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Anumana
Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 1
Anumana
Introduction:
 Nyaya is also called as Anvikshiki. Anu is ‘by’ and Vikshiki is ‘Anumana’. The knowledge
that is achieved by Anumana is the basis of the Nyaya Shastra. Hence Anumana is of
importance in the Nyaya Shastra.
 Here Anumana Pramana is to get the knowledge of the substances or facts which are not
directly cognizable, through which the knower understands that these materialistic
substances are not true and will lead the person to Moksha.
 Except Charvak, all the systems of Indian philosophy hold that ‘Anumana’ is a distinct
means of knowledge.
 The word Anumana is generally translated as inference.
 The act of inferring (something unknown from the known data) is called inference.
 It is the result of the knowledge of the Linga (the characteristic mark) and the Lingi (the
possessor of this characteristic mark).
 The word Anumana is formed by two words Anu and Mana.
 Anu = Afterwards
 Mana = Knowledge/ cognition
 Altogether Anumana means ‘the knowledge gained afterwards’.
 अनु ऩश्चात भीमते ऻामते इतत अनुभानभ |
 Knowledge gained after Pratyaksha.
 Anumana in a general sense means the cognition coming into being after perception or
Paramarsha.
Definition of Anumana Pramana
अनुमभततकयणं अनुभानं।
 That which is instrumental in acquiring Anumiti is Anumana. Anumiti is that knowledge
which is based on inference.
 Anumiti- Sadhya and Anumana- Sadhana.
ऩयाभर्शजन्म ऻानं अनुमभतत। Ta.Sa.
 The knowledge gained by Paramarsha or analysis is called Anumiti. Paramarsh is
translated into English as subsumptive reflexion.
प्रत्मऺऩूर्वं त्रिवर्वधं त्रिकारं चानुभीमते | Ch.Su.11/21
 Anumana is itself said to be Pratyaksha Purvakam.
 Understanding of the Vyapti, Paksha, etc. is of importance here. Hence understanding of
the relation between them is responsible for Anumana.
Paramarsha:
 व्माप्ततवर्वमर्ष्ट ऩऺधभशताऻानं ऩयाभर्श्। Ta.sa.
 Paramarsha is the reason existing in the subject accompanied by invariable concomitance.
Anumana
Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 2
 E.g. there is smoke on the mountain, which is invariably pervaded by fire. This knowledge is
called Paramarsha.
 Now we infer that the mountain is fiery. This is called Anumiti. This is how we gain the
inferential knowledge.
Vyapti:
 मि मि धूभस्ति तिाप्नन इतत साहचमशतनमभो व्माप्तत्। Ta.Sa.
 Vyapti means the certainty of co-existence like wherever there is smoke there is fire.
 Whenever there is smoke there is fire. This co-existence or relation is called Vyapti.
 Likewise Shula- Vata
Paka/ Daha- Pitta
Shotha/Puya- Kapha
Roga- Nidana
 There will be Vyapti or special relation between Hetu and Sadhya.
 Always they either ‘exists together’ or ‘do not exist together’.
Example
Sadhya: There is fire on the mountain
Hetu: Because there is smoke.
Smoke & fire exist together or do not exist together. This relation is called Vyapti.
 Relation between
– Hetu and Sadhya,
– Linga and Lingi
– Dharma and Dharmi
– Vyapya and Vyapaka is called Vyapti.
 The two things related should either exists together or not exist together.
 Two related things are
Smoke Fire
Hetu Sadhya
Vyapya Vyapaka
Linga Lingi
Dharma Dharmi
 Vyapaka exists without Vyapya but Vyapya cannot exist without Vyapaka.
Vyapti
Sama
Vyapti
Equal
denotation
Vishama
Vyapti
Unequal
denotation
Anumana
Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 3
1. Sama Vyapti:
 When two things related by vyapti have equal denotation, it is called Sama vyapti.
E.g. ‘Human being is an intelligent being’.
‘An intelligent being is the Human being’.
‘Human being’ and ‘intelligence’ are related to each other and ‘always exists together’.
2. Vishama Vyapti:
 When two things are related by Vyapti which have unequal denotation, it is called as
Vishama Vyapti.
E.g. wherever there is smoke there is fire.
This relation is Vishama vyapti because smoke has less denotation and fire has
more denotation. Smoke cannot exist without fire but fire can exist without smoke.
Anumana Lakshana:
 प्रत्मऺऩूर्वं त्रिवर्वधं त्रिकारं चानुभीमते| Ch.Su.11
Ayurveda gives a definition which is more practical, specific and applicable in diagnosis.
Hence it states that Anumana is that which requires Pratyaksha before it and by which
the knowledge of the past, present and the future is known. By knowing the present the
knowledge about the past or future also can be achieved by Anumana.
 अनुभानं खरु तको मुक्तत्मऩेऺ्|| Ch.Vi.4/4
Anumana or the inferential knowledge is based on reasoning.
E.g. we can guess or infer the ‘Agnibala’ of a patient by observing his digestive capacity.
We can infer the physical strength of a person by observing his capacity to do exercise.
Anuman is always dependant on Pratyaksha Pramana. One cannot infer any
knowledge without Pratyaksha.
 प्रत्मऺऩूर्वं त्रिवर्वधं त्रिकारं चानुभीमते|
र्वप्ननतनशगूढो धूभेन भैथुनं गबशदर्शनात ्||
एर्वं व्मर्वस्मन्त्मतीतं फीजात ्परभनागतभ ्|
दृष््र्वा फीजात ्परं जातमभहैर्व सदृर्ं फुधा्|| Ch.Su.11/21-22
 अनु ऩश्चादव्ममबचारयमरङ्गाप्लरङ्गी भीमते ऻामते मेन तदनुभानं - Dalhana
 Inference is preceded by perception.
 Types: three
 It is related to the present, past as well as the future.
 For example, fire is inferred from the smoke and sexual intercourse from pregnancy.
These two belong to the inference of the present and the past respectively. Similarly one
can infer the forthcoming fruition of a tree from the seed on the basis of the frequent
observation about the production of fruits from seeds through Pratyaksha.
Types of Anumana:
A. According to Chakrapani
Anumana
Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 4
1. Atita Kalika Anumana: कामाशत कायणानुभान ( पर - फीज) inferring the past knowledge by
looking at something in the present is Atita kalika Anuman.
E.g. By looking pregnancy inferring intercourse in the past.
By smell of wet mud inferring the rain.
Vyadhi- Nidana sevana
2. Anagata Kalika Anumana: कायणात कामाशनुभान (भेघ - र्वर्ाश) inferring the knowledge of future
by looking at something in the present is Anagata kalika Anuman.
E.g. looking at seed, inferring the forthcoming fruit
Looking at pregnancy- inferring the forthcoming baby.
Nidana sevana- inferring future Vyadhi
3. Vartamana Kalila Anumana: साभान्मतो दर्शनादनुभान ( धूभ - अप्नन) inferring some other
knowledge by looking at something. Both happen at the same time, while one of them is
perceived through the sensory organs and the other is inferred.
E.g. Inferring fire through the visible smoke.
B. According to Charakopaskar:
1. Purvavat Anuman: Karana Karya
 Also called Bhavishyakalika Anumana.
 To infer the effect which is produced in future by observing the cause is called Purvavat
Anumana.
Examples:
a) By seeing seed, the forthcoming fruit is inferred.
b) The forthcoming rain is inferred by seeing the dark clouds.
2. Sheshavat Anuman: Karya Karana
 Also called Atitakalika Anumana.
 Where cause is inferred by effect is called Sheshavat Anuman.
Examples:
a) By seeing pregnancy, inferring intercourse in the past.
b) Inference the seed through fruit.
c) Inference the heavy rain through flood.
3. Samanyatodrishta Anuman:
 Inference of object other than the cause and effect by general observation is called
Samanyatodrishta. It is related to inference of present time.
Example: Inference of Kapha through Puya Srava.
चरकोपस्कार चक्रपाणि कालानुसार उदाहरि
ऩूर्वशर्वत अनुभान कायणात कामाशनुभान अनागत भेघ - र्वर्ाश
र्ेर्र्वत अनुभान कामाशत कायणानुभान अतीत पर - फीज
साभान्मतो द्रष्ट साभान्मतो दर्शनादनुभान र्वतशभान धूभ - अप्नन
Anumana
Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 5
C. Types according to Nyaya Darshana:
3 types:
1. Purvavat
2. Sheshavat
3. Samanyatodrishta
1. Purvavat Anumana
 Purva = earlier/ in the past
 Vat = equal/ same
 Purvavat = as it is happened earlier
 Nyaya accepts ‘Karya karana theory’. According to that Karana exists first and Karya
comes afterwards.
 Knowledge is gained by relationships of certain causes and effects.
 Based on experience, later on when we see Karana, we infer the forthcoming Karya.
 Inferring the effect by seeing the cause is called Purvavat.
 E.g. Dark clouds- Rain
Eating large quantity of food- indigestion
Eating mud- Pandu
Nidana sevan- Roga
2. Sheshavat Anumana
 Shesha = later on
 If we are inferring the Karana (cause) by seeing the Karya (effect).
 E.g. Sandhivata- Vata Prakopa (cause)
Shleepada- Kapha Prakopa (cause)
 Shesha = remaining. Some scholars consider this meaning and call this as ‘Parishesha
Anumana’.
