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COMMON DISEASES OF ORAL CAVITY
Submitted by
ALBIN T THOTTANKARA
M.PHARM , SECOND SEM
DEPT. OF PHARMACEUTICS
Common diseases of oral cavity
Tooth decay
Periodental disease
Thrush
Trench mouth
Dry mouth
Hepatic gingivastomatitis
Mumps
Mouth ulcer
Tooth erosion
Stain teeth
Cavities
Hyperdontia- Extra teeth
Malocclusion
Contents
TOOTH DECAY (DENTAL CARRIES)
Tooth decay, also known as dental caries or cavities, is a breakdown of teeth due to acids made by bacteria.
The cavities may be a number of different colors from yellow to black. The most common bacteria associated
with dental cavities are the mutans streptococci, most prominently Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus
sobrinus, and lactobacilli.
ETIOLOGY
• Accumulation of food particles.
• Accumulation of bacteria in gelatinous mass. Called as
“plague”.
• Anacrobic fermentation of sugar in saliva.
• Release of lactic acid.
• Breakdown of minerals present in enamel.
• Affect internal compound – dentin, pulp tissue.
PRECAUTIONS
• Low sugar containing diet.
• Low fluoride.
• Proper brushing
PERIODENTAL DISEASE
Periodental disease is a serious gum infection that damage the soft tissue and destroys the
bone that support the teeth. Periodental disease can cause teeth to loosen or lead to tooth loss.
It is a common disorder but largely preventable. It is caused by porphyromonas straptococus ,
Actinomyces
TYPES
The two most common periodental disease diseases are:
• Gingivitis
• Periodontitis
• Gingivitis
Most children have signs of some inflammation of the
gingival tissue at the necks of the teeth; among adults, the
initial stage of gum disease is prevalent. This condition is
termed gingivitis and is characterised by redness of the gum
margins, swelling and bleeding on brushing.
• Periodontitis
When periodontal disease affects the bone and supporting
tissue, it is termed periodontitis and is characterised by the
formation of pockets or spaces between the tooth and gums.
This may progress and cause chronic periodontal
destruction leading to loosening or loss of teeth.
SYMPTOMS
•Signs and symptoms of periodontitis can include:
• Swollen or puffy gums
• Bright red, dusky red or purplish gums
• Gums that feel tender when touched
• Gums that bleed easily
• Gums that pull away from your teeth (recede), making your teeth look longer than normal
• New spaces developing between your teeth
• Painful chewing
DRUGS
• Tetracyclin
• Deoxycyclin
• Macrolite
Prevention
• Proper hygiene of teeth
• Brushing properly on a regular basis
• Regular dental check-ups and professional
teeth cleaning as required.
TRENCH MOUTH
• It is a severe guminfectioncaused by a buildup of bacteria.
• It is caused by Prevatella Intermedia, Fusobacterium Species,
Treponema vicentri.
• It is generally occur in HIV infected patient.
• It is severe periodentis.
CAUSES
• Poor dental hygiene
• Poor nutrition
• Smoking
• Stress
• Infection of mouth,teeth or throat.
• HIV and AIDS
• diabetes
SYMPTOMS
• Bad breath or bad taste in the
mouth.
• Bleeding in responseto irritationor
pressure.
• Ulcers in the mouth
• Fatigue
• Fever
• Grayish film on the gums.
red, swollen, or
• Gums that are
bleeding.
• Pain in the gums.
TREATMENT
• Antibiotics to stop the infection from
spreading further. Examples-
amoxicillin, clindamycin, deoxycyclin.
• Pain relievers
• Professional cleaning from a dental
hygienist.
• Proper ongoing oral hygiene.
THRUSH
The immune system and the body's normal bacteria usually keep Candida in balance. When this balance is
interrupted, it can result in an overgrowth of the Candida fungus, causing thrush, a yeast infection of the
mouth or throat. It is caused by Candida Ablicans.
PREVENTION
• Brushing regularly.
• Cleaning denture.
• Attending dental appointment regularly.
• Keeping diabetes under control.
• Rinsing the mouth after corticosteroid.
• Stopping smoking.
