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Assessment of socio-economic,
institutional and political constraints
and opportunities for RiceAdvice
scaling out and up
Espérance ZOSSOU
IS/IP Specialist, AfricaRice
Outline
1. Background
2. Methodology
3. Overview of results
1. Background
• RiceAdvice is a free android based application tool for
helping farmers to improve rice yield and profitability in Africa
• RiceAdvice is an opportunity
to achieve AfricaRice’s goal :
increase the productivity and
profitability of the rice sector
• This tool has been
extensively validated and
fine-tuned in farmers’ fields in
consultation with them
1. Background
• The challenge is how to succeed the scaling up and out of
this technology for a long-time and sustainable adoption by
the end users?
• Scaling out involves diffusing
RiceAdvice technology from
place to place.
• Scaling up involves dealing
with institutional environment
that may enable or limit its
adoption
?
1. Background
• Rapid Appraisal of Agricultural Innovation Systems (RAAIS)
is a multi-method tool that combines qualitative and
quantitative data collection and analysis techniques
• RAAIS allows triangulation
and validation of data with
different stakeholders‘ groups
for collective action
• Using RAAIS in RiceAdvice
scaling=> to address complex
challenges more effectively
2. Methodology
• Main stakeholders : Paddy/seed rice farmers, services
providers, IP team, rice seed companies, local
entrepreneurs/youth/Private sector, extension agents, NGOs / civil
society, local communication agents (e.g. rural radio), local
authorities / Government, Research and training.
• Qualitative and quantitative data to be collected through the
combination of 4 mains methods / steps:
2. Methodology
• Step 1: Semi-structured in-depth interviews
• Using of focus group discussion with representatives of stakeholders
• provide insight into the knowledge of the technology, constraints and
benefits in using it, potential constraints, opportunities and strategies
for scaling (up and out), collaboration between stakeholder groups,
effectiveness of policies/ institutions
• Step 2: Multi-stakeholder workshops
• Facilitate different groups of stakeholders to identify, categorize
and analyze constraints/ opportunities in the process of
RiceAdvice scaling
• A maximum of 30 participants will attend the workshop (3
representatives from each of above stakeholders
2. Methodology
• Step 3: Questionnaire
• Quantitative data to provide more insights into the socio-economic
informations, the quality of agricultural extension received by farmers,
access to RiceAdvise, access to agricultural inputs, impact on
livelihoods, etc.
• simple random sampling of farmers and Service providers reached
• Step 4: Secondary data analysis
• Written data/documents with relevance for the analysis of innovation
scaling approaches and challenges faced, complex agricultural
problem, the functioning of the agricultural innovation system,
agricultural education and training, agricultural policies, etc.
3. Overview of results
2011 AfricaRice Science Week and GRiSP-Africa Science Forum
12-16 September 2011, Cotonou, Benin
3.1 Constraints faced when using RiceAdvice
 Output of RiceAdvice not available in local language and
most of farmers are illiterate
 Financial poverty leading to a lack of money to access
recommended dose of fertilizer in the appropriate period
 Limit access of women to RiceAdvice because the service
providers are mostly men. Women are limited by social
norms in communicating with men outside their families
 Recommendation of doses of fertilizer in kg and not in local
measures to which the producers are more accustomed
 Risk aversion to the fertilizer recommended by RiceAdvice
3.1 Constraints faced when using RiceAdvice
 Lack of confidence of farmers during the first contacts
 Requirement of fertilizers before accepting collaboration
 High cost of fertilizers => difficult to convince them
 Non-compliance => more follow-up
 Reluctance of some farmers during the farm size getting
 Translation of output from English to local language
 Difficult access of farms (ecological/geographical/financial)
 Low number of services providers (less women)
 Lack of sensitization / awareness of farmers
 Time issues to move from a place to another / interview
3.1 Constraints faced when using RiceAdvice
Overview of constraints faced by RVC stakeholders in using RiceAdvice
• SP, EA & farmers are those who faced more challenges in all
areas
• Most important constraints encountered by RVC actors are
respectively of socio-cultural, economic, political/institutional
and technological dimension
3.2 Benefits from using RiceAdvice
 Increase of the yield of 30%
 Reduction by the half of fertilizer quantity => saving money
