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city planning in Athens
By Akansha Mittal and Pounomi Kar
Athens
 Capital of Greece. One of the first city-states of the ancient world.
 Was a walled city.
 Presided over the region of Attica.
 Largest navy at port city Pireus.
Athens in the World (5th
cent.
BC)
Image Source: Powell, A and Sheehan, S 2003, Ancient Greece, Facts on File, New York
Athens , Spartan and Persian Empire
Exterior Influences in Planning
 The Political Scenario
Ionic
Revolt
beginni
ng of
Greco-
Persian
Wars
Battle
Of
Marath
on
Greco-
Persian
Wars
continue,
Athens
won.
Persians
made
numerous
attempts
to
conquer
Athens
Battle Of
Salamis
and
Plataea
Persia fails
to conquer
Peloponnes
e
(destructive
to Athens)
Formatio
n of
Delian
League
against
Persians
First
Pelopon
nesian
War
conflict
between
Athens
and
Sparta
Peace
of
Pericles
Pelop
onnes
ian
Wars
499-494
BC
490 BC
490-480
BC
480-479
BC
477 BC
459-445
BC
445 BC
431-404
BC
Planning Principles
 Greek Mythology and History
 Life and Forces of a Structure
 Democracy or People Power
 Adhering to Terrain
“I cannot imagine the Greeks allowing themselves to be town-planned.”
-Owens, 1991
Kolonos: Previously
occupied by the Temple of
Theseus—credited with
unification of Attica.
Areopagus: Ares was tried
here by Gods for murder of
Posiedon’s son. Later used
as a criminal court.
Pnyx: Assembly of ecclesia
(the people) after Solon’s
and Cleisthene’s policies.
Acropolis: Shrine for
Athena, patron Goddess of
Athens.
Agora: Originated as an
open space for civic
activities.
Image Source: Owens, S 1991, The city in the Greek and Roman world, Routledge, London.
Important landmarks in Athens
Myth and History
Streets
Narrow and winding roads, on
steeper ground reduced to
stairs.
Inconstant road width.
‘Athens was a city of
contrasts. The fine temples
and public buildings of the
Classical and Hellenistic
periods were fitted into an
Urban plan which had
developed over several
centuries and was continuing
to do so.’ (Owens, 1991)
Important road: The
Panathenaic Way
Image Source: Powell, A and Sheehan, S 2003, Ancient Greece, Facts on File, New York
South-west Athens
Panathenaic Way
-A major road which is going across the
city of Athens, diagonally dividing the
agora or the market place.
Named after the procession which took
place during the festival of the
Panathenaia. (Athena’s birthday).
Linked all the sacred and major public
spaces across the city together.
WEST CITY
GATE
(DIPYLON
GATE/
SACRED
GATE)
Continues
DIAGONALL
Y ACROSS
THE AGORA
PROPYLAE
A
Moves
further up to
the
ACROPOLIS
The STAUE
OF ATHENA
Sacrifices
made and
offerings
presented.
Image Source: Powell, A and Sheehan, S 2003,
Ancient Greece, Facts on File, New York
Panathenaic
Way
Agora in Archaic Period (500
BC)
Functions of an agora:
Market-place, a place of
assembly, and a seating
for ceremonies and
assemblies. (Ward-
Perkins, JB 1974)
To the south was the old
bouleuterion (or the
Council House) and to the
north were three small
temples.
Image Source: Travlos, J 1980, Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Athens, Hacker Art Books.
Agora 500
BC
bouleuterio
n
PANATHENAIC
WAY
Agora in Classical Period (420
BC)
The Temple of Hephaestos
was built. It sets into motion a
shaft of space. It makes its
influence felt as an ordering
element. (Bacon, 1976)
The Kolonos and the Acropolis
connect with each despite the
distance because of the
architectural rhythm of the
colonades.
The South Stoa begins to
define the enclosure of the
Agora. The Ecclesia now needs
meeting space.
Image Source: Travlos, J 1980, Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Athens, Hacker Art Books.
Agora 420
BC
bouleuterio
n
Hephaesto
s
South Stoa
Stoa
of
Zeus
PANATHENAIC
WAY
Agora in Hellenistic Period (200
BC)
Full Maturity of Agora
Additions: Metroon replaced
old Bouleutrion , Temple of
Apollo Patroos, South middle
Stoa and Stoa of Attalos
(east stoa).
The South Stoa was rebuilt at
a different angle.
Everything developed
respecting the shaft of space.
Image Source: Travlos, J 1980, Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Athens, Hacker Art Books.
Agora 200
BC
Metroon
Hephaesto
s
South Middle Stoa
Stoa
of
Zeus
Apollo
Patroos
Stoa of
Attalos
PANATHENAIC
WAY
Agora in 2nd
cent. AD
‘The clear open quality of
the uncluttered space of
earlier periods is gone, and
in its place confusion has set
in.’ (Bacon, 1976)
Additions: Temple of Ares,
many fountains and statues
were added. Clumsy Roman
gift of the Odeion of Agrippa.