 E.g. Haritaki - Alavana it means it contains other five rasa.
3. Samanyatodrishta Anumana
 The first two types of Anumana are based on the Karya Karana relation. In our day to
day life we see some events happening regularly. The knowledge gained in such a way is
called Samanyatodrishta.
 e.g. Existence of God- by seeing creation
Moon in different position - movement of moon.
Comparison
Charaka Nyaya Darshana
Anagata kalika Purvavat
Atita kalika Sheshavat
Vartamana kalika Samnyatodrishta
D. Types according to other scholars:
1. Swarthanumana (स्र्वाथाशनुभान)
Anumana
Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 6
 Analysis of inference for one’s own self is called Swarthaanumana.
 Simple one and doesn’t need the five components to gain the inferential knowledge.
 E.g. when a person finds a smoke on a mountain, he remembers that where there is
smoke there is fire and comes to a conclusion that there is fire on this mountain also.
2. Pararthanumana (ऩयाथाशनुभान)
 It is based upon Swarthanumana in the sense that a man can not convince & demonstrate
another if he is not convinced. After getting the knowledge of the subject one explain to
other with the help of Panchavayava Vakya.
 It is the analysis of inference for others.
 It requires five components or Avayava.
1) The mountain is fiery (Pratigya).
2) Because of smoke (Hetu).
3) Wherever there is smoke there is fire (Udaharana) as in kitchen.
4) There is smoke on mountain (Upanaya).
5) Therefore, the mountain is fiery (Nigamana).
Panch Avayava:
 To gain the knowledge through Anumana Pramana, Panch Avayava or five components
are required.
 They are:
प्रततऻाहेतूदाहयणोऩनमतनगभनातन ऩञ्चार्वमर्वा्। Ta.Sa.
1. Pratigya (proposition/Hypothesis):
 Setting down the proposition. E.g. this mountain is fiery.
प्रततऻा नाभ साध्मर्वचनं- Ch.Vi.8/30
 The statement to be proved.
2. Hetu (Reason):
 Giving a reason to support the statement. E.g. existence of Smoke.
हेतुनाशभोऩरप्धधकायणं - Ch.Vi.8/33
 Hetu is the reason of the knowledge.
 Hetu (reason) is the cause of knowledge such as Pratyaksa (perception), Anumana
(inference), Aitihya and Aupamya. What is revealed by these reasons (sources) is
reality.
3. Udaharana (Example):
 Giving an example. E.g. wherever there is smoke there is fire as in the kitchen.
दृष्टान्तो नाभ मि भूखशवर्वदुर्ां फुविसाम्मं - Ch.Vi.8/34
 Drishtanta (example) is that which arouses understanding in the fools and the learned
similar.
4. Upanaya (convincing or Assertion):
 Applying the knowledge of example in the present context.
Anumana
Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 7
 Applying the comparison of example in the present Sadhya.
 E.g. mountain is also smoky.
5. Nigamana (Conclusion): Drawing a conclusion. E.g. As there is smoke on the mountain,
the mountain is fiery.
Another example:
1) Pratigya: ‘Atma is eternal’
2) Hetu: ‘Because of not being created’
3) Drishtanta: ‘As sky’
4) Upanaya: ‘As the sky is uncreated and is eternal so is soul’
5) Nigamana: ‘Therefore, soul is eternal.’
According to some scholars five components are not required for inferential knowledge.
Only three Avayava can do the complete process of gaining the knowledge. They are Pratigya,
Hetu and Vyapti. There is no difference between Pratigya and Nigamana; and Udaharana and
Upanaya- come under Vyapti.
Hetu:
 Synonym: Linga, Sadhana, Dharma
 साध्मसाधनं हेतु्। Ta.Sa.
 Hetu is one through which Sadhya is established.
हेतुनाशभोऩरप्धधकायणं Ch.Vi.8
 It is presenting the reasoning to prove the Pratijna.
 Must be true and unconditional.
 The apparent character by which the Sadhya is proved of subject is called Hetu, as the
things can be proved only by reason and Anumiti based on it.
 Sadhya is defined as one that is established by Hetu. Also called as Dharmi, Lingi.
Types of Hetu:
 Anvaya = affirmative statement
 Vyatireka = negative statement
 The correlation between Hetu and Sadhya is called Anvaya, which means wherever Hetu
exists Sadhya also exists there.
Hetu
Anvaya -Vyatireki Kevalanvayi Keval Vyatireki
Anumana
Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 8
 Contrary to this negative correlation is that, if Sadhya is absent, Hetu is also absent.
 Anvaya exists in Sapaksha whereas Vyatireka exists in Vipaksha.
1. Anvaya Vyatireki:
 These are the conditions where we can get both positive and negative Hetu. The positive
Linga is the invariable concomitance of the Hetu with Sadhya. The negative Hetu is
invariable absence of Hetu wherever Sadhya is absent.
Examples:
1)
a) Pratijna: there is fire on the mountain
b) Hetu: smoke on mountain
c) Udaharana: wherever there is smoke there is fire (+ve) kitchen; wherever there is
no fire there is no smoke like in lake(-ve).
d) Upanaya: there is smoke on mountain.
e) Nigamana: so, the mountain is fiery.
2)
a) Pratigya: the plant kingdom is chetana.
b) Hetu: Indriyatvat
c) Udaharana:
Wherever Indriya are present, consciousness always present (+ve/ Anvaya) like
human.
Wherever consciousness is absent, Indriya are also absent (-ve/Vyatireki) like
table.
d) Upanaya: There is Indriya in plant kingdom
e) Nigamana: So, plant kingdom is Chetana.
2. Kevalanvayi:
 If only positive correlation exists and negative correlation is absent then it is known
as Kevalanvayi Vyapti.
 Negative or contrary statement is not possible in this.
E.g.
a) Pratigya: This Patient is treatable.
b) Hetu: because it is namable like Prameha.
c) Udaharana: If there is Jwara (name) there is treatable (+ve), but it cannot be said
that there is no treatability if there is no name (-ve).
d) Upanaya: He is also suffering from Prameha (name).
e) Nigmana: So, patient is treatable.
So, here only positive correlation exists and there is no negative correlation.
3. Kevala Vyatireki:
 If only negative correlation exists and positive correlation is absent then it is known
as Kevala Vyatireki Vyapti.
 Positive correlation is not possible in this.
Anumana
Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 9
E.g.
a) Pratigya: this is the Himalayan range.
b) Hetu: Because it is highest peak.
c) Udaharana: if it is not Himalayan range it will not be the highest peak like
Vindhya which are not the highest.
d) Upanaya: this is the highest peak of all.
e) Nigmana: so, this is the Himalayan range.
So, here you can find only one thing of one type. So you cannot get an example with
positive Hetu. Only negative correlation can be taken as example.
Drishtanta/ Udaharan/ Example:
 Whenever we propose some statement we need to give an example to support or to prove
the statement.
 दृष्टान्तो नाभ मि भूखशवर्वदुर्ां फुविसाम्मं, मो र्वर्ण्मं र्वणशमतत | मथा- अप्ननरुष्ण्, द्रर्वभुदक
ं , प्स्थया ऩृथथर्वी,
आददत्म् प्रकार्क इतत; मथा आददत्म् प्रकार्कस्तथा साङ््मऻानं प्रकार्कमभतत || Ch.Vi.8/34
2 types:
1. Bhavatmaka: this is one type of example where both Sadhya and Hetu exist together.
E.g. fire and smoke exists together on kitchen.
2. Abhavatmaka: another type where both Sadhya and Hetu together do not exist.
E.g. there is no smoke in the lake, so there is no fire in the lake.
Tarka (false assumption):
 Tarka word used to denote the knowledge gained by logic or philosophic analysis.
 But in Indian philosophy, especially in Nyaya Philosophy, the word ‘Tarka’ is used to
represent ‘Aprama’ or ‘Ayathartha gyana’.
 व्मातमायोऩेण व्माऩकायोऩ् तक
श ्। Ta.Sa.
 It is defined as the deduction of a more extensive thing by less extensive one.
E.g. if there is no fire there would be no smoke.
 Normally Sadhya is established with the help of Hetu. But in case of Tarka it is just
opposite - trying to establish Hetu with the help of Sadhya.
 To establish one’s Pratigya, there are two methods as mentioned below;
1. Give positive examples and establish the Pratigya.
2. Support this statement by showing the weak points of the opponent’s statement.
E.g. as there is smoke there must be fire- this is true Anumana.
There must be some fire otherwise why will there be any smoke- this is ‘Tarka’.
Tarka generally help in contradicting the views of opponents but will not help in
establishing the truth of one’s own statement.
Importance of Anumana:
 In Ayurveda, again Anumana is given utmost importance. Hence it is said that
‘Pratyaksham hi Alpam’ as those which are not cognizable are many or in larger number
hence by Anumana the hidden true knowledge is also achieved.
Anumana
Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 10
 Things which are cognized by Pratyaksha are very few compared to those which cannot
be understood by Pratyaksha.
 Anumana Pramana is needed to be described after Pratyaksha as all things cannot be
proved by Pratyaksha.