and less pollution
 Reduction of pests and diseases in the fields
 Increase of the number of rice plants during transplantation
 Getting good quality paddy/seeds (less empty grains)
 Strengthening relations between RVC stakeholders
3.2 Benefits from using RiceAdvice
 Knowledge of the exact area of the farm
 Improvement of knowledge (use fertilizer, ICT materials,
GAP, …)
 Social prestige
 Increase of the IP membership
 Improvement of livelihoods
3.3 SWOT analysis of RiceAdvice as a tool
Strengths Weaknesses
 Easy to carry
 With clear benefit (yield increase,
reduction of fertilizer quantity, reduction
pest and disease, …)
 Simple to use
 Can be used for several farmers (no
limit on the application capacity)
 Diversity of parameters of the tool
 well-suited to several ecologies in
Africa
 Output only in English
 Use depends on the availability of
electricity
 Need for electronic material for its use
 Focuses only on chemical fertilizers
 Need follow up
 As it is an electronic material, a lot of
effort to convince producers
Opportunities Threats
 Job opportunity
 NICT promotion and use in agriculture
 Favourable environment for the
promotion of ICT materials (android
phone, social network, …)
 Social interaction with RVC
stakeholders
 Poverty (financial, monetary)
 Cultural/Religion barriers (lack women
access to RiceAdvice services
 Cost of ICT materials
 Takes time
3.4 Potential constraints in RiceAdvice scaling
Socio-cultural Economical Political/
institutional
technological Biophysical
 Risk aversion first
contacts
 Culture/religion
limiting women
 Language Bias &
high illiterate rate
 Non-commitment to
take it as business
 Non-compliance by
some farmers
 Land issues
 Using of local
measures for inputs
 Reluctance
electronic tool
 Gratuity mind”
expecting
something with no
self-contribution
 financial access
fertilizers
 financial access
electronic
material
 Financial issue
SP transport
 Low N0 of SP
 Financial issues
dissemination
 Financial issues
more training
(use of the tool,
skill to be more
confident with
farmers, …)
 Financial
capital for
entrepreneurs to
invest in this
business
 Less promotion
of gender
 High rate of
illiteracy in RA
 Physical
accessibility to
tablets
 accessibility to
electricity
 “Lack of roads
to access farms
 High cost of
fertilizers
 Land issues
 Access to credit
 Interconnection
between
institutions
organizations
related to the
RVC...
 Recommendation
in kg and not in
local measures
 Output in English
 Need of regular
follow-up
 Lack of capacities
in the handling of
electronical
materials
 need of training
before using the
technology
 Absence of
recommendation
on organic
fertilizer
 Absence of some
rice varieties in
the RiceAdvice
application
 Difficulty
to access
some
farms due
to the
relief/
ecology
3.4 Potential constraints in RiceAdvice scaling
Constraints are more economic, socio-cultural and
political/institutional
3.5 Strategies for scaling
 Use the leaders of
associations to take over
 Use awareness tools (rural
radio, television, public
criers, advertising board,
WOM, …)
 Training of trainers
 Demonstration Plots
 Increase the number of SP,
including women as SP
 Mark RiceAdvice farms to
show the difference
 Organize awareness-raising
campaigns
3.5 Strategies for scaling
 Convince opinion leaders/ local
authorities
 Teaching the technology in
Universities
 Strengthen public-private
partnership
 Farmer field day with more
demonstration
 Frequent exchange meetings
between EA, SP and farmers
leaders
 Organize service providing as
an enterprise
 Strengthen SP capacities
entrepreneurship & leadersip
3.6 Opportunities to be taken
 Existence of farmers associations
 Availability of local medial
 Willing of Government to promote
the rice sector
 Employment opportunities
 Interest of partners to support
 Easy handling of the tool
 Agro-ecological & natural potential
for rice production
 Seed companies & NGOs working
confident with farmers
 Use staff & experiences of existing
organizations (e-extension,
community based extension…)
3.6 Opportunities to be taken
 Existence of success stories from
farmers & SP
 Capacity of youth / Service
providers to translate English in
local languages
 Interest of local authorities to
support the scaling
 Willing of Sassakawa to make a
partnership for business plan
 Willingness rural radio to promote
the technology partnership
 Social interaction between farmers
 Farmers 4500/ha SP are expecting
2410 Naira / ha on average (in-
depth studies)
3.7 Potential impact of RiceAdvice on livelihood
Overview of Potential impact of RiceAdvice on livelihoods
users of RiceAdvice (Farmers and service providers /
extension agents) noted an improvement in their livelihoods,
specifically social capital, human capital, financial capital and
physical capital.