The Odeion overpowers the
shaft of space and wobbles
the balance of elements.
Image Source: Travlos, J 1980, Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Athens, Hacker Art Books.
Agora 2 AD
Metroon
Hephaestos
South Middle Stoa
Stoa of
Zeus
Apollo
Patroo
s
Stoa of
Attalos
Templ
e of
Ares
Odeio
n
PANATHENAIC
W
AY
Architectural Rhythm
Image Source: http://documents-macedon.blogspot.in
Acropolis
Acropolis
Image Source: www.athenshistory.org
Planning of Acropolis
Shift from Acropolis to Agora
 Agora took the place which was previously of
the Acropolis or of the King.
 The artisan and residential colonies began to
move westwards and northwards, towards the
open country side.
 Towards 6th
century, public buildings began to
take shape along the foot hills of Kolonos.
 East of the Panathenaic Way, a large public
fountain was built.
Adhering to Terrain
Image Source: www.athenshistory.org
Acropolis, Agora, Areopagus and Pynx
17
After the Wars
Image Source: http://documents-macedon.blogspot.in
Pireus and Athens
Unlike Athens, other
cities were being
planned after the Wars.
Athens being afraid of
another Spartan Attack,
did not plan and build.
Became protective, built
walls around the city.
Roman Intervention
Image Source: Powell, A and Sheehan, S 2003, Ancient Greece, Facts on File, New York
Athens
Temple of Olympian Zeus
The Temple's
foundation was laid by
Pisistratus in 515 BC.
During the years of
Greek Democracy, the
work was left
unfinished due to
Financial and Political
issues.
After many attempts to
complete it, it was
finally completed by
Hadrian (Roman) in 2nd
century AD.
Image Source: http://www.talesbeyondbelief.com/greek-gods-mythology/temple-of-zeus.htm
Temple of Olympian Zeus (2nd
cent.
AD)
Bibliography
 Edmund N. Bacon, 1976. ‘The Growth of Greek Cities’ in Design of Cities:
Revised Edition (Penguin Books). Revised Edition. Penguin Books.
 Murray , O and Price, S 1990, The Greek City: From Homer to Alexander, Clarendon
Press, Oxford.
 Nuttgens, P 1997. ‘Landscape of Gods’ in The Story of Architecture, 2nd
edn,
Phaidon Press.
 Owens, E 1991, The city in the Greek and Roman world, Routledge, London.
 Powell, A and Sheehan, S 2003, Ancient Greece, Facts On File, New York.
 Rosenau, Helen, 1959. ‘Ancient Tradition’ in The Ideal City. 1st ed. Great
Britain: Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd.
 Travlos, J 1980, Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Athens, Hacker Art Books.
 Ward-Perkins, JB 1974, Cities of ancient Greece and Italy, G. Braziller, New York.

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Athens akansha & pounomi

  • 1. city planning in Athens By Akansha Mittal and Pounomi Kar
  • 2. Athens  Capital of Greece. One of the first city-states of the ancient world.  Was a walled city.  Presided over the region of Attica.  Largest navy at port city Pireus.
  • 3. Athens in the World (5th cent. BC) Image Source: Powell, A and Sheehan, S 2003, Ancient Greece, Facts on File, New York Athens , Spartan and Persian Empire
  • 4. Exterior Influences in Planning  The Political Scenario Ionic Revolt beginni ng of Greco- Persian Wars Battle Of Marath on Greco- Persian Wars continue, Athens won. Persians made numerous attempts to conquer Athens Battle Of Salamis and Plataea Persia fails to conquer Peloponnes e (destructive to Athens) Formatio n of Delian League against Persians First Pelopon nesian War conflict between Athens and Sparta Peace of Pericles Pelop onnes ian Wars 499-494 BC 490 BC 490-480 BC 480-479 BC 477 BC 459-445 BC 445 BC 431-404 BC
  • 5. Planning Principles  Greek Mythology and History  Life and Forces of a Structure  Democracy or People Power  Adhering to Terrain “I cannot imagine the Greeks allowing themselves to be town-planned.” -Owens, 1991
  • 6. Kolonos: Previously occupied by the Temple of Theseus—credited with unification of Attica. Areopagus: Ares was tried here by Gods for murder of Posiedon’s son. Later used as a criminal court. Pnyx: Assembly of ecclesia (the people) after Solon’s and Cleisthene’s policies. Acropolis: Shrine for Athena, patron Goddess of Athens. Agora: Originated as an open space for civic activities. Image Source: Owens, S 1991, The city in the Greek and Roman world, Routledge, London. Important landmarks in Athens Myth and History
  • 7. Streets Narrow and winding roads, on steeper ground reduced to stairs. Inconstant road width. ‘Athens was a city of contrasts. The fine temples and public buildings of the Classical and Hellenistic periods were fitted into an Urban plan which had developed over several centuries and was continuing to do so.’ (Owens, 1991) Important road: The Panathenaic Way Image Source: Powell, A and Sheehan, S 2003, Ancient Greece, Facts on File, New York South-west Athens
