mouthed
 Store in cool place
 Away from sunlight
Parameters for Standardization of
Asava And Arishta
 Ayurvedic parameters :
 Clear liquid without any forth
 Pleasant aromatic odour of alcohol
 Should not have sour taste
 No effervescence sound
 Additive sink to the bottom
 Burning candle burns brightly when
placed in or just above the Sandhana
Paatra
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 7
Parameters for Standardization of
Asava And Arishta
 Organoleptic evaluation: colour, odour, taste, nature and
texture
 Physical evaluation:- pH, Specific gravity at 25°c and total
solid
 Alcohol content
 Reducing sugar
 Non- reducing Sugar
 Test for Methanol
 Total Acidity
 Chromatography
 Shelf life
 Viscosity Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 8
 Acid Value :
 Extcractive values
 Chemical evaluation:???
 Toxicilogical evaluation: pesticide
residue, heavy metal presence, mos
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 9
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 10
Marketed Preparations:
Asavas Arishtas
Kumariasava Dashmularishta
Madhukasava Draksharista
Punarnavasava Asokarishta
Chandanasava Vidangarista
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 11
Lehyas/ Leham/ Avaleha/Paka
Semisolids
 Semisolid Ayurvedic dosage form, which are
thickened, sweetened extracts of single or
combination of herbs/animal & mineral
matter.
 Preparation comprises of:
 Decoction or other liquid
 Jaggery/ sugar/ honey
 Powder or Pulp of drug
 Ghee or Oil
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 12
Preparation of Leha
Sugar/ Jaggery + Liquid
• ↓ Boiled & Dissolved (Ghee or Oil if any)
Powdered drugs in small quantities
Stirred continuously
Homogenous mass is formed
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 13
Properties:
 Can be lifted in a spoon
 When pressed between fingers, show
threads during stretching
 Sinks in water without getting easily
dissolved
 Finger leaves impression on it
 Components of lehyas are easily
absorbed by the body, starting from
the mouth
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 14
Storage:
 Kept in Glass/ Porcelain Jar or suitable plastic
or metal container which is inert.
 Wide mouthed container is used
 Air tight
 Keep away from hot & humid conditions
Shelf Life:
 Used with in a year
Examples:
 Brahma rasayanam
 Sukumara rasayanam
 Draksavaleha
 Chyavanprasha
Parameters for
standardization of Avaleha
 Organoleptic
 Physical
 Reducing sugar
 Total sugar
 Chromatography
 Test for heavy metals
 Microbial contamination
 Shelf life
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 15
 Physical evaluation: •
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 16
Loss on
drying at
105°c
Total ash Acid insoluble
ash
pH
Specific gravity Total solid
contents
Fat contents
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 17
 Bhasmas are powdered form of ayurvedic
preparations, obtained by calcination of
metals, minerals or animal products by a
special process in closed crucibles or pits
covered by cow dung cakes (puta).
 Examples: Swarn bhasma, Shnakha bhasma
and Tamra bhasma
Bhasmas
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 18
Preparation of Bhasma:
Shodhana
• is a process of purification and detoxification by which physical
and chemical blemishes and toxic materials are eliminated.
substances are subjected for further processing.
• Remove harmful substances and impurities present in the drugs.
Marna
• is a process in which metals and minerals are made into paste
with various drugs and juices. Objective to make bhasma and
this drugs are reduced to finest particles.
Jarana
• is a process of decomposing the particles by subjected to fire
treatment in a measured manner for reducing them to ashes. To
make it absorbable.
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 19
Types:
 On the basis of color grey, whitish, yellowish or
black colored.
 A more scientific way of classification is on the
basis of metal and mineral group like: Rajata
group, Tamra group, Loha group etc.
Shelf Life:
 Quite stable products, maintain potency for a
long time
Properties:
 Bhasma has great therapeutic value because
they get absorbed easily into body even in very
small doses
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 20
Quality Control of Bhasma:
 There should be not metallic lusture
 When a small quantity is spread on cold
and still water, it should float on the
surface
 The bhasma should not revert to original
state.
Storage:
 Store in cool & Dry place
 Keep away from moisture & sunlight
Parameters for assessment
of Bhasma:
 Qualitative Analysis: Information regarding the
presence or absence of one or more
components of the sample.
