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Adolescent seminar

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Adolescent seminar

  1. 1. ADOLESCENT HEALTH By A.PARVATHAVARTHINI
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Adolescence is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood. These are the formative years when maximum amount of physical, psychological, and behavioral changes takes place. This is the time for them to prepare for undertaking greater responsibilities,a time of exploration and widening horizon and a time to ensure healthy all-round development.
  3. 3. MEANING • Adolescence is a Latin word derived from the verb “Adolescence” which means to grow into adulthood. Adolescence is divided into Early adolescence (12-13yrs),Middle adolescence(14- 16yrs),Late adolescence(17-19yrs). Adolescence has been defined by the WHO, as a period of life between 10 and 19yrs.
  4. 4. CHARACTERISTICS OF ADOLESCENCE • A transitional stage • Peak intelligence and stamina • Confused about identity • Never accepts without Interrogation • Loves liberty • Tries to seek attention by any means • Emotional instability • Lack of self control
  5. 5. IMPORTANCE OF ADOLESCENT PERIOD • Intelligence is at its peak • Permanent personality traits begin to develop • Decisions regarding future is made • Period of identity crisis-physical and sexual • Rapid changes call for support from family,friends,teachers & doctor
  6. 6. TASKS TO ACHIEVE BY ADOLESCENTS • Establishing new mature relations with • peers of both sexes • Playing feminine or masculine role • Achieving socially responsible behaviours • Preparing for a career • Preparing for marriage and family • Acquiring set values & guidelines for behavior.
  7. 7. CHANGES DURING ADOLESCENCE BOYS: • Voice changes • Hair on chin,face & pubic region appears • Genital organ develops. • Have wet dreams (nocturnal emission) GIRLS: • Curves of the body develop • Breasts begin to grow • Hair appears under armpit • Cycle of menstruation begins • Ovulation starts between 11to14years
  8. 8. • NUTRITION AND GROWTH SPURT • PSYCHOLOGICAL CHANGES • BEHAVIOURAL CHANGES • MENSTRUAL HYGIENE • SEXUAL • ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOUR
  9. 9. MAJOR PROBLEMS FACED BY ADOLESCENTS PHYSICAL: • Undernutrition • Obesity • Anemia • Goiter • Skin diseases • Injuries • Infections • Chronic illnesses
  10. 10. EMOTIONAL: • Feel a lack of freedom • Worried about future • Lack of confidence • Inferiority complex • Anxiety while meeting strangers • Depression and suicidal tendencies EDUCATIONAL: • Lack of proper counseling & guidance • Nagging by teachers • Peer maladjustment
  11. 11. HEALTH PROBLEMS OF ADOLESCENTS 1.EMOTIONAL PROBLEMS AND TEENAGE SUICIDE: • Depression,schizophrenia ,anxiety,bipolar disorder & eating disorders. • Serious mental health problems needs hospitalization or placement in a group home. • Suicide is third leading cause of death in 13-20 yrs.Girls attempt suicide more frequently than boys,but the actual suicide rate is higher among boys.(those that actually kill themselves) • CHNs & Community mental health counsellors may serve as consultants to schools in the development of sound prevention programs.
  12. 12. 2.VIOLENCE: • Gangs are often associated with teen violence.Cultural & environmental influences include the violence to which children and adolescents are exposed. • Increased aggressive behaviour among teens has been attributed to violence in the environment,the home (spousal & child abuse) & the community. • Many schools have metal detectors & security guards,& some schools conduct random searchers of student’s lockers in an effort to prevent violence.
  13. 13. 3.SUBSTANCE ABUSE: • Drugs that have become increasingly popular with adolescents & young adults include “club drugs” such as Ecstasy(MDMA,a synthetic drug with amphetamine & hallucinogenic properties). • Rohypnol(the “date rape”drug that is often mixed with alcohol to produce sedative hypnotic effects). • GHB(Gamma hydroxybutyrate, a synthetic steroid in fitness clubs that has been associated with sexual assaults). • Collaboration with families & schools is essential,because transitions back to school can be difficult.
  14. 14. 4.TEENAGE PREGNANCY AND STD: • Teenage pregnancies,STD’s,& HIV /AIDS are public concerns associated with the sexual activity of adolescents. • Young mothers are at high risk of bearing infants with low birth weight & are more likely to smoke. • They are risk for a greater number of physical,psychological,& social problems. • Primary care providers often miss oppurtunities to provide counseling on prevention of pregnancy,HIV,& STD. • It is important for CHNs to provide education and health counseling on these subjects.