 Examples:
1) If a person has nausea (Purvarupa of Chhardi) which is known by Pratyaksha, Vaidya
can infer the forthcoming Chhardi. Thus enabling the Vaidya to treat the condition and
avoid the manifestation of the disease, Chhardi.
2) If a patient complains of itching sensation in throat, Vaidya can infer the upcoming
Kasa Vyadhi.
Utility of Anumana:
 Anumana plays an important role in both Nidana and Chikitsa.
 Many of the required objects cannot be perceived through the sensory organs in both
these fields. So, physician has to rely only upon Anumana to perceive the imperceptibles.
1. कभशमबस्त्र्वनुभीमन्ते नानाद्रव्माश्रमा गुणा् || Su.Su.46
Guna cannot be seen in Dravya but are to be inferred by seeing their effect on the body.
2. Vaidya cannot do Rasanendriya Pariksha, so he has to do it only through Anumana.
3. If many ants are seen at the urine of the patient, one can conclude that the Pt. is suffering
from Madhumeha.
4. To find out whether the blood coming out of a patient suffering from Raktapitta is pure or
impure, Anumana is applicable.
a) Food mixed with blood, if dogs/ crows eat that, the blood is pure, if doesn’t eat, blood is
impure.
b) Cloth is coated with blood; wash it with warm water; If stain remains- impure; if doesn’t
remain- pure blood.
5. मथा- प्रनष्टे र्लमे चन्दनघृतोऩददनधामां त्र्वथच वर्वर्ोर्णवर्वरमनाभ्माभनुभीमते- अि र्लममभतत|
Dalhana
Hidden Shalya is inferred
If applied Chandan on skin- dried up
Or applied Ghrita on skin- liquefied
6. दोर्ादीनां त्र्वसभताभनुभानेन रऺमेत ्|
अप्रसन्नेप्न्द्रमं र्वीक्ष्म ऩुरुर्ं क
ु र्रो मबर्क् || Su. Su.15
By observing the abnormal functioning of the sense organs in the patient, the wise
physician should infer the disequilibrium of Doshadi.
7. एक
ै काथधकमुक्ततातन खादीनामभप्न्द्रमाणण तु |
ऩञ्च कभाशनुभेमातन मेभ्मो फुवि् प्रर्वतशते || Ch.Sha.1/24
Every Indriya are made up of Panch mahabhuta. Dominance of one Mahabhuta in each
Indriya is inferred through their Vishaya Grahana Pravrutti.
Shalya is present
Anumana
Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 11
8. ति अनुभानगम्मानां ऩञ्चभहाबूतवर्वकायसभुदामात्भकानाभवऩ सतामभप्न्द्रमाणां तेजश्चऺुवर्, खं श्रोिे,
घ्राणे क्षऺतत्, आऩो यसने, स्ऩर्शनेऽतनरो वर्वर्ेर्ेणोऩऩद्मते | Ch.Su.8/14
Though all Indriya are made up of combination of five Mahabhuta, but one Mahabhuta
is dominant in every Indriya.
Indriya Dominance of Mahabhuta
Chakshu Teja
Shrotra Akasha
Ghrana Pruthvi
Rasan Apa
Sparsh Vayu
9. Anumanagamya Bhava (Ch.Vi.4/8):
 अप्ननं जयणर्क्तत्मा ऩयीऺेत
 फरं व्मामाभर्क्तत्मा
 श्रोिादीतन र्धदाद्मथशग्रहणेन
 भनोऽथाशव्ममबचयणेन
 वर्वऻानं व्मर्वसामेन
 यज्सङ्गेन
 भोहभवर्वऻानेन
 क्रोधभमबद्रोहेण
 र्ोक
ं दैन्मेन
 हर्शभाभोदेन
 प्रीततं तोर्ेण
 बमं वर्वर्ादेन
 धैमशभवर्वर्ादेन
 र्वीमशभुत्थानेन
 अर्वस्थानभवर्वभ्रभेण
 श्रिाभमबप्रामेण
 भेधां ग्रहणेन
 सञ्ऻां नाभग्रहणेन
 स्भृततं स्भयणेन
 दिमभऩिऩेण
 र्ीरभनुर्ीरेन
 द्र्वेर्ं प्रततर्ेधेन
Anumana
Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 12
 उऩथधभनुफन्धेन
 धृततभरौलमेन
 र्वश्मतां वर्वधेमतमा
 र्वमोबप्क्ततसात्म्मव्माथधसभुत्थानातन कारदेर्ोऩर्मर्वेदनावर्वर्ेर्ेण
 गूढमरङ्गं व्माथधभुऩर्मानुऩर्माभ्मां
 दोर्प्रभाणवर्वर्ेर्भऩचायवर्वर्ेर्ेण
 आमुर्् ऺमभरयष्टै्
 उऩप्स्थतश्रेमस्त्र्वं कलमाणामबतनर्वेर्ेन
 अभरं सत्त्र्वभवर्वकायेण
 ग्रहर्ण्मास्तु भृदुदारुणत्र्वं स्र्वतनदर्शनभमबप्रामं द्वर्वष्टेष्टसुखदु्खातन चातुयऩरयप्रश्नेनैर्व वर्वद्माददतत ||
Hetu Parikshya Bhava
Digestive capacity Agnibala
Exercise capacity Strength
Receiving Artha (object) Indriya health
Deeds and interest Mental status
Apprehensions Fear
Arishta Nearing death
Upashaya- Anupashaya Disease complex
Proper reaction Knowledge of a thing
Attachment with objects Rajo Guna
Lack of knowledge/ understanding Moha
Revenging attitude Krodha
Sorrowful disposition Shoka
cheerfulness Harsha
Joy and satisfaction Preeti
Strength of Mana even in difficult
time
Dhairya
Initiation of performing difficult
activities
Veerya
Avoidance of any mistakes Avasthana (stability of mind)
Request Shraddha
Grasping of books Medha
Recollection of names, objects etc. Sangya
Power of remembrance Memory
Habitual intake of things Sheela (liking)
Shyness Modesty (hriyam)
Prohibiting, forbidding Dwesha
Non-fickleness, firmness Dhriti
Obedience with orders Vashyata
Measurement of provocative factors Dosha Pramana
Anumana
Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 13
Having done useful works Approaching prosperity
Absence of its impairments Amala Sattva (Disease free
mind)
Vaya Kala (stage of life)
Bhakti Habitat (desha)
Satmya Upashaya
Vyadhi Samutthana Vedana (characteristic features)
Hetu:
1. Yathartha/ Real/ Sad hetu:
 It helps in establishing the Sadhya.
 Reason is the base of inference.
 If reason is faultless the inference will be true.
 If Hetu is not real/ sat, the knowledge achieved through Anuman is not also real.
 Actually the incorrect reason is not the reason at all and it shadows only to be the reason.
So, it is called Hetwabhasa/ fallacy.
 Five Qualities of real/ Sad Hetu:
a) ऩऺे सत्र्वभ ्
b) सऩऺे सत्र्वभ ्
c) वर्वऩऺे व्मार्वृतत्र्वभ ्
d) असत्प्रततऩऺत्र्वभ ्
e) अफाथधत वर्वर्मत्र्वभ ्
a) ऩऺे सत्र्वभ ्
 Where the existence of Sadhya is to be proved is doubtful is called the Paksha.
 E.g. mountain
 Fire is suspected on the mountain. This doubt is removed by proper reason which is
smoke.
 So, smoke is given as Hetu for the Paksha which is mountain.
b) सऩऺे सत्र्वभ ्
 Where Sadhya is undoubtedly present is Sapaksha.
 For the reason of smoke, kitchen is given as Sapaksha.
 Smoke is always present in the kitchen.
c) वर्वऩऺे व्मार्वृतत्र्वभ ्
Hetu
Yathartha Ayathartha
Anumana
Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 14
 Where the Sadhya is undoubtedly absent.
 E.g. lake for smoke (Hetu)
 Smoke is always absent in the lake.
 So, here Hetu (smoke) is always absent in Vipaksha (lake).
d) असत्प्रततऩऺत्र्वभ ्
 In the inferential knowledge, if one Hetu proves the existence of Sadhya in Paksha, at the
same time another Hetu should not contradict it. If Sadhya is contradicted with another
Hetu it is called Satpratipaksha.
 If one Hetu proves the existence of Sadhya and other Hetu at the same time should not
prove the absence of Sadhya.
 E.g. Ghrita is Shamana drug for Pitta because it is Ushna as Maricha.
Ghrita is Shamana drug for Pitta because it is Sheeta as milk.
If only one Hetu exists that proves Sadhya Asatpratipaksha.
If both Hetu exist (one prove Sadhya & another Hetu disprove Sadhya) – Satpratipaksha.
e) अफाथधत वर्वर्मत्र्वभ ्
 The inferential knowledge should not be contradicted by other Pramana like Pratyaksha.
 E.g. The fire is cool, being a substance as water.
Paksha- fire
Sadhya- coolness
 Here, it is disapproved by perception, as the fire is hot in touch.
Hetwabhasa/ Asad hetu:
 हेतुर्वद् आबासन्ते इतत हेत्र्वबास्।
 It is made up of two words: Hetu and Abhasa.
 Hetwabhasa means it seems Hetu. It looks like Hetu, but not in real. It is also called
Ahetu.
