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Dr D Y PATIL COLLEGE OF
PHARMACY, AKURDI
CAPNOCYTOPHAGA INFECTION
Guided by: Prof A V Kulkarni Sir
Created by: Gauri P Gawande
Subject: Seminar
M pharm 1st yr
Contents:
1) Introduction
2)Disease
3)Found in
4)Pets and Capnocytophaga germs
5)Various Species of Capnocytophaga
6)General Characteristics
7)Identification
8)Risk factors & Complications
9)Epidemiology
10)How do people get infected with Capnocytophaga
11)Signs and Symptoms
12)Treatment
13)Prevention
3
Introdution:
Dogs and cats typically have the bacteria Capnocytophaga canimorsus in
their mouths. It extracts N-acetylglucosamine, a substance required for its
outer layer, from the constituents of dog and cat saliva. The bacteria don't
cause any infection to dog and cat but when it enter in humans it becomes a
pathogen i.e. a microbe that can infect a host and spread illness. Bite and
general animal contact are the main ways that Capnocytophaga canimorsus
spreads.
4
Disease:
Bite and general animal contact
are the main ways that
Capnocytophaga canimorsus
spreads. C. Canimorsus
infection symptoms typically
manifest one to eight days
following exposure, with day
two being the most common
time. It remains immune system
undiscovered while feeding on
its human host. The specialist
immune cells known as
macrophages do not pick it up.
The majority of adult infections
with Capnocytophaga happen to
those over 40. Pregnant mothers
and their unborn children may
become seriously ill as a result of
capnocytophaga bacteria.
Chorioamnionitis, an inflammation
of the membranes surrounding the
foetus in the womb, can result from
infection during the latter weeks of
pregnancy. It can also result in low
birth weight in the baby and sepsis,
a dangerous infection of the body's
tissues or bloodstream.
Found in:
 People can contract the common canine and feline germs known as
rhinocytophaga by being bitten or coming into close contact with these
animals. Dog bites and dog contact are more frequently associated with
infections.
 Some persons who have the bacteria in their own mouths may become unwell
due to other Capnocytophaga germs that are also present in human mouths.
 This kind of illness is more common in immunocompromised individuals than
in healthy ones.
 Even after a bite, most interactions with dogs and cats do not result in a
Capnocytophaga infection or any other disease. However, you should exercise
caution whenever you come into touch with animals, particularly if you have a
medical condition that increases your risk of infection.
Pets and Capnocytophaga Germs:
Oral flora, or oral microbiota, is
the collection of bacteria found in
the mouths of most dogs and cats.
The animals do not become ill
from these pathogens. Animals
may receive medication to
temporarily eradicate the bacteria,
but after coming into touch with
other animals, they will probably
re-infect themselves.
Based on your health, discuss
with your doctor how to
safeguard yourself when you
interact with animals.
VARIOUS SPECIES OF CAPNOCYTOPHAGA:
1) Capnocytophaga ochracea
2) Capnocytophaga gingivalis
3) Capnocytophaga sputigena
4) Capnocytophaga hemolytica
5) Capnocytophaga granulosa
6) Capnocytophaga canimorsus( responsible for majority of
infections)
7) Capnocytophaga cynodegmi
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS:
 Gram negative
 Facultative Anaerobic
 Long, thin & Fusiform bacilli
 Gliding movement
 Slow growing
 Capnophilic “Carbon loving”
10
IDENTIFICATION:
 By conventional culture methods
 DNA probes
 Biotinylated DNA probe
DETECTION:
 No specific methods
11
Risk factors:
 Use alcohol excessively
 Do not have a spleen (asplenic)
 Cancer
 Diabetes
 HIV infection
 Are taking drugs that are toxic to cells (such as chemotherapy)
Complications:
 Periodontal (gum) disease
 Respiratory tract infections (infections of the mouth,
nose, throat, and lungs)
 Eye infections
 Septicemia (blood infection)
 Endocarditis (inflammation of the lining of the heart)
 Abscesses (collections of pus in the tissue that
 cause redness and swelling) in various body tissues
 Inflammation of the eyes, face, lymph nodes
or brain membranes
12
The majority of adult infections with
Capnocytophaga happen to those over
40. Little children have also been
diagnosed with cases, though.
Pregnant mothers and their unborn
children may become seriously sick as
a result of capnocytophaga bacteria.
Chorioamnionitis, an inflammation of the
membranes surrounding the fetus in the
womb, can result from infection during the
latter weeks of pregnancy. It can also
result in low birth weight in the baby and
sepsis, a dangerous infection of the body's
tissues or circulation.
Worldwide reports of C. canimorsus infection have
been made. It is estimated
that 18–57% of cats and 26-74% of dogs have C.
canimorsus in their mouths.
Infections typically affect high-risk individuals
rather than healthy ones. These
are persons who have pre-existing medical issues,
such as those who use
steroids, are alcoholics, or lack a spleen. Elderly and
middle-aged people are
also more susceptible to illness. Regularly handling
cats and dogs is another risk
factor.