  • 8. Panathenaic Way -A major road which is going across the city of Athens, diagonally dividing the agora or the market place. Named after the procession which took place during the festival of the Panathenaia. (Athena’s birthday). Linked all the sacred and major public spaces across the city together. WEST CITY GATE (DIPYLON GATE/ SACRED GATE) Continues DIAGONALL Y ACROSS THE AGORA PROPYLAE A Moves further up to the ACROPOLIS The STAUE OF ATHENA Sacrifices made and offerings presented. Image Source: Powell, A and Sheehan, S 2003, Ancient Greece, Facts on File, New York Panathenaic Way
  • 9. Agora in Archaic Period (500 BC) Functions of an agora: Market-place, a place of assembly, and a seating for ceremonies and assemblies. (Ward- Perkins, JB 1974) To the south was the old bouleuterion (or the Council House) and to the north were three small temples. Image Source: Travlos, J 1980, Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Athens, Hacker Art Books. Agora 500 BC bouleuterio n PANATHENAIC WAY
  • 10. Agora in Classical Period (420 BC) The Temple of Hephaestos was built. It sets into motion a shaft of space. It makes its influence felt as an ordering element. (Bacon, 1976) The Kolonos and the Acropolis connect with each despite the distance because of the architectural rhythm of the colonades. The South Stoa begins to define the enclosure of the Agora. The Ecclesia now needs meeting space. Image Source: Travlos, J 1980, Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Athens, Hacker Art Books. Agora 420 BC bouleuterio n Hephaesto s South Stoa Stoa of Zeus PANATHENAIC WAY
  • 11. Agora in Hellenistic Period (200 BC) Full Maturity of Agora Additions: Metroon replaced old Bouleutrion , Temple of Apollo Patroos, South middle Stoa and Stoa of Attalos (east stoa). The South Stoa was rebuilt at a different angle. Everything developed respecting the shaft of space. Image Source: Travlos, J 1980, Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Athens, Hacker Art Books. Agora 200 BC Metroon Hephaesto s South Middle Stoa Stoa of Zeus Apollo Patroos Stoa of Attalos PANATHENAIC WAY
  • 12. Agora in 2nd cent. AD ‘The clear open quality of the uncluttered space of earlier periods is gone, and in its place confusion has set in.’ (Bacon, 1976) Additions: Temple of Ares, many fountains and statues were added. Clumsy Roman gift of the Odeion of Agrippa. The Odeion overpowers the shaft of space and wobbles the balance of elements. Image Source: Travlos, J 1980, Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Athens, Hacker Art Books. Agora 2 AD Metroon Hephaestos South Middle Stoa Stoa of Zeus Apollo Patroo s Stoa of Attalos Templ e of Ares Odeio n PANATHENAIC W AY
  • 13. Architectural Rhythm Image Source: http://documents-macedon.blogspot.in Acropolis
  • 15. Shift from Acropolis to Agora  Agora took the place which was previously of the Acropolis or of the King.  The artisan and residential colonies began to move westwards and northwards, towards the open country side.  Towards 6th century, public buildings began to take shape along the foot hills of Kolonos.  East of the Panathenaic Way, a large public fountain was built.
  • 16. Adhering to Terrain Image Source: www.athenshistory.org Acropolis, Agora, Areopagus and Pynx
  • 17. 17 After the Wars Image Source: http://documents-macedon.blogspot.in Pireus and Athens
  • 18. Unlike Athens, other cities were being planned after the Wars. Athens being afraid of another Spartan Attack, did not plan and build. Became protective, built walls around the city. Roman Intervention Image Source: Powell, A and Sheehan, S 2003, Ancient Greece, Facts on File, New York Athens
  • 19. Temple of Olympian Zeus The Temple's foundation was laid by Pisistratus in 515 BC. During the years of Greek Democracy, the work was left unfinished due to Financial and Political issues. After many attempts to complete it, it was finally completed by Hadrian (Roman) in 2nd century AD. Image Source: http://www.talesbeyondbelief.com/greek-gods-mythology/temple-of-zeus.htm Temple of Olympian Zeus (2nd cent. AD)
  • 20. Bibliography  Edmund N. Bacon, 1976. ‘The Growth of Greek Cities’ in Design of Cities: Revised Edition (Penguin Books). Revised Edition. Penguin Books.  Murray , O and Price, S 1990, The Greek City: From Homer to Alexander, Clarendon Press, Oxford.  Nuttgens, P 1997. ‘Landscape of Gods’ in The Story of Architecture, 2nd edn, Phaidon Press.  Owens, E 1991, The city in the Greek and Roman world, Routledge, London.  Powell, A and Sheehan, S 2003, Ancient Greece, Facts On File, New York.  Rosenau, Helen, 1959. ‘Ancient Tradition’ in The Ideal City. 1st ed. Great Britain: Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd.  Travlos, J 1980, Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Athens, Hacker Art Books.  Ward-Perkins, JB 1974, Cities of ancient Greece and Italy, G. Braziller, New York.