Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

East Africa Perspectives on the Book: Agricultural Extension - Global Status and Performance in Selected Countries

327 views

Published on

Kristin Davis, Guush Berhane, Catherine Mthinda, Ephraim Nkonya
WEBINAR
East Africa Perspectives on the Book: Agricultural Extension – Global Status and Performance in Selected Countries
OCT 28, 2020 - 03:30 PM TO 05:00 PM SAST

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

East Africa Perspectives on the Book: Agricultural Extension - Global Status and Performance in Selected Countries

  1. 1. Virt ual Event East Africa Perspectives on the Book: Agricultural Extension Global Status and Performance in Selected Countries October 28, 2020 03:30 PM – 05:00 PM SAST
  2. 2. Agricultural Extension: Global Status and Performance in Selected Countries Dr. Kristin Davis Development Strategy and Governance Division International Food Policy Research Institute East Africa Perspectives on the Book | 28 Oct 2020 Overview
  3. 3. Why? Extension’s role in rural transformation Drivers or Characteristics Extension Performance Outcomes and Impact Frame Conditions 2
  4. 4. Why? What’s special about this book? 3 gaps 1. Lack of common framework – no comparison 2. Global status update 3. Performance data linking different assessment levels using primary and secondary data 3
  5. 5. What? Contents  Global overview comparing extension at national and regional levels  Performance assessment, impact evaluation in selected countries  Lessons and policy insights 4
  6. 6. Findings: Governance  Increasingly pluralism  Public-sector roles  Lack of policies to guide extension governance Institutional affiliation of providers of agricultural advisory services in Uganda 9
  7. 7. Findings: Capacity  >1 million extension agents today  > half have a 2-3-year diploma or less  Little on-the-job training or continuing education Global share of agents by education level by type of organization (%) 10
  8. 8. Findings: Management  Agents carry a heavy work burden  Limited or no incentives, rewards Frontline workers’ time allocation during planting season in Malawi (%) 11
  9. 9. Findings: Advisory methods  Traditional approaches (demonstrations, group meetings) continue  Market-oriented, digital approaches rapidly increasing Agricultural extension service methodologies in Argentina, Chile, and Colombia (%) 12
  10. 10.  Coverage – Brazil  Adoption – Ethiopia  Access – Malawi Findings: Performance of selected countries Households in Malawi receiving agriculture or nutrition advice from any source (%) 5
  11. 11.  Increased coverage for women and youth  Increased number and proportion of women field staff Findings: Performance – access to services Access to extension services by gender and age group in Malawi (%) 6
  12. 12. Conclusions  Extension policy is the base to build on  Innovative financing is required  Pluralism implies need for coordination  Capacities needed for producers to identify and prioritize needs  Upskilling for extension staff  M&E is critical  Digital technology holds promise
  13. 13. In remembrance of Burt Swanson and Ephraim Chirwa • Thanks to Gary Alex, Sonia Maria Pessoa Pereira Bergamasco, Ricardo Serra Borsatto, Carolina Rios Thomson Ephraim Nkonya, Nana Afranaa Kwapon, Edward Kato, Patience Rwamigisa, Bernard Bashaasha, Margaret Najjingo Mangheni, Guush Berhane, Gashaw Tadesse Abate, Thomas Woldu Assefa, John M. Ulimwengu, Catherine Mthinda, Andrea Bohn, Burton Swanson, John Preissing, Sergio Ardila, Francisco Aguirre, Julián Buitrón, Mahika Shishodia, Sam Oeurn Ke, Pham Hoang Ngan 7
  14. 14. Agricultural Extension in Ethiopia: Guush Berhane*, Catherine Ragasa*, Gashaw T. Abate*, Thomas W. Assefa** *International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) **University of Georgia (UGA) Agriculture Extension: Global Status and Performance in Selected Countries Virtual Book Launch | October 28, 2020 Progress, challenges, and Impact
  15. 15. Presentation outline  Policy and context  Progress; Challenges; Impacts  Three key messages
  16. 16. Ethiopia’s extension system: policy and context  Ethiopia: among few countries in Africa that heavily invested on agriculture (ADLI, PASDEP, GTPs).  Agriculture extension received significant attention - boosting crop productivity. … design was on advisory and training services; … practice on input delivery & adoption.  Registered two decades of sustained growth attributable to growth in agriculture.
  17. 17. Ethiopia: One of largest farmer-extension agent ratio  More than 65,000 DAs, (one DA per 476 (or, 21 DAs per 10,000) farmers)  More than 15,000 FTCs (one in each kebele), 7,000 SMS (woreda), 4,000 Supervisors (regional offices)  Figures in 2016/2017 show a higher ratio of 43 development agents per 10,000 farmers 21 16 6 4 3 2 0 5 10 15 20 25 Ethiopia China Indonesia Tanzania Nigeria India Source: Davis et al. (2010)