Hetwabhasa
Savyabhichara
Sadharana
Asadharana
Anupasamhari
Viruddha Satpratipaksha Asiddha
Ashraya
Asiddha
Swarupa
Asidhha
Vyapyatva
Asiddha
Badhita
Anumana
Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 15
1. Savyabhichara Hetwabhasa:
 To get the valid inferential knowledge always the Hetu and Sadhya should exist together
or do not exist together. If the Hetu exists without Sadhya, it is called Savyabhicahra.
 E.g. ‘This is a stone because it is hard’. Here Hetu ‘it is hard’ is not just related to stone.
‘Hardness’ exists in many other things.
Subtypes of Savyabhichara:
A. Sadharana
B. Asadharana
C. Anupasamhari
A. Sadharana Svyabhichara Hetwabhasa:
 If Hetu is available in more than one Paksha, means through this type of Hetu, we cannot
infer a single Sadhya, but more than one Sadhya are established is called Sadhrana
Savyabhichara.
 As already said that Hetu should exist in Paksha and Sapaksha only. But here the Hetu
exist on Vipaksha also where the Sadhya is absent. Hence, it is called Sadharana
Savyabhichara Hetwabhasa.
Example:
1) Ramesh is affected by Jwara because he has Agnimandya.
In above statement,
Ramesh = Paksha
Jvara = Sadhya
Agnimandya = Hetu
 In the above statement Jvara is Sadhya and Agnimandya is Hetu. But Hetu Agnimandya
is not only available Jvara but it also seems present in Ajirna, Udara roga etc.
2) ‘This is Amalaki, because it is Sheeta (Virya)’. Sheeta virya is present in Amalaki but
it is also available in other drugs like Yashti, Chandan etc.
 So, it is called Sadharana Svyabhichara Hetwabhasa.
B. Asadharana Svyabhichara Hetwabhasa:
 If the Hetu is absent both in Sapaksha & Vipaksha and available only in Paksha, is called
Asadharana Savyabhichara Hetwabhasa.
 For an example,
1) This patient has Vata Vyadhi because his limbs are black colored. Black colored
limbs exist neither in Sapaksha nor in Vipaksha. It exists in Paksha (patient) only.
2) Shabda is Nitya. Because of Shabdatva.
Shabda = Paksha, Nitya = Sadhya, Shabdatva = Hetu.
Shabdatva hetu is not found in other Nitya Dravya like Atma etc (Sapaksha) and it is not
found Anitya Dravya (Vipaksha). It is found only in Shabda (Paksha).
C. Anupasamhari Savyabhichara Hetwabhasa:
 Hetu without positive example or negative example is Anupasamhari Savyabhichara
Hetwabhasa.
 Like- Everything is non-eternal, because of Prameyatvat.
Anumana
Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 16
 Here, Paksha is everything. So, neither positive nor negative example is available.
 Everything is Panchbhautika, Karyadrvyatvat.
 Here, Paksha is everything. So, neither positive nor negative example is available.
2. Viruddha Hetvabhasa:
 Any real or Sadhetu should establish Sadhya positively. Contrarily, if a Hetu establishes
the negative aspect of Sadhya, it is called as Viruddha hetvabhasa.
 E.g.
Pratigya- Sound is eternal
Hetu- Because it (sound) is produced.
Here, the Hetu producibilty is not related to eternal but to non-eternal things.
Pratigya- Ghee is Pitta Shamaka.
Hetu- Because it is Ushna virya.
 In this statement, Ushna Virya Hetu cannot alleviate Pitta. But it increase Pitta.
3. Satpratipaksha Hetvabhasa:
 In the inferential knowledge, if one Hetu proves the existence of Sadhya on Paksha, at
the same time another Hetu proves the absence of Sadhya in Paksha. If Sadhya is
contradicted with another Hetu it is called Satpratipaksha.
Examples:
1) Shabda is Nitya, Shravanatvat like Shabda.
Shabda is Anitya, because it is Karya like Ghata.
 Here, in this example, by Shravantva Hetu, Nityatva of Shabda is established. And
another Hetu Karyatva establishes Anityatva of Shabda.
2) Amalaki is Pitta Shamaka, due to its Sheeta virya like Chandan.
Amalaki is Pitta Vardhaka, due to its Ushna virya like Maricha.
 Here, in this example By Sheeta Virya Hetu, of Pitta Shamaka Karma of Amalaki is
established. And another Hetu Ushna Virya establishes Pitta Vardhaka action of
Amalaki.
4. Asiddha Hetvabhasa:
 Asiddha means non-existent
 If we take up an incorrect Hetu that has no existence, to establish Sadhya, it is called
‘Asiddha Hetvabhasa’.
 E.g. Shadow is Dravya because it is moving. In fact the movement is not connected to the
shadow but to the Dravya.
 3 types:
A. Ashraya Asiddha
B. Swarupa Asiddha
C. Vyapyatva Asiddha
A. Ashraya Asiddha:
 Asharaya means Paksha. Here, in this type Paksha is Asiddha means Paksha is
nonexistent (absent). And therefore existence of Hetu in Paksha does not exist.
Anumana
Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 17
 Here, one of the qualities of Sadhetu is absent (Pakshe Sattvam) hence it is Hetwabhasa.
Examples:
1. Sky lotus is fragrant because it is lotus like lotus in the lake.
In this example, sky lotus is Paksha. It does not exist in reality.
2. The boy has burning sensation in his third eye due to Pitta Vruddhi like in other organ
(abdomen etc.). Here third eye (Paksha) is absent.
B. Swarupa Asiddha:
 The Hetu which never exists in Paksha is Swarupa Asiddha Hetwabhasa.
 In Swarupa Asiddha hetu, existence on Paksha, the quality of Sadhetu is absent. So, it is
Hetwabhasa.
Examples:
1. Shabda is Guna, Chakshushatvat (it is perceived by Chakshurendriya), Rupavat (like
Rupa).
Here, in this example, Chakshushatva Hetu is not present in Shabda, because Shabda
cannot perceive by Chakshurendriya.
2. Lady has a problem to pass urine as she is suffered from BPH (benign prostatic
hypertrophy).
In this example, BPH (Hetu) is not possible to occur in lady patient (Paksha)
C. Vyapyatva Asiddha:
 The Hetu with limitation or Upadhi (condition) will not able to prove the true Anumana
as it is not actually Hetu but represents Hetwabhasa.
 A Hetu which is not always remain with Sadhya is called ‘Sopadhika Hetwabhasa’. This
kind of Hetu (with limitation/ Upadhi/ condition).
Example:
Suresh is affected by skin disease as he was consuming milk daily.
In this example,
Daily milk consumption is Hetu
Suresh is Paksha
Skin disease is Sadhya.
 Here it cannot be said that consuming milk daily causes manifestation of skin disease but
with condition (Upadhi) like consumption of milk with fruits (or fish) daily becomes able
to prove the existence Sadhya in Paksha.
 Suresh is affected by skin disease as he was consuming the milk with fruits (or fish) daily
becomes the complete sentence for Anumana.
5. Badhita Hetwabhasa:
 If the Sadhya established by Hetu is contradicted by another Pramana, it is called
Badhita Hetwabhasa.
Examples:
1) Ice will sink in water because it is solid.
 When we try to experience it through Pratyaksha Pramana, we see that ice is floating but
not sinking.
Anumana
Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 18
2) ‘Fire is cold because it is substance like water’.
 Here, Sadhya is coldness. But with Pratyaksha Pramana, we found its absence in fire
(Paksha). So it is Badhita Hetwabhsa.
 So, whatever is established by Anumana is contradicted by Pratyaksha in Badhita
Hetwabhasa.
Ahetu:
 Ahetu is described in Ch.Vi.8
 It is identical to Hetwabhasa described in Nyaya Darshana.
 3 types
A. Prakaranasama Ahetu
B. Sanshayasama Ahetu
C. Varnyasama Ahetu
A. Prakaranasama Ahetu:
 In present context Prakarana means Paksha.
 If the Paksha itself becomes a Hetu it is Prakaranasama Ahetu.
Example:
1. अन्म् र्यीयादात्भा तनत्म इतत; ऩयो ब्रूमात ्- मस्भादन्म् र्यीयादात्भा, तस्भाप्न्नत्म्; र्यीयं नमतनत्मभतो
वर्वधमभशणा चात्भना बवर्वतव्ममभत्मेर् चाहेतु्; नदह म एर्व ऩऺ् स एर्व हेतुरयतत |
 The soul is eternal because it is different from the body.
 Here, Atma is Paksha, Nitya is Sadhya.
 Different from body is Hetu. Body is Anitya (ephemeral) and the eternity of soul because
it is different from the body, it would naturally have opposite qualities and so the Paksha
& Hetu almost same.
2. कपात ्मबन्न र्वात् चरमभतत।
Vata is Chala because it is different from Kapha.
3. वऩत्तात ्मबन्न कप् र्ीतमभतत।
Kapha is Sheeta because it is different from Pitta.
B. Sanshayasama Ahetu:
 A doubtful reason itself used to solve the doubt is called Sanshayasama Ahetu.
Examples:
1) If somebody asks: ‘is that student wearing an apron able to provide me first aid treatment
for my injury? And the opponent replies ‘as he wears an apron he should be a medical
student and so he is able to provide you first aid treatment for your injury.’