TREATMENT
• Fluconazol, Clotrimazol lozenge, Itraconazole which
are oral antifungal drug.
• Nystatin, which is a antifungal mouthwash.
• Amphotericin B, which is a drug used to treat severe infection.
DRY MOUTH
• It cause due to the decrease secretion of saliva.
• Dry mouth is often due to the side effect of certain medications or aging
issues or as a result of radiation therapy for cancer.
SYMPTOMS
• Dryness or a feeling of stickiness in your mouth
• Saliva that seems thick and stringy
• Bad breath
• Difficulty chewing, speaking and swallowing
• Dry or sore throat and hoarseness
• Dry or grooved tongue
• A changed sense of taste
CAUSES
• Medications
• Aging
• Cancer therapy
• Nerve damage
• Other health conditions
• Tobacco and alcohol use
HEPATIC GINGIVASTOMATITIS
• It is a viral infection of the oral mucous membrane caused by herpes simplex
virus- I(HSV-I).
• Usually HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE I (HSV-1), and rarely TYPE II (HSV-2).
SYMPTOMS
• High fever
• Anorexia
• Irritability
• Sore mouth lesions
• Not able to chew or swallow
• General discomfort,
uneasiness, or ill feeling
• Halitosis (bad breath)
TREATMENT
• Treatment includes fluid
intake
• Good oral hygiene
• Gentle debridement of the
mouth
• Drugs used are- Acyclovir,
famcicyclovir, valacyclovir
MUMPS
• Mumps is a contagious disease caused by a virus that passes from one person to another
through saliva, nasal secretions, and close personal contact.
• The condition primarily affects the salivary glands, also called the parotid glands. These
glands are responsible for producing saliva. There are three sets of salivary glands on each
side of your face, located behind and below your ears.
• It is a communicable disease, mode of transmission is
contaminated saliva and respiratory droplet.
• The mumps virus is an enveloped single-stranded, linear
negative-sense RNA virus of the Rubulavirus genus and
Paramyxovirus family.
SYMPTOMS
• Fatigue weakness
• Body aches
• Headache
• Loss of appetite
• Low-grade fever
• Muscle pain
• painful swelling of usually both and
sometimes only one parotid salivary
glands.
PREVENTION
• The most common preventative measure
against mumps is a vaccination with a mumps
vaccine
• The vaccine may be given separately or as part
of the MMR immunization vaccine that also
protects against measles and rubella
MOUTH ULCER
Mouth ulcers — also known as canker sores — are normally small, painful
lesions that develop in mouth or at the base of your gums.
There are three types of canker sores: minor, major,
and herpetiform.
• Minor
Minor canker sores are small oval or round ulcers that
heal within one to two weeks with no scarring.
• Major
Major canker sores are larger and deeper than minor
ones. They have irregular edges and can take up to six weeks
to heal. Major mouth ulcers can result in long-term scarring.
• Herpetiform
Herpetiform canker sores are pinpoint size,occur in
clusters of 10 to 100, and often affect adults. This type of mouth
ulcer has irregular edges and will often heal without scarring
within one to two weeks.
CAUSES
injury, or
• Minor mouth injury from dental work, hardbrushing, sports
accidental bite
• Lack of essential vitamins, especially B-12, zinc, folate, and iron
• Allergic response to mouth bacteria
• Dental braces
• Hormonal changes during menstruation
• Emotional stress or lack of sleep
• Bacterial, viral, or fungal infections
TREATMENT
• Using a rinse of saltwater and baking soda
• Placing milk of magnesia on the mouth ulcer
• Covering mouth ulcers with baking soda paste
• Usingover-the-counter benzocaine (topical anesthetic) products like orajel or anbesol
• Applying ice to canker sores
• Using a mouth rinse that contains a steroid to reduce pain and swelling
• Placing damp tea bags on your mouth ulcer
• Taking nutritional supplements like folic acid, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and zinc
• Trying natural remedies such as chamomile tea, echinacea, myrrh, and licorice root
TOOTH EROSION
• It is defined as the irreversible loss of tooth structure due to
chemical dissolution by acids not of bacterial origin.
• The most common cause of erosion is by acidic foods and drinks.