Thank for your attention
Open for discussion

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Assessment of socio-economic, institutional and political constraints and opportunities for RiceAdvice scaling out and up

  • 1. Assessment of socio-economic, institutional and political constraints and opportunities for RiceAdvice scaling out and up Espérance ZOSSOU IS/IP Specialist, AfricaRice
  • 3. 1. Background • RiceAdvice is a free android based application tool for helping farmers to improve rice yield and profitability in Africa • RiceAdvice is an opportunity to achieve AfricaRice’s goal : increase the productivity and profitability of the rice sector • This tool has been extensively validated and fine-tuned in farmers’ fields in consultation with them
  • 4. 1. Background • The challenge is how to succeed the scaling up and out of this technology for a long-time and sustainable adoption by the end users? • Scaling out involves diffusing RiceAdvice technology from place to place. • Scaling up involves dealing with institutional environment that may enable or limit its adoption ?
  • 5. 1. Background • Rapid Appraisal of Agricultural Innovation Systems (RAAIS) is a multi-method tool that combines qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis techniques • RAAIS allows triangulation and validation of data with different stakeholders‘ groups for collective action • Using RAAIS in RiceAdvice scaling=> to address complex challenges more effectively
  • 6. 2. Methodology • Main stakeholders : Paddy/seed rice farmers, services providers, IP team, rice seed companies, local entrepreneurs/youth/Private sector, extension agents, NGOs / civil society, local communication agents (e.g. rural radio), local authorities / Government, Research and training. • Qualitative and quantitative data to be collected through the combination of 4 mains methods / steps:
  • 7. 2. Methodology • Step 1: Semi-structured in-depth interviews • Using of focus group discussion with representatives of stakeholders • provide insight into the knowledge of the technology, constraints and benefits in using it, potential constraints, opportunities and strategies for scaling (up and out), collaboration between stakeholder groups, effectiveness of policies/ institutions • Step 2: Multi-stakeholder workshops • Facilitate different groups of stakeholders to identify, categorize and analyze constraints/ opportunities in the process of RiceAdvice scaling • A maximum of 30 participants will attend the workshop (3 representatives from each of above stakeholders
  • 8. 2. Methodology • Step 3: Questionnaire • Quantitative data to provide more insights into the socio-economic informations, the quality of agricultural extension received by farmers, access to RiceAdvise, access to agricultural inputs, impact on livelihoods, etc. • simple random sampling of farmers and Service providers reached • Step 4: Secondary data analysis • Written data/documents with relevance for the analysis of innovation scaling approaches and challenges faced, complex agricultural problem, the functioning of the agricultural innovation system, agricultural education and training, agricultural policies, etc.
  • 9. 3. Overview of results 2011 AfricaRice Science Week and GRiSP-Africa Science Forum 12-16 September 2011, Cotonou, Benin
  • 10. 3.1 Constraints faced when using RiceAdvice  Output of RiceAdvice not available in local language and most of farmers are illiterate  Financial poverty leading to a lack of money to access recommended dose of fertilizer in the appropriate period  Limit access of women to RiceAdvice because the service providers are mostly men. Women are limited by social norms in communicating with men outside their families  Recommendation of doses of fertilizer in kg and not in local measures to which the producers are more accustomed  Risk aversion to the fertilizer recommended by RiceAdvice
  • 11. 3.1 Constraints faced when using RiceAdvice  Lack of confidence of farmers during the first contacts  Requirement of fertilizers before accepting collaboration  High cost of fertilizers => difficult to convince them  Non-compliance => more follow-up  Reluctance of some farmers during the farm size getting  Translation of output from English to local language  Difficult access of farms (ecological/geographical/financial)  Low number of services providers (less women)  Lack of sensitization / awareness of farmers  Time issues to move from a place to another / interview
  • 12. 3.1 Constraints faced when using RiceAdvice Overview of constraints faced by RVC stakeholders in using RiceAdvice • SP, EA & farmers are those who faced more challenges in all areas • Most important constraints encountered by RVC actors are respectively of socio-cultural, economic, political/institutional and technological dimension