  18. 18. Substantial progress: Coverage - number of holders, area, … - 2,000,000 4,000,000 6,000,000 8,000,000 10,000,000 12,000,000 2004/05 2005/06 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 2010/11 2012/13 2013/14 advisory (number of holders) Holders (under ext-pkg) Hectares (under ext-pkg) ≅ 11 million holders had access to services (about 80% of farmers) by 2014; ≅ 4 million ha under the “extension package” ≅ Package was not well spelled out. Source: CSA (2014)
  19. 19. Substantial progress: fertilizer adoption & intensification Source: CSA (2018)
  20. 20.  Challenges: quantity than quality, weak linkages with R&D  Operates within a complex & inflexible public bureaucratic structures – limited innovation.  DAs are overburdened, under resourced, and at receiving end of gov’t bureaucracy! … work with poorly resourced FTCs (farmer training centers).  Functions in a widely dispersed geography, heterogenous livelihoods; but services remain overly standardized and inflexible.  Weak linkages with research and innovation centers
  21. 21. Overburdened DA : A typical work week for DA in Ethiopia
  22. 22. Technology/practices % of DAs promoted the technology during 2015/16 Was the topic (technology) requested by farmers? (%, 1=Yes) Land preparation 98.6 57.0 Seed selection 97.0 60.0 Row planting 98.0 53.0 Fertilizer application 98.2 57.4 Crop management 97.2 58.4 Post-harvest handling 96.0 57.4 Natural resource conservation 96.4 49.2 Climate smart practices 85.2 53.3 Market linkages 75.5 57.7 Overly standardized services: Technologies promoted not necessarily demand driven Source: Digital Green DA Survey (2016).
  23. 23. Impacts: Technology adoption, productivity increases  Data: AGP data 2011 & 2013  Access to extension system significantly increases adoption of modern inputs.  Extension services do not directly increase the level of productivity.  Use of modern inputs—including fertilizers, improved seeds, and irrigation contributes to productivity increases.
  24. 24. Three key messages  Overburdened DAs, under resourced FTCs, overly standardized services, and limited innovations are key challenges to be tackled going forward.  Empirical results: productivity increases in Ethiopia are not knowledge-driven and that achieving additional productivity increases will be difficult without investing in knowledge-based extension services.  Going forward, given resource constraints, important choices ahead between quality and quantity of services provided – continue to widely but thinly spreading resources, or focus on improving quality.
  25. 25. Thank you! guush.berhane@cgiar.org
  26. 26. Performance of Extension System in Malawi and Way Forward Catherine Mthinda, Catherine Ragasa East Africa Perspectives on the Book | October 28, 2020
  27. 27. This presentation briefly covers: • Policy context • Sources of data • Findings – positive trends and areas for improvement • Some issues on supply side and demand side of service provision • Some take away messages 27
  28. 28. Policy context • National Extension Policy (2001) – with emphasis on pluralistic, demand- driven, and inclusive extension services • Implementing a decentralized district agriculture extension service system (DAESS) • Supported by a number of donor supported programs such as: • Agriculture Sector Wide Approach (ASWAp), which is a multi-donor trust fund; • USAID funded five year project – Strengthening Agricultural and Nutrition Extension (SANE), • European Union funded five-year KULIMA o Many international NGO projects with a component on extension services • Farm Input Subsidy Programme (FISP) – heavy focus on fertilizer subsidy, with little budget for extension services, • National Agricultural Policy (2016-2020), extension is a major part • National Agriculture Investment Plan (2018-2023), extension is a major part 28
  29. 29. Sources of data • IFPRI/Flanders’ monitoring of agricultural extension services project: o Nationally representative panel household and community surveys (3000 HH) (2016, 2018) o Census and monitoring of 121 state and non-state extension service providers in 15 districts (2017) o 531 lead farmers interviewed in randomly-sampled communities (2017) o In-depth interviews with 30 service providers and 71 extension workers (2017) o 55 Focus group discussions (dots on map) (2017, 2019) • USAID – SANE’s census of decentralized district agric extension service system’s structures in 10 USAID/Feed the Future project districts 29