In general, foods and drinks with a pH below 5.0–5.7 have been
known to trigger dental erosion effects.
CAUSES
• Accumulation of food particles.
• Accumulation of bacteria in gelatinous mass. Called
as “plague”.
• Anacrobic fermentation of sugar in saliva.
• Release of lactic acid.
• Sessation occurs due to erosion of teeth by
lactic acid.
STAIN TEETH
Teeth can become discolored by stains on the surface or by changes
inside the tooth. There are three main types of tooth discoloration:
• Extrinsic
This occurs when the outer layer of the tooth (the enamel) is stained.
Coffee, tobacco, wine, cola or other drinks or foods can stain teeth.
Smoking also causes extrinsic stains.
• Intrinsic
This is when the inner structure of the tooth (the dentin) darkens or
gets a yellow tint.
• Age-related
This is a combination of extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Dentin
naturally yellows over time. The enamel that covers the teeth gets
thinner with age, which allows the dentin to show through. Foods
and smoking also can stain teeth as people get older.
CAVITIES
• A cavity, also called tooth decay, is a hole that forms in
your tooth. Cavities start small and gradually become
bigger when they’re left untreated.
SYMPTOMS OF TOOTH CAVITIES
• Tooth sensitivity
• Tooth pain
• A visible hole in your teeth
• Black or white staining on your teeth
CAUSES OF TOOTH CAVITIES
TREATMENT
• Tooth fillings
• Crowns
• Root canal
• Early stage treatment
• Dealing with pain
• Tooth cavities are caused by plaque, a sticky substance that binds to teeth.
Plaque is a combination of:
• bacteria
• saliva
• acid
• food particles
COMPLICATIONS FROM TOOTH CAVITIES
A tooth cavity can cause a variety of complications if it’s
left untreated. These include:
• Ongoing tooth pain
• The development of pus around the infected tooth
• An increased risk for breaking or chipping a tooth
• Difficulty chewing food
HYPERDONTIA- EXTRA TEETH
Hyperdontia is the condition of having supernumerary teeth, or
teeth that appear in addition to the regular number of teeth. They
can appear in any area of the dental arch and can affect any dental
organ.
TYPES
• Supernumerary teeth can be classified by shape and by position.
The shapes include the following:
• Supplemental (where the tooth has a normal shape for the teeth in
that series);
• Tuberculate (also called barrel shaped);
• Conical (also called peg shaped);
• Compound odontoma (multiple small tooth-like
forms);
• Complex odontoma (a disorganized mass of dental tissue)
CAUSES
• Genetic factor
• Environmental factor
• Overactivity of the dental lamina during tooth development
TRETAMENT
It is important to detect, evaluate, and treat supernumerary teeth as soon as possible since the additional
teeth will present both cosmetic and functional problems for the affected individual. As a majority of
supernumerary teeth cause clinical problems, treatment generally consists of removal of the teeth when
possible.
MALOCCLUSION
A malocclusion is a misalignment or incorrect relation
between the teeth of the two dental arches when they
approach each other as the jaws close.
CAUSES
• Malocclusion is often present at birth and can
manifest as space between the teeth, irregular jaw or
mouth size, or even a cleft palate.
• It can also be acquired from habits such as thumb
sucking, tongue thrusting, premature loss of teeth
from an accident or dental disease, or medical
conditions such as enlarged tonsils and adenoids that
lead to mouth breathing.
TREATMENT
Devices
✔ Dentures, Braces, and Clear aligners
Preventative
✔ Hygiene
Personal cleanliness that promotes health and well-being. For example, washing hands before eating.
Surgery
✔ Orthognathic surgery and Maxillomandibular advancement
Specialists
✔ Dentist
Specialises in diseases of the oral cavity, especially the teeth.
REFERENCE
• https://www.nidcr.nih.gov/health-info/gum-disease/more-info
• www.healthline.com/health/thrush#causes
• www.emedicinehealth.com/oral_thrush/article_em.htm
• www.medical.theclinics.com/article/S0025-7125(14)00132-1
• Systemic Disease Manifestations in the Oral Cavity Geraldine N. Urse, DO, FACOFP
Doctors Hospital Family Practice, Grove City, Ohio
• Touyz, SW, Liew VP, Tseng P. Oral and dental complications in dieting disorders.
