Building the Value Case for Extension
Suresh Babu, IFPRI
June 5, 2015, MEAS Symposium, Washington D.C
Building the Value C...
• Poverty, hunger and malnutrition - a major development
challenge
• Smallholder farmers productivity – key to increasing ...
Extension Policies should also reflect
Country’s Stage of Transformation
Increased productivity among smallholder
farmers ...
Extension TransformationFigure 2.2 Stylized Trends in the Nature of EAS and Extension Transformation
Public Extension
NGOs...
Case for Extension?
 Policy – program – implementation – impact
 Extension reforms – How to design and implement?
 Indi...
Operational Framework for Assessing, Analyzing,
and Acting on Extension Reforms
Analysis of Factors Affecting the Successful
Performance of Extension Systems (Babu et al, 2015)
Relevance Effectiveness E...
Extension for What?
• Agricultural transformation
• Total factor productivity
• Knowledge system
• Pluralistic extension
•...
Knowledge connectors - Individuals
• Technical capacity for emerging issues
• Problem solving – post harvest - markets
• S...
Organizational Roles
• Linking strategy to program design
• Setting priorities for extension -context
• Allocation of reso...
System Mapping
• Research – extension – farmer linkages
• Innovation systems - extension along Value chains
• Public- priv...
Discussion
• Identifying Extension / Knowledge needs
• Entry points for extension / organizational strengthening
• Coordin...
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Building the Value Case for Extension

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By Suresh Babu (IFPRI) presented at the 2015 MEAS Symposium

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Building the Value Case for Extension

  1. 1. Building the Value Case for Extension Suresh Babu, IFPRI June 5, 2015, MEAS Symposium, Washington D.C Building the Value Case for Extension
  2. 2. • Poverty, hunger and malnutrition - a major development challenge • Smallholder farmers productivity – key to increasing food security and poverty reduction • Rapid transformation of food and agricultural systems • Strategic innovations needed – differentiated by context and stage of development • Extension remains a major missing link between innovation and productivity gains • With emerging private sector extension comes new set of challenges and opportunities Emerging Challenges
  3. 3. Extension Policies should also reflect Country’s Stage of Transformation Increased productivity among smallholder farmers (e.g. smallholder-friendly investment and access to finance) Cross-sectoral social safety nets to protect during shocks and acquire skills to undertake more productive activities Institutional reform to facilitate consolidation of farms and movement out of agriculture High-value agriculture Improved links to global and urban markets Agriculture- based Transforming Transformed
  4. 4. Extension TransformationFigure 2.2 Stylized Trends in the Nature of EAS and Extension Transformation Public Extension NGOs ICT PPP Plural HR FBOs High Level Farmer organizations/ Producer Association (FBOs) Use of ICT Private Sector ExtensionHuman Resources and Skills for Advisory Services (HR) Role of Public Sector Extension Intensity of pluralistic extension sources/approaches Public/ Private/ Partnerships Private Role of NGOs Private Extension
  5. 5. Case for Extension?  Policy – program – implementation – impact  Extension reforms – How to design and implement?  Individual capacity  Organizational and institutional architecture  Systems Capacity
  6. 6. Operational Framework for Assessing, Analyzing, and Acting on Extension Reforms
  7. 7. Analysis of Factors Affecting the Successful Performance of Extension Systems (Babu et al, 2015) Relevance Effectiveness Efficiency Sustainability Impact Equity Internal Factors  Crop production (quality and timing)  Timing of operations for cultivation  Timely supply of inputs  Timely purchase of outputs  Market advice Post-harvest handling  Leadership/ vision  Organized teams  Coordination with farmer groups  Collaboration with input dealers and credit institutions  Partnerships with public extension  Research-extension linkages  Optimal farmers per extension agent  24/7 call center  48 hour response  Farmer training centers  Internal coordination with cost recovery  Sustained supply of outputs  Productivity vs. land expansion  Integrated pest management  Controlling water irrigation  Value addition  Market for processed outputs  Profitability  Labor saving  Effective social capital  Network with other service providers  Achievement-oriented professionals  Competitiveness increase  Differential engagement of farmers for skill development  Differential pricing of outputs  Help smallholders with specific technology packages  Quality control support  Value addition support External Factors  Location of processing facility  Public policy for employment  Incentives for problem solving  Recognition and public investment  Presence of research units  Farmer interest groups  Hire purchase investors  Presence of farmer support  Pricing of input/output policy  Availability of seedlings/inputs  Mechanization policy  Regulation of pesticide use  Road network transportation  Rainfall changes  Water levels  Droughts/floods  Labor availability  Soil fertility depletion  Input pricing  Output pricing  Farmer income/ livelihood change  Recognition by the government  Ecosystem benefits  Win-win for the farmer and systems  Public interventions supporting farmers  Banking/ credit institutions  Government subsidies  Procurement support from public/ private sectors
  8. 8. Extension for What? • Agricultural transformation • Total factor productivity • Knowledge system • Pluralistic extension • India – Agricultural Technology Management Agency ( ATMA) • Brazil – Ministry of Agrarian development (PNATER) • Nigeria – Agricultural Transformation Agenda
  9. 9. Knowledge connectors - Individuals • Technical capacity for emerging issues • Problem solving – post harvest - markets • Social Entrepreneurs – • Service providers – Animal husbandry • Input dealers – private sector technical assistance • Mid-career training for professionals • Trainers of the extension workers
  10. 10. Organizational Roles • Linking strategy to program design • Setting priorities for extension -context • Allocation of resources • Implementation capacity • Monitoring and evaluation • Personnel management • Impact Assessment
  11. 11. System Mapping • Research – extension – farmer linkages • Innovation systems - extension along Value chains • Public- private –FBO – Linkages • Evidence – based Knowledge management • Local – national – global linkages • Extension Policy process
  12. 12. Discussion • Identifying Extension / Knowledge needs • Entry points for extension / organizational strengthening • Coordination / regulatory capacity for inclusive extension • Effective research / innovation linkages • Systems capacity for policy / strategy / monitoring and evaluation

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