2) ‘Can a person knowing one part of the medical science be considered as a physician’
Reply: ‘because he knows only a part of Ayurveda so he is a physician.’
C. Varnyasama Ahetu:
 Varnya means Sadhya
Anumana
Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 19
 Varnyasama Ahetu is that where Sadhya is doubtful even in Sapaksha (Drishanta) like
Paksha.
 When Sadhya is also doubtful in Drishtanta, it is called Varnyasama Ahetu.
 There is existence of Punarjanma, because there is death like Moksha.
 In this example, Drishtanta (Sapaksha) is Moksha, which is also doubtful. But it should
be unambiguous.

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Anuman- An inference for helpful in diagnosis and treatment

  • 1. Anumana Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 1 Anumana Introduction:  Nyaya is also called as Anvikshiki. Anu is ‘by’ and Vikshiki is ‘Anumana’. The knowledge that is achieved by Anumana is the basis of the Nyaya Shastra. Hence Anumana is of importance in the Nyaya Shastra.  Here Anumana Pramana is to get the knowledge of the substances or facts which are not directly cognizable, through which the knower understands that these materialistic substances are not true and will lead the person to Moksha.  Except Charvak, all the systems of Indian philosophy hold that ‘Anumana’ is a distinct means of knowledge.  The word Anumana is generally translated as inference.  The act of inferring (something unknown from the known data) is called inference.  It is the result of the knowledge of the Linga (the characteristic mark) and the Lingi (the possessor of this characteristic mark).  The word Anumana is formed by two words Anu and Mana.  Anu = Afterwards  Mana = Knowledge/ cognition  Altogether Anumana means ‘the knowledge gained afterwards’.  अनु ऩश्चात भीमते ऻामते इतत अनुभानभ |  Knowledge gained after Pratyaksha.  Anumana in a general sense means the cognition coming into being after perception or Paramarsha. Definition of Anumana Pramana अनुमभततकयणं अनुभानं।  That which is instrumental in acquiring Anumiti is Anumana. Anumiti is that knowledge which is based on inference.  Anumiti- Sadhya and Anumana- Sadhana. ऩयाभर्शजन्म ऻानं अनुमभतत। Ta.Sa.  The knowledge gained by Paramarsha or analysis is called Anumiti. Paramarsh is translated into English as subsumptive reflexion. प्रत्मऺऩूर्वं त्रिवर्वधं त्रिकारं चानुभीमते | Ch.Su.11/21  Anumana is itself said to be Pratyaksha Purvakam.  Understanding of the Vyapti, Paksha, etc. is of importance here. Hence understanding of the relation between them is responsible for Anumana. Paramarsha:  व्माप्ततवर्वमर्ष्ट ऩऺधभशताऻानं ऩयाभर्श्। Ta.sa.  Paramarsha is the reason existing in the subject accompanied by invariable concomitance.
  • 2. Anumana Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 2  E.g. there is smoke on the mountain, which is invariably pervaded by fire. This knowledge is called Paramarsha.  Now we infer that the mountain is fiery. This is called Anumiti. This is how we gain the inferential knowledge. Vyapti:  मि मि धूभस्ति तिाप्नन इतत साहचमशतनमभो व्माप्तत्। Ta.Sa.  Vyapti means the certainty of co-existence like wherever there is smoke there is fire.  Whenever there is smoke there is fire. This co-existence or relation is called Vyapti.  Likewise Shula- Vata Paka/ Daha- Pitta Shotha/Puya- Kapha Roga- Nidana  There will be Vyapti or special relation between Hetu and Sadhya.  Always they either ‘exists together’ or ‘do not exist together’. Example Sadhya: There is fire on the mountain Hetu: Because there is smoke. Smoke & fire exist together or do not exist together. This relation is called Vyapti.  Relation between – Hetu and Sadhya, – Linga and Lingi – Dharma and Dharmi – Vyapya and Vyapaka is called Vyapti.  The two things related should either exists together or not exist together.  Two related things are Smoke Fire Hetu Sadhya Vyapya Vyapaka Linga Lingi Dharma Dharmi  Vyapaka exists without Vyapya but Vyapya cannot exist without Vyapaka. Vyapti Sama Vyapti Equal denotation Vishama Vyapti Unequal denotation
  • 3. Anumana Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 3 1. Sama Vyapti:  When two things related by vyapti have equal denotation, it is called Sama vyapti. E.g. ‘Human being is an intelligent being’. ‘An intelligent being is the Human being’. ‘Human being’ and ‘intelligence’ are related to each other and ‘always exists together’. 2. Vishama Vyapti:  When two things are related by Vyapti which have unequal denotation, it is called as Vishama Vyapti. E.g. wherever there is smoke there is fire. This relation is Vishama vyapti because smoke has less denotation and fire has more denotation. Smoke cannot exist without fire but fire can exist without smoke. Anumana Lakshana:  प्रत्मऺऩूर्वं त्रिवर्वधं त्रिकारं चानुभीमते| Ch.Su.11 Ayurveda gives a definition which is more practical, specific and applicable in diagnosis. Hence it states that Anumana is that which requires Pratyaksha before it and by which the knowledge of the past, present and the future is known. By knowing the present the knowledge about the past or future also can be achieved by Anumana.  अनुभानं खरु तको मुक्तत्मऩेऺ्|| Ch.Vi.4/4 Anumana or the inferential knowledge is based on reasoning. E.g. we can guess or infer the ‘Agnibala’ of a patient by observing his digestive capacity. We can infer the physical strength of a person by observing his capacity to do exercise. Anuman is always dependant on Pratyaksha Pramana. One cannot infer any knowledge without Pratyaksha.  प्रत्मऺऩूर्वं त्रिवर्वधं त्रिकारं चानुभीमते| र्वप्ननतनशगूढो धूभेन भैथुनं गबशदर्शनात ्|| एर्वं व्मर्वस्मन्त्मतीतं फीजात ्परभनागतभ ्| दृष््र्वा फीजात ्परं जातमभहैर्व सदृर्ं फुधा्|| Ch.Su.11/21-22  अनु ऩश्चादव्ममबचारयमरङ्गाप्लरङ्गी भीमते ऻामते मेन तदनुभानं - Dalhana  Inference is preceded by perception.  Types: three  It is related to the present, past as well as the future.  For example, fire is inferred from the smoke and sexual intercourse from pregnancy. These two belong to the inference of the present and the past respectively. Similarly one can infer the forthcoming fruition of a tree from the seed on the basis of the frequent observation about the production of fruits from seeds through Pratyaksha. Types of Anumana: A. According to Chakrapani
  • 4. Anumana Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 4 1. Atita Kalika Anumana: कामाशत कायणानुभान ( पर - फीज) inferring the past knowledge by looking at something in the present is Atita kalika Anuman. E.g. By looking pregnancy inferring intercourse in the past. By smell of wet mud inferring the rain. Vyadhi- Nidana sevana 2. Anagata Kalika Anumana: कायणात कामाशनुभान (भेघ - र्वर्ाश) inferring the knowledge of future by looking at something in the present is Anagata kalika Anuman. E.g. looking at seed, inferring the forthcoming fruit Looking at pregnancy- inferring the forthcoming baby. Nidana sevana- inferring future Vyadhi 3. Vartamana Kalila Anumana: साभान्मतो दर्शनादनुभान ( धूभ - अप्नन) inferring some other knowledge by looking at something. Both happen at the same time, while one of them is perceived through the sensory organs and the other is inferred. E.g. Inferring fire through the visible smoke. B. According to Charakopaskar: 1. Purvavat Anuman: Karana Karya  Also called Bhavishyakalika Anumana.  To infer the effect which is produced in future by observing the cause is called Purvavat Anumana. Examples: a) By seeing seed, the forthcoming fruit is inferred. b) The forthcoming rain is inferred by seeing the dark clouds. 2. Sheshavat Anuman: Karya Karana  Also called Atitakalika Anumana.  Where cause is inferred by effect is called Sheshavat Anuman. Examples: a) By seeing pregnancy, inferring intercourse in the past. b) Inference the seed through fruit. c) Inference the heavy rain through flood. 3. Samanyatodrishta Anuman:  Inference of object other than the cause and effect by general observation is called Samanyatodrishta. It is related to inference of present time. Example: Inference of Kapha through Puya Srava. चरकोपस्कार चक्रपाणि कालानुसार उदाहरि ऩूर्वशर्वत अनुभान कायणात कामाशनुभान अनागत भेघ - र्वर्ाश र्ेर्र्वत अनुभान कामाशत कायणानुभान अतीत पर - फीज साभान्मतो द्रष्ट साभान्मतो दर्शनादनुभान र्वतशभान धूभ - अप्नन