  30. 30. Findings: Positive trends High coverage of extension services, comparable to Ethiopia and much higher than Uganda Improvements in access to extension services for both women and men (and both youth and non-youth) Consistently high subjective ratings from farmers on the usefulness of extension services More diversity in extension messages  more information regarding markets, climate change and nutrition Greater use of cost-effective tools radio and community/group approaches Greater crop diversification  away from maize or tobacco, more into legumes (although the rate of change is slow) 30
  31. 31. % of Households receiving agriculture advice 76 39 53 39 48 32 9 25 77 48 58 48 58 35 8 5 16 0 20 40 60 80 100 %ofsamplehouseholds a. In the last 2 years 2016 2018 53 21 31 21 25 14 2 11 54 27 34 27 36 17 1 1 5 0 20 40 60 80 100 b. In the last 12 months 2016 2018 Collected only in 2018Collected only in 2018 31
  32. 32. 47 41 28 15 14 11 10 7 7 5 4 4 4 2 2 2 0 20 1 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 %ofsamplehouseholds 2016 2018 Collected only in 2018 Access to extension services by method/approach 32
  33. 33. Improving gender parity in access to extension services 57 57 68 76 60 59 71 78 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Young women Old women Young men Old men %ofindividualrespondentsbygroup a. Access to agricultural advice in last 2 years 2016 2018 34 34 44 55 38 35 47 57 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Young women Old women Young men Old men %ofindividualrespondentsbygroup b. Access to agricultural advice in last 12 months 2016 2018 33
  34. 34. Findings: National trends revealing areas for improvements • Extension services led to greater technology awareness • But, this did not translate to great adoption of technologies • Adoption of most management practices remains very low • Large gap between technology awareness and adoption • Farm productivity and commercialization remain low 34
  35. 35. Large gap between awareness and adoption (2018) 49 59 82 70 46 79 50 66 32 12 6 6 82 41 8 49 6 14 6 1 0 20 40 60 80 100 %ofhouseholds Awareness Adoption 35
  36. 36. Decreasing productivity in major crops 1343 1854 1052 2851 892 996 2456 847 909 1227 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 kg/ha Yield (kg/ha), rainy season 2016 2018 Decreasing productivity in major crops 36
  37. 37. Level of commercialization for major food crops not improving 7 28 9 37 28 16 19 37 78 92 66 5 30 4 26 21 6 18 38 63 90 91 0 20 40 60 80 100%ofproduction Rainy season, 2016 and 2018 comparison 2016 2018 37
  38. 38. Supply side 38
  39. 39. Supply side of extension service provision (2017) • Growing pluralism of extension service provision (121 various organizations working in 15 districts) • In a typical district, there are about 13 service providers on average (but ranges from 6 in Chiradzulu to 25 in Balaka and 35 in Lilongwe) 1 5 31 31 11 6 11 6 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Government (DADO) Trusts and semi- government (ADMARC, Forestry Dept., ARET, community devpt. office) International NGO Local NGO or community programs Church based organization Farmer-based organization (NASFAM, FUM, etc) Private company (Dumisani, Toleza, FINCA, NBS Bank) Media (community radio stations, Farm Radio Trust, etc) Percent(%) 39
  40. 40. Human capacity Very difficult to get reliable data, but some patterns emerge: • 1:1 ratio of govt. technical staff to non-govt. technical staff (aggregate) • 2:1 ratio of govt. frontline workers to non-govt. field officers (aggregate) • All non-government service providers work with govt. extension agents • Farmer to extension agent ratio is similar or better than in many countries in SSA, but worse than that of Ethiopia and Kenya • Gender balance, is good but can be further improved • Most staff do not have yearly trainings, an area for improvement. 40
  41. 41. Demand side 41
  42. 42. Demand-side approaches need to be strengthened Farmers reported high ratings on the usefulness of extension services . . . but the percentage of farmers requesting or demanding information was very low and decreased over time from 12% in 2016 to 4% in 2018 While radio coverage is wide, only a few households are a member of listening clubs or ICT hubs (2%) or have used call-in services (1%) at national level Greater community awareness and sensitization of these demand-side services will be crucial so that more people can benefit from them. Capacity of these ICT-based demand-side mechanisms needs to be strengthened 42
  43. 43. Takeaway messages 1. GO BEYOND INPUT METRICS  BOLD PERFORMANCE TARGET 2. INVEST IN IMPLEMENTATION AND COORDINATION CAPACITY & INCENTIVE TOWARDS THAT TARGET . . . OFTEN, IT IS NOT THE DELIVERY TOOL OR APPROACH THAT IS THE PROBLEM, BUT THE CAPACITY TO IMPLEMENT AND SCALE THEM UP EFFECTIVELY 3. FOCUS ON PRIORITY VALUE CHAINS (PUBLIC, PRIVATE, NGOS WORKING TOGETHER ON SET TARGETS FOR THESE VALUE CHAINS) 43