Int J Eat Disord. 1993 Nov;14(3):341-7

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ALBIN TT oralcavity.pptx.pdf

  • 1. COMMON DISEASES OF ORAL CAVITY Submitted by ALBIN T THOTTANKARA M.PHARM , SECOND SEM DEPT. OF PHARMACEUTICS
  • 2. Common diseases of oral cavity Tooth decay Periodental disease Thrush Trench mouth Dry mouth Hepatic gingivastomatitis Mumps Mouth ulcer Tooth erosion Stain teeth Cavities Hyperdontia- Extra teeth Malocclusion Contents
  • 3. TOOTH DECAY (DENTAL CARRIES) Tooth decay, also known as dental caries or cavities, is a breakdown of teeth due to acids made by bacteria. The cavities may be a number of different colors from yellow to black. The most common bacteria associated with dental cavities are the mutans streptococci, most prominently Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, and lactobacilli. ETIOLOGY • Accumulation of food particles. • Accumulation of bacteria in gelatinous mass. Called as “plague”. • Anacrobic fermentation of sugar in saliva. • Release of lactic acid. • Breakdown of minerals present in enamel. • Affect internal compound – dentin, pulp tissue. PRECAUTIONS • Low sugar containing diet. • Low fluoride. • Proper brushing
  • 4. PERIODENTAL DISEASE Periodental disease is a serious gum infection that damage the soft tissue and destroys the bone that support the teeth. Periodental disease can cause teeth to loosen or lead to tooth loss. It is a common disorder but largely preventable. It is caused by porphyromonas straptococus , Actinomyces TYPES The two most common periodental disease diseases are: • Gingivitis • Periodontitis
  • 5. • Gingivitis Most children have signs of some inflammation of the gingival tissue at the necks of the teeth; among adults, the initial stage of gum disease is prevalent. This condition is termed gingivitis and is characterised by redness of the gum margins, swelling and bleeding on brushing. • Periodontitis When periodontal disease affects the bone and supporting tissue, it is termed periodontitis and is characterised by the formation of pockets or spaces between the tooth and gums. This may progress and cause chronic periodontal destruction leading to loosening or loss of teeth.
  • 6. SYMPTOMS •Signs and symptoms of periodontitis can include: • Swollen or puffy gums • Bright red, dusky red or purplish gums • Gums that feel tender when touched • Gums that bleed easily • Gums that pull away from your teeth (recede), making your teeth look longer than normal • New spaces developing between your teeth • Painful chewing DRUGS • Tetracyclin • Deoxycyclin • Macrolite Prevention • Proper hygiene of teeth • Brushing properly on a regular basis • Regular dental check-ups and professional teeth cleaning as required.
  • 7. TRENCH MOUTH • It is a severe guminfectioncaused by a buildup of bacteria. • It is caused by Prevatella Intermedia, Fusobacterium Species, Treponema vicentri. • It is generally occur in HIV infected patient. • It is severe periodentis. CAUSES • Poor dental hygiene • Poor nutrition • Smoking • Stress • Infection of mouth,teeth or throat. • HIV and AIDS • diabetes
  • 8. SYMPTOMS • Bad breath or bad taste in the mouth. • Bleeding in responseto irritationor pressure. • Ulcers in the mouth • Fatigue • Fever • Grayish film on the gums. red, swollen, or • Gums that are bleeding. • Pain in the gums. TREATMENT • Antibiotics to stop the infection from spreading further. Examples- amoxicillin, clindamycin, deoxycyclin. • Pain relievers • Professional cleaning from a dental hygienist. • Proper ongoing oral hygiene.
  • 9. THRUSH The immune system and the body's normal bacteria usually keep Candida in balance. When this balance is interrupted, it can result in an overgrowth of the Candida fungus, causing thrush, a yeast infection of the mouth or throat. It is caused by Candida Ablicans. PREVENTION • Brushing regularly. • Cleaning denture. • Attending dental appointment regularly. • Keeping diabetes under control. • Rinsing the mouth after corticosteroid. • Stopping smoking. TREATMENT • Fluconazol, Clotrimazol lozenge, Itraconazole which are oral antifungal drug. • Nystatin, which is a antifungal mouthwash. • Amphotericin B, which is a drug used to treat severe infection.