  • 5. Anumana Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 5 C. Types according to Nyaya Darshana: 3 types: 1. Purvavat 2. Sheshavat 3. Samanyatodrishta 1. Purvavat Anumana  Purva = earlier/ in the past  Vat = equal/ same  Purvavat = as it is happened earlier  Nyaya accepts ‘Karya karana theory’. According to that Karana exists first and Karya comes afterwards.  Knowledge is gained by relationships of certain causes and effects.  Based on experience, later on when we see Karana, we infer the forthcoming Karya.  Inferring the effect by seeing the cause is called Purvavat.  E.g. Dark clouds- Rain Eating large quantity of food- indigestion Eating mud- Pandu Nidana sevan- Roga 2. Sheshavat Anumana  Shesha = later on  If we are inferring the Karana (cause) by seeing the Karya (effect).  E.g. Sandhivata- Vata Prakopa (cause) Shleepada- Kapha Prakopa (cause)  Shesha = remaining. Some scholars consider this meaning and call this as ‘Parishesha Anumana’.  E.g. Haritaki - Alavana it means it contains other five rasa. 3. Samanyatodrishta Anumana  The first two types of Anumana are based on the Karya Karana relation. In our day to day life we see some events happening regularly. The knowledge gained in such a way is called Samanyatodrishta.  e.g. Existence of God- by seeing creation Moon in different position - movement of moon. Comparison Charaka Nyaya Darshana Anagata kalika Purvavat Atita kalika Sheshavat Vartamana kalika Samnyatodrishta D. Types according to other scholars: 1. Swarthanumana (स्र्वाथाशनुभान)
  • 6. Anumana Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 6  Analysis of inference for one’s own self is called Swarthaanumana.  Simple one and doesn’t need the five components to gain the inferential knowledge.  E.g. when a person finds a smoke on a mountain, he remembers that where there is smoke there is fire and comes to a conclusion that there is fire on this mountain also. 2. Pararthanumana (ऩयाथाशनुभान)  It is based upon Swarthanumana in the sense that a man can not convince & demonstrate another if he is not convinced. After getting the knowledge of the subject one explain to other with the help of Panchavayava Vakya.  It is the analysis of inference for others.  It requires five components or Avayava. 1) The mountain is fiery (Pratigya). 2) Because of smoke (Hetu). 3) Wherever there is smoke there is fire (Udaharana) as in kitchen. 4) There is smoke on mountain (Upanaya). 5) Therefore, the mountain is fiery (Nigamana). Panch Avayava:  To gain the knowledge through Anumana Pramana, Panch Avayava or five components are required.  They are: प्रततऻाहेतूदाहयणोऩनमतनगभनातन ऩञ्चार्वमर्वा्। Ta.Sa. 1. Pratigya (proposition/Hypothesis):  Setting down the proposition. E.g. this mountain is fiery. प्रततऻा नाभ साध्मर्वचनं- Ch.Vi.8/30  The statement to be proved. 2. Hetu (Reason):  Giving a reason to support the statement. E.g. existence of Smoke. हेतुनाशभोऩरप्धधकायणं - Ch.Vi.8/33  Hetu is the reason of the knowledge.  Hetu (reason) is the cause of knowledge such as Pratyaksa (perception), Anumana (inference), Aitihya and Aupamya. What is revealed by these reasons (sources) is reality. 3. Udaharana (Example):  Giving an example. E.g. wherever there is smoke there is fire as in the kitchen. दृष्टान्तो नाभ मि भूखशवर्वदुर्ां फुविसाम्मं - Ch.Vi.8/34  Drishtanta (example) is that which arouses understanding in the fools and the learned similar. 4. Upanaya (convincing or Assertion):  Applying the knowledge of example in the present context.
  • 7. Anumana Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 7  Applying the comparison of example in the present Sadhya.  E.g. mountain is also smoky. 5. Nigamana (Conclusion): Drawing a conclusion. E.g. As there is smoke on the mountain, the mountain is fiery. Another example: 1) Pratigya: ‘Atma is eternal’ 2) Hetu: ‘Because of not being created’ 3) Drishtanta: ‘As sky’ 4) Upanaya: ‘As the sky is uncreated and is eternal so is soul’ 5) Nigamana: ‘Therefore, soul is eternal.’ According to some scholars five components are not required for inferential knowledge. Only three Avayava can do the complete process of gaining the knowledge. They are Pratigya, Hetu and Vyapti. There is no difference between Pratigya and Nigamana; and Udaharana and Upanaya- come under Vyapti. Hetu:  Synonym: Linga, Sadhana, Dharma  साध्मसाधनं हेतु्। Ta.Sa.  Hetu is one through which Sadhya is established. हेतुनाशभोऩरप्धधकायणं Ch.Vi.8  It is presenting the reasoning to prove the Pratijna.  Must be true and unconditional.  The apparent character by which the Sadhya is proved of subject is called Hetu, as the things can be proved only by reason and Anumiti based on it.  Sadhya is defined as one that is established by Hetu. Also called as Dharmi, Lingi. Types of Hetu:  Anvaya = affirmative statement  Vyatireka = negative statement  The correlation between Hetu and Sadhya is called Anvaya, which means wherever Hetu exists Sadhya also exists there. Hetu Anvaya -Vyatireki Kevalanvayi Keval Vyatireki
  • 8. Anumana Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 8  Contrary to this negative correlation is that, if Sadhya is absent, Hetu is also absent.  Anvaya exists in Sapaksha whereas Vyatireka exists in Vipaksha. 1. Anvaya Vyatireki:  These are the conditions where we can get both positive and negative Hetu. The positive Linga is the invariable concomitance of the Hetu with Sadhya. The negative Hetu is invariable absence of Hetu wherever Sadhya is absent. Examples: 1) a) Pratijna: there is fire on the mountain b) Hetu: smoke on mountain c) Udaharana: wherever there is smoke there is fire (+ve) kitchen; wherever there is no fire there is no smoke like in lake(-ve). d) Upanaya: there is smoke on mountain. e) Nigamana: so, the mountain is fiery. 2) a) Pratigya: the plant kingdom is chetana. b) Hetu: Indriyatvat c) Udaharana: Wherever Indriya are present, consciousness always present (+ve/ Anvaya) like human. Wherever consciousness is absent, Indriya are also absent (-ve/Vyatireki) like table. d) Upanaya: There is Indriya in plant kingdom e) Nigamana: So, plant kingdom is Chetana. 2. Kevalanvayi:  If only positive correlation exists and negative correlation is absent then it is known as Kevalanvayi Vyapti.  Negative or contrary statement is not possible in this. E.g. a) Pratigya: This Patient is treatable. b) Hetu: because it is namable like Prameha. c) Udaharana: If there is Jwara (name) there is treatable (+ve), but it cannot be said that there is no treatability if there is no name (-ve). d) Upanaya: He is also suffering from Prameha (name). e) Nigmana: So, patient is treatable. So, here only positive correlation exists and there is no negative correlation. 3. Kevala Vyatireki:  If only negative correlation exists and positive correlation is absent then it is known as Kevala Vyatireki Vyapti.  Positive correlation is not possible in this.
  • 9. Anumana Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 9 E.g. a) Pratigya: this is the Himalayan range. b) Hetu: Because it is highest peak. c) Udaharana: if it is not Himalayan range it will not be the highest peak like Vindhya which are not the highest. d) Upanaya: this is the highest peak of all. e) Nigmana: so, this is the Himalayan range. So, here you can find only one thing of one type. So you cannot get an example with positive Hetu. Only negative correlation can be taken as example. Drishtanta/ Udaharan/ Example:  Whenever we propose some statement we need to give an example to support or to prove the statement.  दृष्टान्तो नाभ मि भूखशवर्वदुर्ां फुविसाम्मं, मो र्वर्ण्मं र्वणशमतत | मथा- अप्ननरुष्ण्, द्रर्वभुदक ं , प्स्थया ऩृथथर्वी, आददत्म् प्रकार्क इतत; मथा आददत्म् प्रकार्कस्तथा साङ््मऻानं प्रकार्कमभतत || Ch.Vi.8/34 2 types: 1. Bhavatmaka: this is one type of example where both Sadhya and Hetu exist together. E.g. fire and smoke exists together on kitchen. 2. Abhavatmaka: another type where both Sadhya and Hetu together do not exist. E.g. there is no smoke in the lake, so there is no fire in the lake. Tarka (false assumption):  Tarka word used to denote the knowledge gained by logic or philosophic analysis.  But in Indian philosophy, especially in Nyaya Philosophy, the word ‘Tarka’ is used to represent ‘Aprama’ or ‘Ayathartha gyana’.  व्मातमायोऩेण व्माऩकायोऩ् तक श ्। Ta.Sa.  It is defined as the deduction of a more extensive thing by less extensive one. E.g. if there is no fire there would be no smoke.  Normally Sadhya is established with the help of Hetu. But in case of Tarka it is just opposite - trying to establish Hetu with the help of Sadhya.  To establish one’s Pratigya, there are two methods as mentioned below; 1. Give positive examples and establish the Pratigya. 2. Support this statement by showing the weak points of the opponent’s statement. E.g. as there is smoke there must be fire- this is true Anumana. There must be some fire otherwise why will there be any smoke- this is ‘Tarka’. Tarka generally help in contradicting the views of opponents but will not help in establishing the truth of one’s own statement. Importance of Anumana:  In Ayurveda, again Anumana is given utmost importance. Hence it is said that ‘Pratyaksham hi Alpam’ as those which are not cognizable are many or in larger number hence by Anumana the hidden true knowledge is also achieved.
