Arab organization for Agricultural Development

Making Research and Science Reach
Farmers and End Users
By

Arab organizat...
Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users

Situation
The new millennium is well known as the witness of
seve...
Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users

Situation
The rapid advancements, in agricultural research
and sc...
Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users

Situation
Agriculture, therefore, has become a knowledgeintensive...
Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users

Situation
Moreover, farmers and end users have their own
local in...
Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users

Agricultural extension systems
Agricultural extension systems, as...
Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users

Agricultural extension systems
These systems could be considered ...
Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users

Agricultural extension definition
continuous process includes
com...
Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users

The concept of agricultural extension
Transfer of research result...
Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users

Investment in Agricultural extension
Investment in extension effo...
Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users

Investment in Agricultural extension
2- New practices and technol...
Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users

Investment in Agricultural extension
3- Most of the agricultural ...
Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users

Investment in Agricultural extension
4- Most of the labor force i...
Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users

The Agricultural Extension Systems:
Non-formal Education (NFE): p...
Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users

The Agricultural Extension Systems:
Advisory Services: through th...
Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users

All of these systems are helping to achieve the following
goals :...
Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users

The responsibility of extension workers, as change
agents
To impr...
Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users

The responsibility of extension workers, as change
agents
4.Creat...
Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users

Actions that enable access research and science to
farmers and en...
Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users

Actions that enable access research and science to
farmers and en...
Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users

Actions that enable access research and science to
farmers and en...
Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users

Actions that enable access research and science to
farmers and en...
Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users

Actions that enable access research and science to
farmers and en...
Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users

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Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users

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Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users, By Arab organization for Agricultural Development (AOAD), Land and Water Days in Near East & North Africa, 15-18 December 2013, Amman, Jordan

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Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users

  1. 1. Arab organization for Agricultural Development Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users By Arab organization for Agricultural Development (AOAD)
  2. 2. Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users Situation The new millennium is well known as the witness of several revolutions or explosions in all the areas of our life including, for example, science, technology, information and communication.
  3. 3. Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users Situation The rapid advancements, in agricultural research and sciences, have resulted in better technologies for achieving the goals of modernizing agriculture through new best-fit practices and technologies for more effective crop and livestock management, enhancing food production and productivity, improving the quality of rural life and sustaining the environment
  4. 4. Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users Situation Agriculture, therefore, has become a knowledgeintensive and highly sophisticated industry or business. The availability of new agricultural technologies and best-fit practices does not guarantee their application by farmers and end users due to several economic and socio-cultural challenges.
  5. 5. Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users Situation Moreover, farmers and end users have their own local indigenous knowledge, skills and experiences that are lagging behind, especially among poor farmers.
  6. 6. Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users Agricultural extension systems Agricultural extension systems, as organizational arrangements to link agricultural research and educational institutions with farmers, producers and end users. Bridge this lag, through integrating these two different types of knowledge, skills and experiences.
  7. 7. Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users Agricultural extension systems These systems could be considered as tools or approaches, used by the Governments of all countries to achieve the goals and objectives of agricultural development through making research and science reach farmers and end users.
  8. 8. Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users Agricultural extension definition continuous process includes complementary, namely: two main components and Communication component: Transfer information , knowledge, techniques and modern agricultural practices to farmers and endusers. Educational component: Help farmers and end-users to understand and correct application, at the appropriate time.
  9. 9. Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users The concept of agricultural extension Transfer of research results , ,scientific solutions of , , Transfer of research results scientific solutions of farmers problems farmers problems Research centers and institutions of agricultural education Agricultural extension Farmers / producers / endusers Transfer farmers' problems and the applying research from Transfer farmers' problems and the applying research from
  10. 10. Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users Investment in Agricultural extension Investment in extension efforts, programs and projects is essential and considered a high priority due to the following considerations: 1- The majority of farmers and end users are lagging behind the ever-advancing new practices and technologies. Consequently, we need agricultural extension to help them to deal with latest scientific and technological advancements in agriculture.
  11. 11. Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users Investment in Agricultural extension 2- New practices and technologies significantly increase the production and productivity of crops. Agricultural extension, help farmers and end users to understand and early apply these new practices and technologies.
  12. 12. Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users Investment in Agricultural extension 3- Most of the agricultural production units (farms) are relatively small, dispersed and lack organization and supporting services. These units need extension support to cope with the ever-changing surrounding environments.
  13. 13. Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users Investment in Agricultural extension 4- Most of the labor force in agriculture has relatively low levels (in terms of education, information, knowledge, training and experience). They need extension assistance to compensate their deprivation of the basic new agricultural knowledge and experiences.
  14. 14. Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users The Agricultural Extension Systems: Non-formal Education (NFE): prevailed in the early days of guidance, in Europe and North America, to teach and train individuals rural people who are unable to attend formal education programs . Technology Transfer: prevailed during the 1970s & 1980s , implementation of the Training and Visit System (T & V) in many countries in the continents of Africa and Asia.
  15. 15. Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users The Agricultural Extension Systems: Advisory Services: through the Ministry of Agriculture, and the private sector. Guidance facilitation Extension: It is a development of the participatory extension methods that have been used during the last two or three decades.
  16. 16. Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users All of these systems are helping to achieve the following goals : Achieving national food security. (Transferring New Agricultural Technologies) Improving the living standards of rural people . (Increasing Farm Income) Improving the management of natural resources (Training Farmers to Use Sustainable Natural Resource Management Practices.)
  17. 17. Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users The responsibility of extension workers, as change agents To improve farmers' and end users' behavior through the following seven sequential roles: 1.Developing the need for change among their target groups / clients. 2. Establishing an information exchange relationship. 3. Diagnosing the problem.
  18. 18. Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users The responsibility of extension workers, as change agents 4.Creating an intent to change in the client. 5. Translating the intent into action. 6. Stabilizing the new behavior (the adoption of the recommended technology). 7. Achieving a terminal relationship with clients.
  19. 19. Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users Actions that enable access research and science to farmers and end users Several policy, organizational and institutional arrangements are needed to facilitate and activate the processes, efforts and programs of making research and sciences reach farmers and end users. Among the most important of these arrangements are the following:
  20. 20. Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users Actions that enable access research and science to farmers and end users 1.Establishing and activating Public Private Partnerships links and partnerships among basic actors and service providers. 2.Establishing knowledge sharing and exchange mechanisms among researchers, extension workers and farmers. 3. Activating horizontal diffusion of technology through Farmer-To-Farmer extension, and using the power of powerful of local community leaders.
  21. 21. Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users Actions that enable access research and science to farmers and end users 4.Establishing local platforms for a more pluralistic extension systems and approaches that coordinate and integrate extension efforts of the government, private sector and civil society. 5. Use successful dissemination of modern knowledge and technology to farmers and end users needs effective EWs. Yet, many countries lack sufficient numbers of EWs.
  22. 22. Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users Actions that enable access research and science to farmers and end users 6.Increasing the numbers of extension workers /farmers so as not to increase the number of farmers and endusers in the circle of government action guide (1 EW/ 500 farms). 7.The private sector is increasingly, providing extension services. This role needs to be integrated with both governmental and CSOs' arrangements.
  23. 23. Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users Actions that enable access research and science to farmers and end users 8.Decentralization of some extension services could help in decreasing the loads of the central government through delegating some of the central level authorities and responsibilities to lower administrative levels. This mechanism needs empowering of the local / grass root levels of extension personnel through effective training .
  24. 24. Making Research and Science Reach Farmers and End Users Thank you for your attention

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