  44. 44. Takeaway messages 5. INTENSIFY CAPACITY STRENGTHENING AT GRASSROOT ORGANIZATIONS LEVEL 6. ICT METHODS SHOULD BE PART OF THE PACKAGE OF DIVERSE EXTENSION APPROACHES 4. IMPROVE CONTENT AND QUALITY OF EXTENSION MESSAGING TO INDUCE BEHAVIORAL CHANGE AMONG FARMERS TOWARDS ADOPTION (FARM DEMO) 44
  45. 45. 45
  46. 46. Uganda Agricultural Advisory Services Performance and Challenges Nkonya E.a, N.A. Kwapongb, E. Katoa, P. Rwamigisac, B. Bashaashad, and M. Manghenid a International Food Policy Research Institute b University of Ghana c Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industries and Fisheries, Uganda d Makerere University, Uganda East Africa Perspectives on the Book | October 28, 2020
  47. 47. Outline  What does this study contribute to literature and Advisory service policies and development strategies?  Lessons learnt from Uganda Agricultural Advisory services changes, performance & challenges over the last 100 years  Research approach and data  Results  Conclusions and policy implications
  48. 48. Importance of study to literature & policy and development strategy dialogue  Contribution to: oLiterature: Use of data collected from extension and advisory services to analyze the effectiveness of traditional and new advisory services oPolicy and development strategies: New insight lessons on the effectiveness of traditional and new advisory services over the last 100 years  Uganda currently at initial stages of implementing new reforms. So do other countries in SSA. oResults of the study will help to provide empirical evidence to design better policies and strategies.
  49. 49. Century-long policy and development strategies & lessons learnt Period Agricultural extension approach Lessons 1920-56 Focus on export crop, forceful enforcement of technology adoption & regulations (kiboko) Forcing farmers to adopt ineffective and unsustainable 1956-63 Use of progressive farmers – given advisory services & input credit to serve as examples Other farmers perceived progressive farmers as privileged and out of touch 1964-71 Provision of advisory services on non-export start, targeting smallholder farmers Coordinated provision of advisory key to success 1971-80 No clear policy and strategy Disorganization led to undoing progress made after independence 1981-91 Recovery – MAAIF formed, training and better links with research Coordination is key to effectiveness 1992-98 Design institutional reforms, decentralization Train & Visit, low capacity at local level 1998- 2009 Implementation of institution reforms pluralistic & demand-driven approach effective, but works if there strong local capacity & coordinated national policy & strategy 2009-19 Pluralistic agricultural extension service delivery system Coordination key to success: Single Spine Agricultural Extension System” (SSES) formed
  50. 50. Research approach & data Use both: o household survey LSMS-ISA 2016-17 o Nationally representative o Agric. Extension providers – 2007-08 o 208 extension agents interviewed. Institutional affiliation:
  51. 51. Topics promoted by Institutional affiliation Topics promoted Government NAADS NGO Percent reporting Improved seed varieties 85.3 81.5 61.5 Agro chemicals 65.4 62.9 61.5 Herbicides 28.2 44.4 19.2 Plant protection techniques 20.5 16.7 19.2 Organic fertilizer 15.4 20.4 11.5 Chemical fertilizers 10.0 11.1 7.7 Agroforestry 8.3 11.1 0.0 Soil conservation technologies 0.6 1.9 7.7
  52. 52. Type of messages received – as reported by farmers (LSMS survey)
  53. 53. Rural service performance across zones
  54. 54. Drivers of effectiveness of provision of advisory services Variable % of farmers served % of female served Female agent NS 5.50** Level of education (cf certificate) - Diploma NS NS - Bachelor degree -8.12*** NS - Post-graduate degree -9.75** NS Institutional affiliation (cf Government) - NAADS NS 6.40*** - NGO 4.33* 6.23* Performance of rural services (cf Poor) - Medium performance -4.93** NS - Best performance -5.90** NAADS x female agent NS -6.29* NGO x female agent 21.98*** 7.63*
  55. 55. Policy implications  There is strong relationship between effectiveness and institutional affiliation – underscoring the importance of pluralistic extension services  Female AEA are few but more effective in reaching women and poor farmers than male AEA, especially when serving under NAADS or NGOs o need to increase number of female AEA, especially in remote areas, where poverty is concentrated  AEA capacity to provide advisory on non-production technologies, oTraining of agricultural extension agents serving under the Single Spine Agricultural Extension System is required to increase AEA knowledge on SLM, marketing and postharvest knowledge
  56. 56. Thank you very much for your attention For more information, Visit: IFPRI Malawi website- massp.ifpri.info Twitter- @IFPRIMalawi IFPRI Ethiopia website- essp.ifpri.info Twitter- @IFPRI_ESSP

×