  • 10. DRY MOUTH • It cause due to the decrease secretion of saliva. • Dry mouth is often due to the side effect of certain medications or aging issues or as a result of radiation therapy for cancer. SYMPTOMS • Dryness or a feeling of stickiness in your mouth • Saliva that seems thick and stringy • Bad breath • Difficulty chewing, speaking and swallowing • Dry or sore throat and hoarseness • Dry or grooved tongue • A changed sense of taste CAUSES • Medications • Aging • Cancer therapy • Nerve damage • Other health conditions • Tobacco and alcohol use
  • 11. HEPATIC GINGIVASTOMATITIS • It is a viral infection of the oral mucous membrane caused by herpes simplex virus- I(HSV-I). • Usually HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE I (HSV-1), and rarely TYPE II (HSV-2). SYMPTOMS • High fever • Anorexia • Irritability • Sore mouth lesions • Not able to chew or swallow • General discomfort, uneasiness, or ill feeling • Halitosis (bad breath) TREATMENT • Treatment includes fluid intake • Good oral hygiene • Gentle debridement of the mouth • Drugs used are- Acyclovir, famcicyclovir, valacyclovir
  • 12. MUMPS • Mumps is a contagious disease caused by a virus that passes from one person to another through saliva, nasal secretions, and close personal contact. • The condition primarily affects the salivary glands, also called the parotid glands. These glands are responsible for producing saliva. There are three sets of salivary glands on each side of your face, located behind and below your ears. • It is a communicable disease, mode of transmission is contaminated saliva and respiratory droplet. • The mumps virus is an enveloped single-stranded, linear negative-sense RNA virus of the Rubulavirus genus and Paramyxovirus family.
  • 13. SYMPTOMS • Fatigue weakness • Body aches • Headache • Loss of appetite • Low-grade fever • Muscle pain • painful swelling of usually both and sometimes only one parotid salivary glands. PREVENTION • The most common preventative measure against mumps is a vaccination with a mumps vaccine • The vaccine may be given separately or as part of the MMR immunization vaccine that also protects against measles and rubella
  • 14. MOUTH ULCER Mouth ulcers — also known as canker sores — are normally small, painful lesions that develop in mouth or at the base of your gums. There are three types of canker sores: minor, major, and herpetiform. • Minor Minor canker sores are small oval or round ulcers that heal within one to two weeks with no scarring. • Major Major canker sores are larger and deeper than minor ones. They have irregular edges and can take up to six weeks to heal. Major mouth ulcers can result in long-term scarring. • Herpetiform Herpetiform canker sores are pinpoint size,occur in clusters of 10 to 100, and often affect adults. This type of mouth ulcer has irregular edges and will often heal without scarring within one to two weeks.
  • 15. CAUSES injury, or • Minor mouth injury from dental work, hardbrushing, sports accidental bite • Lack of essential vitamins, especially B-12, zinc, folate, and iron • Allergic response to mouth bacteria • Dental braces • Hormonal changes during menstruation • Emotional stress or lack of sleep • Bacterial, viral, or fungal infections
  • 16. TREATMENT • Using a rinse of saltwater and baking soda • Placing milk of magnesia on the mouth ulcer • Covering mouth ulcers with baking soda paste • Usingover-the-counter benzocaine (topical anesthetic) products like orajel or anbesol • Applying ice to canker sores • Using a mouth rinse that contains a steroid to reduce pain and swelling • Placing damp tea bags on your mouth ulcer • Taking nutritional supplements like folic acid, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and zinc • Trying natural remedies such as chamomile tea, echinacea, myrrh, and licorice root
  • 17. TOOTH EROSION • It is defined as the irreversible loss of tooth structure due to chemical dissolution by acids not of bacterial origin. • The most common cause of erosion is by acidic foods and drinks. In general, foods and drinks with a pH below 5.0–5.7 have been known to trigger dental erosion effects. CAUSES • Accumulation of food particles. • Accumulation of bacteria in gelatinous mass. Called as “plague”. • Anacrobic fermentation of sugar in saliva. • Release of lactic acid. • Sessation occurs due to erosion of teeth by lactic acid.