 Quantitative Analysis: Information which is finally
obtained by measuring the physical property that
is characteristically related to the component.
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 21
 Methods of Analysis: Conventional
Chemical analysis by volumetric & Gravimetric
method analysis.
Physical analysis.
Instrumental methods of analysis by using analytical
instrumentation.
 The Bhasmas are mainly examined in terms of
physical test and chemical test. The tests
mentioned below are applicable totally or
partially to the Bhasmas of different drugs. All
the tests are not applicable to all Bhasmas;
selected tests are applicable for particular
Bhasmas.
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 22
 Description/Colour/Odour
 Identification –chemical composition
 Particle size mesh size — 200 – 300
 Loss on drying at 105 C
 Total – ash
 Acid – insoluble ash
 Water soluble ash
 Assay of element (s)
 Ayurvedic specifications
 Lustreless (Nishchandrica)
 Fine enough to enter the crevices of
finger (Rekha purnatva)
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 23
 Floats on water (Varitara)
 Smokeless (Nirdhoom)
 Tasteless (Niswadu)
 Irreversible (Apunar bhav)
 NPST Namburi Phased Spot Test: This
technique is based on the principles of
liquid chromatography, which helps for
the differential identification of each
Bhasma from the other Bhasmas having
same element as the main constituent.
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 24
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 25
Important bhasmas and their main
ingredient
No. Bhasma Main Ingredient
1. Loha bhasma Iron oxide
2 Naga bhasma Lead
3 Abhrak bhasma Mica
4 Yasad Bhasma Zinc Oxide
5 Swarn Bhasma Gold
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 26
Churna:
 Dried ayurvedic dosage form
comprises of fine powder of drug/s is
known as churna.
 Drug can be any dried part of plant:
stem, leaves, root, bark, fruit etc.
 The churna is free flowing powder.
 The principle of using Churnas is
due to the fact that therapeutic value of
most of the substances greatly
increases when they are reduces to
vary fine state of subdivion and is
particularly notable in the cases of
antacids, protective and adsorbents.
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 27
Procedure:
Drugs mentioned in formula,
 Separated Powders
1. Cleaned properly
2. Dried thoroughly
3. Pulverised (reduced to small size)
4. Sieved (80 mesh size).
 Weighed
 Mixed together uniformly
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 28
Shelf Life:
 If stored properly, retains potency for one
year.
Storage conditions:
 Air tight container, Kept away from
moisture
 Store in a cool & dry place
Advantages:
 They are also easily administrable
specially in the cases of children where
they can not swallow pills, tablets or
capsules
Standardization of Churna
 Organoleptic evaluation
 Microscopic evaluation
 Physical analysis
 Phytochemical analysis
 Particle size
 Test for heavy metals & toxins
 Microbial contamination
 Test for specific pathogen
 Test for alfa toxin
 Pesticide residue
 Shelf life Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 29
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 30
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 31
Marketed Formulations:
1. Ashwagandhadi Churna
2. Triphala Churna
3. Trikatu Churna
4. Sudarshan Churna
5. Drakshadi Churna
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 32
Taila:
 Also called Medicated Oil
 Liquid ayurvedic dosage form intended for
external & internal use comprises of
compounds with medicinal value or
phytoconstituents present in oil
 The Taila preferably should be fresh
 There are usually 3 or 4 essential
components in the manufacture of Taila
◦ Drava [Any liquid medium as prescribed in the
composition]
◦ Kalka [Fine paste of the specified drug]
◦ Sneha dravya [Taila]
◦ Gandha dravya [Perfuming agents]
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 33
Pack it in tightly closed glass containers
Filter while hot (about 800) and allow to cool.
The process of boiling is to be continued till the whole amount of
moisture gets evaporated
Appearance of foam at surface
Avoid charring of the paste at bottom
Stir Continuously,
Heat at 50-90 0 C
Sneha Dravya (Taila) (4 Part) + Drava [Any liquid medium] (16 part)+
Kalka [Fine paste of drugs] (1 part)
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 34
Properties:
 The medicated Taila will have the odour,
colour and taste of the drugs used in the
process.