  • 10. Anumana Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 10  Things which are cognized by Pratyaksha are very few compared to those which cannot be understood by Pratyaksha.  Anumana Pramana is needed to be described after Pratyaksha as all things cannot be proved by Pratyaksha.  Examples: 1) If a person has nausea (Purvarupa of Chhardi) which is known by Pratyaksha, Vaidya can infer the forthcoming Chhardi. Thus enabling the Vaidya to treat the condition and avoid the manifestation of the disease, Chhardi. 2) If a patient complains of itching sensation in throat, Vaidya can infer the upcoming Kasa Vyadhi. Utility of Anumana:  Anumana plays an important role in both Nidana and Chikitsa.  Many of the required objects cannot be perceived through the sensory organs in both these fields. So, physician has to rely only upon Anumana to perceive the imperceptibles. 1. कभशमबस्त्र्वनुभीमन्ते नानाद्रव्माश्रमा गुणा् || Su.Su.46 Guna cannot be seen in Dravya but are to be inferred by seeing their effect on the body. 2. Vaidya cannot do Rasanendriya Pariksha, so he has to do it only through Anumana. 3. If many ants are seen at the urine of the patient, one can conclude that the Pt. is suffering from Madhumeha. 4. To find out whether the blood coming out of a patient suffering from Raktapitta is pure or impure, Anumana is applicable. a) Food mixed with blood, if dogs/ crows eat that, the blood is pure, if doesn’t eat, blood is impure. b) Cloth is coated with blood; wash it with warm water; If stain remains- impure; if doesn’t remain- pure blood. 5. मथा- प्रनष्टे र्लमे चन्दनघृतोऩददनधामां त्र्वथच वर्वर्ोर्णवर्वरमनाभ्माभनुभीमते- अि र्लममभतत| Dalhana Hidden Shalya is inferred If applied Chandan on skin- dried up Or applied Ghrita on skin- liquefied 6. दोर्ादीनां त्र्वसभताभनुभानेन रऺमेत ्| अप्रसन्नेप्न्द्रमं र्वीक्ष्म ऩुरुर्ं क ु र्रो मबर्क् || Su. Su.15 By observing the abnormal functioning of the sense organs in the patient, the wise physician should infer the disequilibrium of Doshadi. 7. एक ै काथधकमुक्ततातन खादीनामभप्न्द्रमाणण तु | ऩञ्च कभाशनुभेमातन मेभ्मो फुवि् प्रर्वतशते || Ch.Sha.1/24 Every Indriya are made up of Panch mahabhuta. Dominance of one Mahabhuta in each Indriya is inferred through their Vishaya Grahana Pravrutti. Shalya is present
  • 11. Anumana Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 11 8. ति अनुभानगम्मानां ऩञ्चभहाबूतवर्वकायसभुदामात्भकानाभवऩ सतामभप्न्द्रमाणां तेजश्चऺुवर्, खं श्रोिे, घ्राणे क्षऺतत्, आऩो यसने, स्ऩर्शनेऽतनरो वर्वर्ेर्ेणोऩऩद्मते | Ch.Su.8/14 Though all Indriya are made up of combination of five Mahabhuta, but one Mahabhuta is dominant in every Indriya. Indriya Dominance of Mahabhuta Chakshu Teja Shrotra Akasha Ghrana Pruthvi Rasan Apa Sparsh Vayu 9. Anumanagamya Bhava (Ch.Vi.4/8):  अप्ननं जयणर्क्तत्मा ऩयीऺेत  फरं व्मामाभर्क्तत्मा  श्रोिादीतन र्धदाद्मथशग्रहणेन  भनोऽथाशव्ममबचयणेन  वर्वऻानं व्मर्वसामेन  यज्सङ्गेन  भोहभवर्वऻानेन  क्रोधभमबद्रोहेण  र्ोक ं दैन्मेन  हर्शभाभोदेन  प्रीततं तोर्ेण  बमं वर्वर्ादेन  धैमशभवर्वर्ादेन  र्वीमशभुत्थानेन  अर्वस्थानभवर्वभ्रभेण  श्रिाभमबप्रामेण  भेधां ग्रहणेन  सञ्ऻां नाभग्रहणेन  स्भृततं स्भयणेन  दिमभऩिऩेण  र्ीरभनुर्ीरेन  द्र्वेर्ं प्रततर्ेधेन
  • 12. Anumana Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 12  उऩथधभनुफन्धेन  धृततभरौलमेन  र्वश्मतां वर्वधेमतमा  र्वमोबप्क्ततसात्म्मव्माथधसभुत्थानातन कारदेर्ोऩर्मर्वेदनावर्वर्ेर्ेण  गूढमरङ्गं व्माथधभुऩर्मानुऩर्माभ्मां  दोर्प्रभाणवर्वर्ेर्भऩचायवर्वर्ेर्ेण  आमुर्् ऺमभरयष्टै्  उऩप्स्थतश्रेमस्त्र्वं कलमाणामबतनर्वेर्ेन  अभरं सत्त्र्वभवर्वकायेण  ग्रहर्ण्मास्तु भृदुदारुणत्र्वं स्र्वतनदर्शनभमबप्रामं द्वर्वष्टेष्टसुखदु्खातन चातुयऩरयप्रश्नेनैर्व वर्वद्माददतत || Hetu Parikshya Bhava Digestive capacity Agnibala Exercise capacity Strength Receiving Artha (object) Indriya health Deeds and interest Mental status Apprehensions Fear Arishta Nearing death Upashaya- Anupashaya Disease complex Proper reaction Knowledge of a thing Attachment with objects Rajo Guna Lack of knowledge/ understanding Moha Revenging attitude Krodha Sorrowful disposition Shoka cheerfulness Harsha Joy and satisfaction Preeti Strength of Mana even in difficult time Dhairya Initiation of performing difficult activities Veerya Avoidance of any mistakes Avasthana (stability of mind) Request Shraddha Grasping of books Medha Recollection of names, objects etc. Sangya Power of remembrance Memory Habitual intake of things Sheela (liking) Shyness Modesty (hriyam) Prohibiting, forbidding Dwesha Non-fickleness, firmness Dhriti Obedience with orders Vashyata Measurement of provocative factors Dosha Pramana
  • 13. Anumana Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 13 Having done useful works Approaching prosperity Absence of its impairments Amala Sattva (Disease free mind) Vaya Kala (stage of life) Bhakti Habitat (desha) Satmya Upashaya Vyadhi Samutthana Vedana (characteristic features) Hetu: 1. Yathartha/ Real/ Sad hetu:  It helps in establishing the Sadhya.  Reason is the base of inference.  If reason is faultless the inference will be true.  If Hetu is not real/ sat, the knowledge achieved through Anuman is not also real.  Actually the incorrect reason is not the reason at all and it shadows only to be the reason. So, it is called Hetwabhasa/ fallacy.  Five Qualities of real/ Sad Hetu: a) ऩऺे सत्र्वभ ् b) सऩऺे सत्र्वभ ् c) वर्वऩऺे व्मार्वृतत्र्वभ ् d) असत्प्रततऩऺत्र्वभ ् e) अफाथधत वर्वर्मत्र्वभ ् a) ऩऺे सत्र्वभ ्  Where the existence of Sadhya is to be proved is doubtful is called the Paksha.  E.g. mountain  Fire is suspected on the mountain. This doubt is removed by proper reason which is smoke.  So, smoke is given as Hetu for the Paksha which is mountain. b) सऩऺे सत्र्वभ ्  Where Sadhya is undoubtedly present is Sapaksha.  For the reason of smoke, kitchen is given as Sapaksha.  Smoke is always present in the kitchen. c) वर्वऩऺे व्मार्वृतत्र्वभ ् Hetu Yathartha Ayathartha
  • 14. Anumana Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 14  Where the Sadhya is undoubtedly absent.  E.g. lake for smoke (Hetu)  Smoke is always absent in the lake.  So, here Hetu (smoke) is always absent in Vipaksha (lake). d) असत्प्रततऩऺत्र्वभ ्  In the inferential knowledge, if one Hetu proves the existence of Sadhya in Paksha, at the same time another Hetu should not contradict it. If Sadhya is contradicted with another Hetu it is called Satpratipaksha.  If one Hetu proves the existence of Sadhya and other Hetu at the same time should not prove the absence of Sadhya.  E.g. Ghrita is Shamana drug for Pitta because it is Ushna as Maricha. Ghrita is Shamana drug for Pitta because it is Sheeta as milk. If only one Hetu exists that proves Sadhya Asatpratipaksha. If both Hetu exist (one prove Sadhya & another Hetu disprove Sadhya) – Satpratipaksha. e) अफाथधत वर्वर्मत्र्वभ ्  The inferential knowledge should not be contradicted by other Pramana like Pratyaksha.  E.g. The fire is cool, being a substance as water. Paksha- fire Sadhya- coolness  Here, it is disapproved by perception, as the fire is hot in touch. Hetwabhasa/ Asad hetu:  हेतुर्वद् आबासन्ते इतत हेत्र्वबास्।  It is made up of two words: Hetu and Abhasa.  Hetwabhasa means it seems Hetu. It looks like Hetu, but not in real. It is also called Ahetu. Hetwabhasa Savyabhichara Sadharana Asadharana Anupasamhari Viruddha Satpratipaksha Asiddha Ashraya Asiddha Swarupa Asidhha Vyapyatva Asiddha Badhita
  • 15. Anumana Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 15 1. Savyabhichara Hetwabhasa:  To get the valid inferential knowledge always the Hetu and Sadhya should exist together or do not exist together. If the Hetu exists without Sadhya, it is called Savyabhicahra.  E.g. ‘This is a stone because it is hard’. Here Hetu ‘it is hard’ is not just related to stone. ‘Hardness’ exists in many other things. Subtypes of Savyabhichara: A. Sadharana B. Asadharana C. Anupasamhari A. Sadharana Svyabhichara Hetwabhasa:  If Hetu is available in more than one Paksha, means through this type of Hetu, we cannot infer a single Sadhya, but more than one Sadhya are established is called Sadhrana Savyabhichara.  As already said that Hetu should exist in Paksha and Sapaksha only. But here the Hetu exist on Vipaksha also where the Sadhya is absent. Hence, it is called Sadharana Savyabhichara Hetwabhasa. Example: 1) Ramesh is affected by Jwara because he has Agnimandya. In above statement, Ramesh = Paksha Jvara = Sadhya Agnimandya = Hetu  In the above statement Jvara is Sadhya and Agnimandya is Hetu. But Hetu Agnimandya is not only available Jvara but it also seems present in Ajirna, Udara roga etc. 2) ‘This is Amalaki, because it is Sheeta (Virya)’. Sheeta virya is present in Amalaki but it is also available in other drugs like Yashti, Chandan etc.  So, it is called Sadharana Svyabhichara Hetwabhasa. B. Asadharana Svyabhichara Hetwabhasa:  If the Hetu is absent both in Sapaksha & Vipaksha and available only in Paksha, is called Asadharana Savyabhichara Hetwabhasa.  For an example, 1) This patient has Vata Vyadhi because his limbs are black colored. Black colored limbs exist neither in Sapaksha nor in Vipaksha. It exists in Paksha (patient) only. 2) Shabda is Nitya. Because of Shabdatva. Shabda = Paksha, Nitya = Sadhya, Shabdatva = Hetu. Shabdatva hetu is not found in other Nitya Dravya like Atma etc (Sapaksha) and it is not found Anitya Dravya (Vipaksha). It is found only in Shabda (Paksha). C. Anupasamhari Savyabhichara Hetwabhasa:  Hetu without positive example or negative example is Anupasamhari Savyabhichara Hetwabhasa.  Like- Everything is non-eternal, because of Prameyatvat.