Epidemiology
How Do People Get Infected with Capnocytophaga?
Numerous Capnocytophaga germs are common normal bacteria that are
frequently discovered in people's, dogs', and cats' mouths. These bacteria can
occasionally result in opportunistic infections, which implies that, under certain
situations, such as in an individual with a compromised immune system, they
can induce an infection.
Individuals with compromised immune systems comprise those who:
Consume alcohol in
excess
Have cancer
or HIV
infection
Have their
spleens
removed
15
Signs and Symptoms:
After being bitten, most people who become ill will show symptoms within 3 to 5 days, but this can
range anywhere from 1 to 14 days.
Blisters around the bite wound within hours of
the bite
Fever
Redness, swelling, draining pus, or
pain at the bite wound
Diarrhoea and/or stomach pain
Vomiting
Headache or confusion
Muscle or joint pain
16
Treatment of Capnocytophaga Infection:
(50% are resistant to fluroquinolones)
 Piperacillin-Tazobactam: 4.5 gm 1 dose, 3.375gm IV q 8 hrs (Add vancomycin if
Hx. MRSA. +/- clindamycin or metronidazole. discontinue after culture results
available)
 Imipenem-Cilastatin: 500mg IV 6hrs.
 Meropenem: 1 gm IV 8 hrs.
 Clindamycin: 600 mg IV 6 hrs.
If severe penicillin allergy
17
Prevention of Capnocytophaga Infection:
Prevent dog bites to avoid the infection of Capnocytophaga.
Seek medical attention right away if, within 14 days of the bite, you develop
symptoms.
Keep your cat or dog from leaking on the wound.
Even if you don't feel ill, wash the bite area as soon as possible with soap and
water after being bitten by a dog or cat and contact your doctor. This is due to
the possibility of both rabies and Capnocytophaga arising from dog and cat
bites.
18
References:
1) https://www.cdc.gov/capnocytophaga/pets/index.html
2) Lion, C., F. Escande, and J. C. Burdin. "Capnocytophaga canimorsus infections in
human: review of the literature and cases report." European journal of
epidemiology 12 (1996): 521-533.
3) https://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/what-to-know-capnocytophaga
4) https://www.slideshare.net/slideshow/capnocytophaga-in-periodontics-ppt/29944502
5) Zajkowska, Joanna, et al. "Capnocytophaga canimorsus–an underestimated danger
after dog or cat bite–review of literature." Przegl Epidemiol 70.2 (2016): 289-295.
19

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Final CAPNOCYTOPHAGA INFECTION by Gauri Gawande.pptx

  • 1. Dr D Y PATIL COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, AKURDI CAPNOCYTOPHAGA INFECTION Guided by: Prof A V Kulkarni Sir Created by: Gauri P Gawande Subject: Seminar M pharm 1st yr
  • 2. Contents: 1) Introduction 2)Disease 3)Found in 4)Pets and Capnocytophaga germs 5)Various Species of Capnocytophaga 6)General Characteristics 7)Identification 8)Risk factors & Complications 9)Epidemiology 10)How do people get infected with Capnocytophaga 11)Signs and Symptoms 12)Treatment 13)Prevention
  • 3. 3 Introdution: Dogs and cats typically have the bacteria Capnocytophaga canimorsus in their mouths. It extracts N-acetylglucosamine, a substance required for its outer layer, from the constituents of dog and cat saliva. The bacteria don't cause any infection to dog and cat but when it enter in humans it becomes a pathogen i.e. a microbe that can infect a host and spread illness. Bite and general animal contact are the main ways that Capnocytophaga canimorsus spreads.
  • 4. 4 Disease: Bite and general animal contact are the main ways that Capnocytophaga canimorsus spreads. C. Canimorsus infection symptoms typically manifest one to eight days following exposure, with day two being the most common time. It remains immune system undiscovered while feeding on its human host. The specialist immune cells known as macrophages do not pick it up. The majority of adult infections with Capnocytophaga happen to those over 40. Pregnant mothers and their unborn children may become seriously ill as a result of capnocytophaga bacteria. Chorioamnionitis, an inflammation of the membranes surrounding the foetus in the womb, can result from infection during the latter weeks of pregnancy. It can also result in low birth weight in the baby and sepsis, a dangerous infection of the body's tissues or bloodstream.
  • 5. Found in:  People can contract the common canine and feline germs known as rhinocytophaga by being bitten or coming into close contact with these animals. Dog bites and dog contact are more frequently associated with infections.  Some persons who have the bacteria in their own mouths may become unwell due to other Capnocytophaga germs that are also present in human mouths.  This kind of illness is more common in immunocompromised individuals than in healthy ones.  Even after a bite, most interactions with dogs and cats do not result in a Capnocytophaga infection or any other disease. However, you should exercise caution whenever you come into touch with animals, particularly if you have a medical condition that increases your risk of infection.
  • 6.