  • 13. 3.2 Benefits from using RiceAdvice  Increase of the yield of 30%  Reduction by the half of fertilizer quantity => saving money and less pollution  Reduction of pests and diseases in the fields  Increase of the number of rice plants during transplantation  Getting good quality paddy/seeds (less empty grains)  Strengthening relations between RVC stakeholders
  • 14. 3.2 Benefits from using RiceAdvice  Knowledge of the exact area of the farm  Improvement of knowledge (use fertilizer, ICT materials, GAP, …)  Social prestige  Increase of the IP membership  Improvement of livelihoods
  • 15. 3.3 SWOT analysis of RiceAdvice as a tool Strengths Weaknesses  Easy to carry  With clear benefit (yield increase, reduction of fertilizer quantity, reduction pest and disease, …)  Simple to use  Can be used for several farmers (no limit on the application capacity)  Diversity of parameters of the tool  well-suited to several ecologies in Africa  Output only in English  Use depends on the availability of electricity  Need for electronic material for its use  Focuses only on chemical fertilizers  Need follow up  As it is an electronic material, a lot of effort to convince producers Opportunities Threats  Job opportunity  NICT promotion and use in agriculture  Favourable environment for the promotion of ICT materials (android phone, social network, …)  Social interaction with RVC stakeholders  Poverty (financial, monetary)  Cultural/Religion barriers (lack women access to RiceAdvice services  Cost of ICT materials  Takes time
  • 16. 3.4 Potential constraints in RiceAdvice scaling Socio-cultural Economical Political/ institutional technological Biophysical  Risk aversion first contacts  Culture/religion limiting women  Language Bias & high illiterate rate  Non-commitment to take it as business  Non-compliance by some farmers  Land issues  Using of local measures for inputs  Reluctance electronic tool  Gratuity mind” expecting something with no self-contribution  financial access fertilizers  financial access electronic material  Financial issue SP transport  Low N0 of SP  Financial issues dissemination  Financial issues more training (use of the tool, skill to be more confident with farmers, …)  Financial capital for entrepreneurs to invest in this business  Less promotion of gender  High rate of illiteracy in RA  Physical accessibility to tablets  accessibility to electricity  “Lack of roads to access farms  High cost of fertilizers  Land issues  Access to credit  Interconnection between institutions organizations related to the RVC...  Recommendation in kg and not in local measures  Output in English  Need of regular follow-up  Lack of capacities in the handling of electronical materials  need of training before using the technology  Absence of recommendation on organic fertilizer  Absence of some rice varieties in the RiceAdvice application  Difficulty to access some farms due to the relief/ ecology
  • 17. 3.4 Potential constraints in RiceAdvice scaling Constraints are more economic, socio-cultural and political/institutional
  • 18. 3.5 Strategies for scaling  Use the leaders of associations to take over  Use awareness tools (rural radio, television, public criers, advertising board, WOM, …)  Training of trainers  Demonstration Plots  Increase the number of SP, including women as SP  Mark RiceAdvice farms to show the difference  Organize awareness-raising campaigns
  • 19. 3.5 Strategies for scaling  Convince opinion leaders/ local authorities  Teaching the technology in Universities  Strengthen public-private partnership  Farmer field day with more demonstration  Frequent exchange meetings between EA, SP and farmers leaders  Organize service providing as an enterprise  Strengthen SP capacities entrepreneurship & leadersip
  • 20. 3.6 Opportunities to be taken  Existence of farmers associations  Availability of local medial  Willing of Government to promote the rice sector  Employment opportunities  Interest of partners to support  Easy handling of the tool  Agro-ecological & natural potential for rice production  Seed companies & NGOs working confident with farmers  Use staff & experiences of existing organizations (e-extension, community based extension…)
  • 21. 3.6 Opportunities to be taken  Existence of success stories from farmers & SP  Capacity of youth / Service providers to translate English in local languages  Interest of local authorities to support the scaling  Willing of Sassakawa to make a partnership for business plan  Willingness rural radio to promote the technology partnership  Social interaction between farmers  Farmers 4500/ha SP are expecting 2410 Naira / ha on average (in- depth studies)
  • 22. 3.7 Potential impact of RiceAdvice on livelihood Overview of Potential impact of RiceAdvice on livelihoods users of RiceAdvice (Farmers and service providers / extension agents) noted an improvement in their livelihoods, specifically social capital, human capital, financial capital and physical capital.
  • 23. Thank for your attention Open for discussion