  • 16. Anumana Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 16  Here, Paksha is everything. So, neither positive nor negative example is available.  Everything is Panchbhautika, Karyadrvyatvat.  Here, Paksha is everything. So, neither positive nor negative example is available. 2. Viruddha Hetvabhasa:  Any real or Sadhetu should establish Sadhya positively. Contrarily, if a Hetu establishes the negative aspect of Sadhya, it is called as Viruddha hetvabhasa.  E.g. Pratigya- Sound is eternal Hetu- Because it (sound) is produced. Here, the Hetu producibilty is not related to eternal but to non-eternal things. Pratigya- Ghee is Pitta Shamaka. Hetu- Because it is Ushna virya.  In this statement, Ushna Virya Hetu cannot alleviate Pitta. But it increase Pitta. 3. Satpratipaksha Hetvabhasa:  In the inferential knowledge, if one Hetu proves the existence of Sadhya on Paksha, at the same time another Hetu proves the absence of Sadhya in Paksha. If Sadhya is contradicted with another Hetu it is called Satpratipaksha. Examples: 1) Shabda is Nitya, Shravanatvat like Shabda. Shabda is Anitya, because it is Karya like Ghata.  Here, in this example, by Shravantva Hetu, Nityatva of Shabda is established. And another Hetu Karyatva establishes Anityatva of Shabda. 2) Amalaki is Pitta Shamaka, due to its Sheeta virya like Chandan. Amalaki is Pitta Vardhaka, due to its Ushna virya like Maricha.  Here, in this example By Sheeta Virya Hetu, of Pitta Shamaka Karma of Amalaki is established. And another Hetu Ushna Virya establishes Pitta Vardhaka action of Amalaki. 4. Asiddha Hetvabhasa:  Asiddha means non-existent  If we take up an incorrect Hetu that has no existence, to establish Sadhya, it is called ‘Asiddha Hetvabhasa’.  E.g. Shadow is Dravya because it is moving. In fact the movement is not connected to the shadow but to the Dravya.  3 types: A. Ashraya Asiddha B. Swarupa Asiddha C. Vyapyatva Asiddha A. Ashraya Asiddha:  Asharaya means Paksha. Here, in this type Paksha is Asiddha means Paksha is nonexistent (absent). And therefore existence of Hetu in Paksha does not exist.
  • 17. Anumana Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 17  Here, one of the qualities of Sadhetu is absent (Pakshe Sattvam) hence it is Hetwabhasa. Examples: 1. Sky lotus is fragrant because it is lotus like lotus in the lake. In this example, sky lotus is Paksha. It does not exist in reality. 2. The boy has burning sensation in his third eye due to Pitta Vruddhi like in other organ (abdomen etc.). Here third eye (Paksha) is absent. B. Swarupa Asiddha:  The Hetu which never exists in Paksha is Swarupa Asiddha Hetwabhasa.  In Swarupa Asiddha hetu, existence on Paksha, the quality of Sadhetu is absent. So, it is Hetwabhasa. Examples: 1. Shabda is Guna, Chakshushatvat (it is perceived by Chakshurendriya), Rupavat (like Rupa). Here, in this example, Chakshushatva Hetu is not present in Shabda, because Shabda cannot perceive by Chakshurendriya. 2. Lady has a problem to pass urine as she is suffered from BPH (benign prostatic hypertrophy). In this example, BPH (Hetu) is not possible to occur in lady patient (Paksha) C. Vyapyatva Asiddha:  The Hetu with limitation or Upadhi (condition) will not able to prove the true Anumana as it is not actually Hetu but represents Hetwabhasa.  A Hetu which is not always remain with Sadhya is called ‘Sopadhika Hetwabhasa’. This kind of Hetu (with limitation/ Upadhi/ condition). Example: Suresh is affected by skin disease as he was consuming milk daily. In this example, Daily milk consumption is Hetu Suresh is Paksha Skin disease is Sadhya.  Here it cannot be said that consuming milk daily causes manifestation of skin disease but with condition (Upadhi) like consumption of milk with fruits (or fish) daily becomes able to prove the existence Sadhya in Paksha.  Suresh is affected by skin disease as he was consuming the milk with fruits (or fish) daily becomes the complete sentence for Anumana. 5. Badhita Hetwabhasa:  If the Sadhya established by Hetu is contradicted by another Pramana, it is called Badhita Hetwabhasa. Examples: 1) Ice will sink in water because it is solid.  When we try to experience it through Pratyaksha Pramana, we see that ice is floating but not sinking.
  • 18. Anumana Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 18 2) ‘Fire is cold because it is substance like water’.  Here, Sadhya is coldness. But with Pratyaksha Pramana, we found its absence in fire (Paksha). So it is Badhita Hetwabhsa.  So, whatever is established by Anumana is contradicted by Pratyaksha in Badhita Hetwabhasa. Ahetu:  Ahetu is described in Ch.Vi.8  It is identical to Hetwabhasa described in Nyaya Darshana.  3 types A. Prakaranasama Ahetu B. Sanshayasama Ahetu C. Varnyasama Ahetu A. Prakaranasama Ahetu:  In present context Prakarana means Paksha.  If the Paksha itself becomes a Hetu it is Prakaranasama Ahetu. Example: 1. अन्म् र्यीयादात्भा तनत्म इतत; ऩयो ब्रूमात ्- मस्भादन्म् र्यीयादात्भा, तस्भाप्न्नत्म्; र्यीयं नमतनत्मभतो वर्वधमभशणा चात्भना बवर्वतव्ममभत्मेर् चाहेतु्; नदह म एर्व ऩऺ् स एर्व हेतुरयतत |  The soul is eternal because it is different from the body.  Here, Atma is Paksha, Nitya is Sadhya.  Different from body is Hetu. Body is Anitya (ephemeral) and the eternity of soul because it is different from the body, it would naturally have opposite qualities and so the Paksha & Hetu almost same. 2. कपात ्मबन्न र्वात् चरमभतत। Vata is Chala because it is different from Kapha. 3. वऩत्तात ्मबन्न कप् र्ीतमभतत। Kapha is Sheeta because it is different from Pitta. B. Sanshayasama Ahetu:  A doubtful reason itself used to solve the doubt is called Sanshayasama Ahetu. Examples: 1) If somebody asks: ‘is that student wearing an apron able to provide me first aid treatment for my injury? And the opponent replies ‘as he wears an apron he should be a medical student and so he is able to provide you first aid treatment for your injury.’ 2) ‘Can a person knowing one part of the medical science be considered as a physician’ Reply: ‘because he knows only a part of Ayurveda so he is a physician.’ C. Varnyasama Ahetu:  Varnya means Sadhya
  • 19. Anumana Dr. Abdeli Bhadarva Page 19  Varnyasama Ahetu is that where Sadhya is doubtful even in Sapaksha (Drishanta) like Paksha.  When Sadhya is also doubtful in Drishtanta, it is called Varnyasama Ahetu.  There is existence of Punarjanma, because there is death like Moksha.  In this example, Drishtanta (Sapaksha) is Moksha, which is also doubtful. But it should be unambiguous.