 Protect from light and moisture
 Tailas are preserved in good quality of
glass, steel or polythene containers.
Shelf Life:
 These medicated preparations retain the
therapeutic efficacy for sixteen months.
Usage:
 Used as a internally and topically
 They are taken internally with warm water
or warm milk
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 35
Marketed Formulations:
 Bhringaraja Taila
 Maha Narayan Taila
 Laghu Visagarbha Taila
 Anu Taila
 Dhanvantara Taila
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 36
Gutika/ Modaka/ Vati/ Vadagam/
Tablets/ Pills
 Soild ayurvedic dosage form made up of
one or more drugs of plant, animal or
mineral origin by the process of powdered,
sieving, & mixing with prescribed liquids
and triturated till attained the consistency
suitable for making gutika.
 Vatika is in tablet form prepared by
compressin
 Gutika is in the Pills form.
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 37
The drugs of plant origin are dried and made
into fine powders, separately.
The minerals are made into bhasma
put into a suitable container & ground to a soft
paste with the prescribed fluids. When more
than one liquid is mentioned for grinding, they
are used in succession.
When the mass is properly ground and is in a
condition to be made into pills.
Mass is rolled manually or with the help of
suitable machine, compressed into gutikas/
vati.
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 38
Storage:
 Air tight container
 Preparation containing vegetable drugs
can be used for 2 years
 Preparations containing minerals or
metals can be used for indefinite period
 Pills and vatis should not lose their
original color, smell, taste and form.
 When sugar, salt is an ingredient, the pills
should be kept away from moisture.
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 39
Packaging:
 Bottles
 Strip Packing
 Blister Packing
standardization
 Organoleptic evaluation
 Physical evaluation
 Chemical evaluation
 Chromatographic evaluation
 Pharmacological evaluation
 Toxicological evaluation
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 40
Pharmaceutical parameters for
standardization
 Hardness
 Uniformity in weight
 Uniformity in diameter
 Friability test
 Dissolution time
 Disintegration time
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 41
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 42
Marketed Formulations:
 Marikadi Gutika
 Khadiradi Vati
 Sanjivni Vati
 Lakshmivilasrasa Vati
Overall standardization
 Taxonomical :Estimation Authentication of drug
material
 Organoleptic/sensary Evaluation: Colour,
Odour ,Appearance ,Powder partical size
Distribution, Powder flow, Clearity
 Physical evaluation: Foreign organic , Loss on
drying, exctractive values, ash values, Ph,
solubility, refractive index, specific gravity, MP,
BP, Polarity, viscocity, acid value, acetate
value, sap value, swelling index, foaming
index, etc
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 43
 Microscopic Evaluation: Palisade Ratio,
Vein Islet, Vein Termination, Stomatal Index
,Stomatal Numbre, Lycopodium Spore count
method, Starch Grain, Calcium Oxalate
Crystals etc
 Chromatographic & other Methods TLC &
HPTLC HPLC UV Spectroscopy GC-MS
Fluorimetry
 Pharmacological Parameters ( Bioassays to
estimate potency ): Bitterness, Astringent
Activity, Antimicrobial Activity, Hemolytic
Activity, Antioxidant Activity, Nitric oxide
Scavenging Activity, etc
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 44
 Toxicological (Establishment of Safety ):
Limit Tests for Pesteside containt ,Heavy
metals Content , Aflotoxin, Radio active
Contaminant, Bioburdan , Bacterial ,
(Pathogenic/Non Pathogenic), Fungal
toxins, etc
Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 45

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ayurvedic formulations herbal drug technologyppt

  • 1. Pradnya Wadekar Bapat Asst. Professor Appasaheb Birnale college of Pharmacy, Sangli
  • 2. Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 2 Asava/Arishta  Asava/Arishta are the ayurvedic dosage form processed by soaking the drug in powdered form / decoction form (Kasaya), in a solution of sugar or jaggery for a specific period of time to undergo fermentation (Sadahan) leading to formation of alcohol.  Arishta or Asava treatment is suggested for a variety of diseases and conditions  The difference between arishta and asava is simple arishta is prepared from the essence/decoction of medicinal herbs while asava is prepared from fresh herbs
  • 3. Drug powdered (according to Patha) Prepare decoction Filter prepared Decoction Into velssel, decoction + sugar /jaggery/honey, boil +Dravyas+Dhatakai pushpa Close the earthen lid sealed edges with clay smeared cloth Place vessel in cellar fro specific time period for Sadhana Filter Arishta Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 3