  • 18. STAIN TEETH Teeth can become discolored by stains on the surface or by changes inside the tooth. There are three main types of tooth discoloration: • Extrinsic This occurs when the outer layer of the tooth (the enamel) is stained. Coffee, tobacco, wine, cola or other drinks or foods can stain teeth. Smoking also causes extrinsic stains. • Intrinsic This is when the inner structure of the tooth (the dentin) darkens or gets a yellow tint. • Age-related This is a combination of extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Dentin naturally yellows over time. The enamel that covers the teeth gets thinner with age, which allows the dentin to show through. Foods and smoking also can stain teeth as people get older.
  • 19. CAVITIES • A cavity, also called tooth decay, is a hole that forms in your tooth. Cavities start small and gradually become bigger when they’re left untreated. SYMPTOMS OF TOOTH CAVITIES • Tooth sensitivity • Tooth pain • A visible hole in your teeth • Black or white staining on your teeth
  • 20. CAUSES OF TOOTH CAVITIES TREATMENT • Tooth fillings • Crowns • Root canal • Early stage treatment • Dealing with pain • Tooth cavities are caused by plaque, a sticky substance that binds to teeth. Plaque is a combination of: • bacteria • saliva • acid • food particles COMPLICATIONS FROM TOOTH CAVITIES A tooth cavity can cause a variety of complications if it’s left untreated. These include: • Ongoing tooth pain • The development of pus around the infected tooth • An increased risk for breaking or chipping a tooth • Difficulty chewing food
  • 21. HYPERDONTIA- EXTRA TEETH Hyperdontia is the condition of having supernumerary teeth, or teeth that appear in addition to the regular number of teeth. They can appear in any area of the dental arch and can affect any dental organ. TYPES • Supernumerary teeth can be classified by shape and by position. The shapes include the following: • Supplemental (where the tooth has a normal shape for the teeth in that series); • Tuberculate (also called barrel shaped); • Conical (also called peg shaped); • Compound odontoma (multiple small tooth-like forms); • Complex odontoma (a disorganized mass of dental tissue)
  • 22. CAUSES • Genetic factor • Environmental factor • Overactivity of the dental lamina during tooth development TRETAMENT It is important to detect, evaluate, and treat supernumerary teeth as soon as possible since the additional teeth will present both cosmetic and functional problems for the affected individual. As a majority of supernumerary teeth cause clinical problems, treatment generally consists of removal of the teeth when possible.
  • 23. MALOCCLUSION A malocclusion is a misalignment or incorrect relation between the teeth of the two dental arches when they approach each other as the jaws close. CAUSES • Malocclusion is often present at birth and can manifest as space between the teeth, irregular jaw or mouth size, or even a cleft palate. • It can also be acquired from habits such as thumb sucking, tongue thrusting, premature loss of teeth from an accident or dental disease, or medical conditions such as enlarged tonsils and adenoids that lead to mouth breathing.
  • 24. TREATMENT Devices ✔ Dentures, Braces, and Clear aligners Preventative ✔ Hygiene Personal cleanliness that promotes health and well-being. For example, washing hands before eating. Surgery ✔ Orthognathic surgery and Maxillomandibular advancement Specialists ✔ Dentist Specialises in diseases of the oral cavity, especially the teeth.
  • 25. REFERENCE • https://www.nidcr.nih.gov/health-info/gum-disease/more-info • www.healthline.com/health/thrush#causes • www.emedicinehealth.com/oral_thrush/article_em.htm • www.medical.theclinics.com/article/S0025-7125(14)00132-1 • Systemic Disease Manifestations in the Oral Cavity Geraldine N. Urse, DO, FACOFP Doctors Hospital Family Practice, Grove City, Ohio • Touyz, SW, Liew VP, Tseng P. Oral and dental complications in dieting disorders. Int J Eat Disord. 1993 Nov;14(3):341-7