  • 7. Pets and Capnocytophaga Germs: Oral flora, or oral microbiota, is the collection of bacteria found in the mouths of most dogs and cats. The animals do not become ill from these pathogens. Animals may receive medication to temporarily eradicate the bacteria, but after coming into touch with other animals, they will probably re-infect themselves. Based on your health, discuss with your doctor how to safeguard yourself when you interact with animals.
  • 8. VARIOUS SPECIES OF CAPNOCYTOPHAGA: 1) Capnocytophaga ochracea 2) Capnocytophaga gingivalis 3) Capnocytophaga sputigena 4) Capnocytophaga hemolytica 5) Capnocytophaga granulosa 6) Capnocytophaga canimorsus( responsible for majority of infections) 7) Capnocytophaga cynodegmi
  • 9. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS:  Gram negative  Facultative Anaerobic  Long, thin & Fusiform bacilli  Gliding movement  Slow growing  Capnophilic “Carbon loving”
  • 10. 10 IDENTIFICATION:  By conventional culture methods  DNA probes  Biotinylated DNA probe DETECTION:  No specific methods
  • 11. 11 Risk factors:  Use alcohol excessively  Do not have a spleen (asplenic)  Cancer  Diabetes  HIV infection  Are taking drugs that are toxic to cells (such as chemotherapy) Complications:  Periodontal (gum) disease  Respiratory tract infections (infections of the mouth, nose, throat, and lungs)  Eye infections  Septicemia (blood infection)  Endocarditis (inflammation of the lining of the heart)  Abscesses (collections of pus in the tissue that  cause redness and swelling) in various body tissues  Inflammation of the eyes, face, lymph nodes or brain membranes
  • 12. 12 The majority of adult infections with Capnocytophaga happen to those over 40. Little children have also been diagnosed with cases, though. Pregnant mothers and their unborn children may become seriously sick as a result of capnocytophaga bacteria. Chorioamnionitis, an inflammation of the membranes surrounding the fetus in the womb, can result from infection during the latter weeks of pregnancy. It can also result in low birth weight in the baby and sepsis, a dangerous infection of the body's tissues or circulation.
  • 13. Worldwide reports of C. canimorsus infection have been made. It is estimated that 18–57% of cats and 26-74% of dogs have C. canimorsus in their mouths. Infections typically affect high-risk individuals rather than healthy ones. These are persons who have pre-existing medical issues, such as those who use steroids, are alcoholics, or lack a spleen. Elderly and middle-aged people are also more susceptible to illness. Regularly handling cats and dogs is another risk factor. Epidemiology
  • 14. How Do People Get Infected with Capnocytophaga? Numerous Capnocytophaga germs are common normal bacteria that are frequently discovered in people's, dogs', and cats' mouths. These bacteria can occasionally result in opportunistic infections, which implies that, under certain situations, such as in an individual with a compromised immune system, they can induce an infection. Individuals with compromised immune systems comprise those who: Consume alcohol in excess Have cancer or HIV infection Have their spleens removed
  • 15. 15 Signs and Symptoms: After being bitten, most people who become ill will show symptoms within 3 to 5 days, but this can range anywhere from 1 to 14 days. Blisters around the bite wound within hours of the bite Fever Redness, swelling, draining pus, or pain at the bite wound Diarrhoea and/or stomach pain Vomiting Headache or confusion Muscle or joint pain
  • 16. 16 Treatment of Capnocytophaga Infection: (50% are resistant to fluroquinolones)  Piperacillin-Tazobactam: 4.5 gm 1 dose, 3.375gm IV q 8 hrs (Add vancomycin if Hx. MRSA. +/- clindamycin or metronidazole. discontinue after culture results available)  Imipenem-Cilastatin: 500mg IV 6hrs.  Meropenem: 1 gm IV 8 hrs.  Clindamycin: 600 mg IV 6 hrs. If severe penicillin allergy
  • 17. 17 Prevention of Capnocytophaga Infection: Prevent dog bites to avoid the infection of Capnocytophaga. Seek medical attention right away if, within 14 days of the bite, you develop symptoms. Keep your cat or dog from leaking on the wound. Even if you don't feel ill, wash the bite area as soon as possible with soap and water after being bitten by a dog or cat and contact your doctor. This is due to the possibility of both rabies and Capnocytophaga arising from dog and cat bites.
  • 18. 18 References: 1) https://www.cdc.gov/capnocytophaga/pets/index.html 2) Lion, C., F. Escande, and J. C. Burdin. "Capnocytophaga canimorsus infections in human: review of the literature and cases report." European journal of epidemiology 12 (1996): 521-533. 3) https://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/what-to-know-capnocytophaga 4) https://www.slideshare.net/slideshow/capnocytophaga-in-periodontics-ppt/29944502 5) Zajkowska, Joanna, et al. "Capnocytophaga canimorsus–an underestimated danger after dog or cat bite–review of literature." Przegl Epidemiol 70.2 (2016): 289-295.
  • 19. 19