  • 4. Into vessel, sugar /jaggery/honey, boil +powdered drug (Patha) Close the earthen lid sealed edges with clay smeared cloth Place vessel in cellar fro specific time period for Sadhana Filter Asava Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 4
  • 5. Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 5 Properties:  Should be Clear  No foam should be produced  Should not become sour on standing  It has characteristic, aromatic & alcoholic odour  During fermentation, Alcohol is produced which facilitates extraction of active constituents contained in the drug  Alcohol also serve as preservative in the product  Earlier, The wooden pots are fumigated with pippali powder and also smeared with ghee before the fermentation liquids are pour into them
  • 6. Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 6 Shelf Life:  Much longer time Storage Conditions:  Should be stored in air tight container  Narrow mouthed  Store in cool place  Away from sunlight
  • 7. Parameters for Standardization of Asava And Arishta  Ayurvedic parameters :  Clear liquid without any forth  Pleasant aromatic odour of alcohol  Should not have sour taste  No effervescence sound  Additive sink to the bottom  Burning candle burns brightly when placed in or just above the Sandhana Paatra Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 7
  • 8. Parameters for Standardization of Asava And Arishta  Organoleptic evaluation: colour, odour, taste, nature and texture  Physical evaluation:- pH, Specific gravity at 25°c and total solid  Alcohol content  Reducing sugar  Non- reducing Sugar  Test for Methanol  Total Acidity  Chromatography  Shelf life  Viscosity Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 8
  • 9.  Acid Value :  Extcractive values  Chemical evaluation:???  Toxicilogical evaluation: pesticide residue, heavy metal presence, mos Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 9
  • 10. Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 10 Marketed Preparations: Asavas Arishtas Kumariasava Dashmularishta Madhukasava Draksharista Punarnavasava Asokarishta Chandanasava Vidangarista
  • 11. Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 11 Lehyas/ Leham/ Avaleha/Paka Semisolids  Semisolid Ayurvedic dosage form, which are thickened, sweetened extracts of single or combination of herbs/animal & mineral matter.  Preparation comprises of:  Decoction or other liquid  Jaggery/ sugar/ honey  Powder or Pulp of drug  Ghee or Oil
  • 12. Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 12 Preparation of Leha Sugar/ Jaggery + Liquid • ↓ Boiled & Dissolved (Ghee or Oil if any) Powdered drugs in small quantities Stirred continuously Homogenous mass is formed
  • 13. Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 13 Properties:  Can be lifted in a spoon  When pressed between fingers, show threads during stretching  Sinks in water without getting easily dissolved  Finger leaves impression on it  Components of lehyas are easily absorbed by the body, starting from the mouth
  • 14. Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 14 Storage:  Kept in Glass/ Porcelain Jar or suitable plastic or metal container which is inert.  Wide mouthed container is used  Air tight  Keep away from hot & humid conditions Shelf Life:  Used with in a year Examples:  Brahma rasayanam  Sukumara rasayanam  Draksavaleha  Chyavanprasha
  • 15. Parameters for standardization of Avaleha  Organoleptic  Physical  Reducing sugar  Total sugar  Chromatography  Test for heavy metals  Microbial contamination  Shelf life Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 15
  • 16.  Physical evaluation: • Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 16 Loss on drying at 105°c Total ash Acid insoluble ash pH Specific gravity Total solid contents Fat contents
  • 17. Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 17  Bhasmas are powdered form of ayurvedic preparations, obtained by calcination of metals, minerals or animal products by a special process in closed crucibles or pits covered by cow dung cakes (puta).  Examples: Swarn bhasma, Shnakha bhasma and Tamra bhasma Bhasmas
  • 18. Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 18 Preparation of Bhasma: Shodhana • is a process of purification and detoxification by which physical and chemical blemishes and toxic materials are eliminated. substances are subjected for further processing. • Remove harmful substances and impurities present in the drugs. Marna • is a process in which metals and minerals are made into paste with various drugs and juices. Objective to make bhasma and this drugs are reduced to finest particles. Jarana • is a process of decomposing the particles by subjected to fire treatment in a measured manner for reducing them to ashes. To make it absorbable.
  • 19. Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 19 Types:  On the basis of color grey, whitish, yellowish or black colored.  A more scientific way of classification is on the basis of metal and mineral group like: Rajata group, Tamra group, Loha group etc. Shelf Life:  Quite stable products, maintain potency for a long time Properties:  Bhasma has great therapeutic value because they get absorbed easily into body even in very small doses
  • 20. Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 20 Quality Control of Bhasma:  There should be not metallic lusture  When a small quantity is spread on cold and still water, it should float on the surface  The bhasma should not revert to original state. Storage:  Store in cool & Dry place  Keep away from moisture & sunlight
  • 21. Parameters for assessment of Bhasma:  Qualitative Analysis: Information regarding the presence or absence of one or more components of the sample.  Quantitative Analysis: Information which is finally obtained by measuring the physical property that is characteristically related to the component. Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 21
  • 22.  Methods of Analysis: Conventional Chemical analysis by volumetric & Gravimetric method analysis. Physical analysis. Instrumental methods of analysis by using analytical instrumentation.  The Bhasmas are mainly examined in terms of physical test and chemical test. The tests mentioned below are applicable totally or partially to the Bhasmas of different drugs. All the tests are not applicable to all Bhasmas; selected tests are applicable for particular Bhasmas. Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 22
  • 23.  Description/Colour/Odour  Identification –chemical composition  Particle size mesh size — 200 – 300  Loss on drying at 105 C  Total – ash  Acid – insoluble ash  Water soluble ash  Assay of element (s)  Ayurvedic specifications  Lustreless (Nishchandrica)  Fine enough to enter the crevices of finger (Rekha purnatva) Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 23
  • 24.  Floats on water (Varitara)  Smokeless (Nirdhoom)  Tasteless (Niswadu)  Irreversible (Apunar bhav)  NPST Namburi Phased Spot Test: This technique is based on the principles of liquid chromatography, which helps for the differential identification of each Bhasma from the other Bhasmas having same element as the main constituent. Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 24
  • 25. Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 25 Important bhasmas and their main ingredient No. Bhasma Main Ingredient 1. Loha bhasma Iron oxide 2 Naga bhasma Lead 3 Abhrak bhasma Mica 4 Yasad Bhasma Zinc Oxide 5 Swarn Bhasma Gold
  • 26. Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 26 Churna:  Dried ayurvedic dosage form comprises of fine powder of drug/s is known as churna.  Drug can be any dried part of plant: stem, leaves, root, bark, fruit etc.  The churna is free flowing powder.  The principle of using Churnas is due to the fact that therapeutic value of most of the substances greatly increases when they are reduces to vary fine state of subdivion and is particularly notable in the cases of antacids, protective and adsorbents.
  • 27. Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 27 Procedure: Drugs mentioned in formula,  Separated Powders 1. Cleaned properly 2. Dried thoroughly 3. Pulverised (reduced to small size) 4. Sieved (80 mesh size).  Weighed  Mixed together uniformly
  • 28. Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 28 Shelf Life:  If stored properly, retains potency for one year. Storage conditions:  Air tight container, Kept away from moisture  Store in a cool & dry place Advantages:  They are also easily administrable specially in the cases of children where they can not swallow pills, tablets or capsules
  • 29. Standardization of Churna  Organoleptic evaluation  Microscopic evaluation  Physical analysis  Phytochemical analysis  Particle size  Test for heavy metals & toxins  Microbial contamination  Test for specific pathogen  Test for alfa toxin  Pesticide residue  Shelf life Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 29
  • 31. Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 31 Marketed Formulations: 1. Ashwagandhadi Churna 2. Triphala Churna 3. Trikatu Churna 4. Sudarshan Churna 5. Drakshadi Churna
  • 32. Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 32 Taila:  Also called Medicated Oil  Liquid ayurvedic dosage form intended for external & internal use comprises of compounds with medicinal value or phytoconstituents present in oil  The Taila preferably should be fresh  There are usually 3 or 4 essential components in the manufacture of Taila ◦ Drava [Any liquid medium as prescribed in the composition] ◦ Kalka [Fine paste of the specified drug] ◦ Sneha dravya [Taila] ◦ Gandha dravya [Perfuming agents]
  • 33. Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 33 Pack it in tightly closed glass containers Filter while hot (about 800) and allow to cool. The process of boiling is to be continued till the whole amount of moisture gets evaporated Appearance of foam at surface Avoid charring of the paste at bottom Stir Continuously, Heat at 50-90 0 C Sneha Dravya (Taila) (4 Part) + Drava [Any liquid medium] (16 part)+ Kalka [Fine paste of drugs] (1 part)
  • 34. Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 34 Properties:  The medicated Taila will have the odour, colour and taste of the drugs used in the process.  Protect from light and moisture  Tailas are preserved in good quality of glass, steel or polythene containers. Shelf Life:  These medicated preparations retain the therapeutic efficacy for sixteen months. Usage:  Used as a internally and topically  They are taken internally with warm water or warm milk
  • 35. Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 35 Marketed Formulations:  Bhringaraja Taila  Maha Narayan Taila  Laghu Visagarbha Taila  Anu Taila  Dhanvantara Taila
  • 36. Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 36 Gutika/ Modaka/ Vati/ Vadagam/ Tablets/ Pills  Soild ayurvedic dosage form made up of one or more drugs of plant, animal or mineral origin by the process of powdered, sieving, & mixing with prescribed liquids and triturated till attained the consistency suitable for making gutika.  Vatika is in tablet form prepared by compressin  Gutika is in the Pills form.
  • 37. Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 37 The drugs of plant origin are dried and made into fine powders, separately. The minerals are made into bhasma put into a suitable container & ground to a soft paste with the prescribed fluids. When more than one liquid is mentioned for grinding, they are used in succession. When the mass is properly ground and is in a condition to be made into pills. Mass is rolled manually or with the help of suitable machine, compressed into gutikas/ vati.
  • 38. Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 38 Storage:  Air tight container  Preparation containing vegetable drugs can be used for 2 years  Preparations containing minerals or metals can be used for indefinite period  Pills and vatis should not lose their original color, smell, taste and form.  When sugar, salt is an ingredient, the pills should be kept away from moisture.
  • 39. Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 39 Packaging:  Bottles  Strip Packing  Blister Packing
  • 40. standardization  Organoleptic evaluation  Physical evaluation  Chemical evaluation  Chromatographic evaluation  Pharmacological evaluation  Toxicological evaluation Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 40
  • 41. Pharmaceutical parameters for standardization  Hardness  Uniformity in weight  Uniformity in diameter  Friability test  Dissolution time  Disintegration time Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 41
  • 42. Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 42 Marketed Formulations:  Marikadi Gutika  Khadiradi Vati  Sanjivni Vati  Lakshmivilasrasa Vati
  • 43. Overall standardization  Taxonomical :Estimation Authentication of drug material  Organoleptic/sensary Evaluation: Colour, Odour ,Appearance ,Powder partical size Distribution, Powder flow, Clearity  Physical evaluation: Foreign organic , Loss on drying, exctractive values, ash values, Ph, solubility, refractive index, specific gravity, MP, BP, Polarity, viscocity, acid value, acetate value, sap value, swelling index, foaming index, etc Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 43
  • 44.  Microscopic Evaluation: Palisade Ratio, Vein Islet, Vein Termination, Stomatal Index ,Stomatal Numbre, Lycopodium Spore count method, Starch Grain, Calcium Oxalate Crystals etc  Chromatographic & other Methods TLC & HPTLC HPLC UV Spectroscopy GC-MS Fluorimetry  Pharmacological Parameters ( Bioassays to estimate potency ): Bitterness, Astringent Activity, Antimicrobial Activity, Hemolytic Activity, Antioxidant Activity, Nitric oxide Scavenging Activity, etc Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 44
  • 45.  Toxicological (Establishment of Safety ): Limit Tests for Pesteside containt ,Heavy metals Content , Aflotoxin, Radio active Contaminant, Bioburdan , Bacterial , (Pathogenic/Non Pathogenic), Fungal toxins, etc Mrs Pradnya Wadekar Bapat 45

Editor's Notes

  1. cellar=basement patha=formula