  15. 15. 5.ACNE: • Acne begins during puberty (10-12yrs of age)with the increase in circulating male hormones that stimulate sebaceous glands in the skin. • A red and inflammed pustule can develop or, in serious cases of acne ,cysts or nodules can form.This can lead to pitting and scarring if not treated. • Common treatment regimens include skin cleansers,peelers & medications to decrease sebaceous glands activity.
  16. 16. 6.POOR NUTRITION AND EATING DISORDERS • Increased fast food consumption has been tied to the increase in obesity. • Anorexia nervosa and Bulimia are common problems for adolescent girls.Binge eating,which is also a recognized eating disorder involves recurrent episodes of binge eating without fasting,self-induced vomiting or other compensatory measures. • Nutrition education,psychological counselling& cognitive behavioural techniques helps clients to control stimuli and substitute alternative behaviours.
  17. 17. • 7. ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS:(RTA) RTA and road crashes are the main cause of death among young people world wide. • These are often related to use of alcohol or other drugs for every person killed in a car crash,another ten are seriously injured for life.
  18. 18. • 8.POVERTY : THE LATENT KILLER • Poverty deprives adolescents of the basic elements of development such as schooling ,health services ,recreational activities ,vocational training & economic oppurtunities. • In developing countries ,under nutrition &stunting are prevalent in adolescent boys and girls. • Family size in the developing countries is above 6.competing need in the family result in under invesment in young people.
  19. 19. HELP ADOLESCENTS TO OVERCOME PROBLEMS • Parents & teachers should be good role models • Proper communication with them • Involve them in family matters ,discussions & decisions making • Educate them about body changes & safe sex • Good habits,morals,sharing autonomy • Freedom • Instill confidence
  20. 20. HEALTH PROTECTION PROGRAMS SAFETY AND INJURY PREVENTION • Accident and injury control programs serve a critical role in protecting the lives of school-age children & adolescents. • Strategies such as state laws requiring the use of safety restraints ,installation of driver &front passenger airbags ,substitution of other modes of travel (air,rail,or bus),lower speed limits,stricter enforcement of drunk driving laws,safer automobile design & helmets for motor cyclists, bicycle riders & skaters.
  21. 21. INFECTIOUS DISEASES • Programs that protect school-age children & adolescents against infections diseases encompass efforts such as closing swimming pools that have unsafe bacteria counts, conducting immunization campaigns,reduce the incidence & threat of iatrogenic disease.
  22. 22. CHILD PROTECTIVE SERVICES • Consequences for affected children include lower self-esteem,depression,suicide,self-abuse,substance abuse, eating disorders,less empathy for others antisocialbehaviour,delinquency,aggression,violenc e low academic achievement & sexual maladjustment. • Community health nurses are working together with social workers,mental health workers & substance abuse counselors as part of a team that provides services to families
  23. 23. ORAL HYGIENE & DENTAL CARE • Fluoridation of community water supplies is considered the most effective ,safe & low cost means of protecting children’s dental health. • In addition to regular dental care, good nutrition & proper oral hygiene, community health nurses can safely promote public water fluoridation as an important program for protecting children’s dental health • School nurses often conduct dental screenings at schools & make referrals to local dentists in an effort to promote better dental health for children & adolescents
  24. 24. HEALTH PROMOTION PROGRAMS NUTRITION AND EXERCISE PROGRAMS • Being overweight during adolescence may persist into adulthood & may increase the risk for some chronic diseases later in life. • The value of exercise & physical fitness programs for young people has been recognized for sometime. • Organised groups such as the YMCA,YWCA, boy scouts ,girls scouts and campfire have offered sports & character development programs . • CHNs can promote such programs in the schools ,as well as encouraging these activities in
  25. 25. EDUCATION TO PREVENT SUBSTANCE ABUSE • The well known hazards of cigarette smoking,inhalant use, alcohol & drug abuse have prompted the development of substance abuse programs that target school-age children & adolescents. • Health education efforts by school nurses,teachers, an counselors have influenced students to make responsible decisions about smoking,drinking & other behaviours affecting their health.
  26. 26. COUNSELLING AND CRISIS INTERVENTION • Stress control programs for adolescents do not exist in any great number,yet they are very much needed. • Social skills training is often needed by adolescents with behavioural or emotional disorders. • Crisis intervention programs & services that treat a problem after it occurs are helpful & can prevent problems from worsening,but many adolescents need an emphasis on primary preventive mental health interventions. • Programs that build coping skills early ,including conflict resolution ,self help,peer counseling,peer intervention &
  27. 27. CONCLUSION • Adolescents have specific health problems & needs which generally are not being adequately met in most countries.effective strategies for addressing these problems & needs do exist.yet these strategies are still not being applied widely enough or in a sufficiently cohesive ,mutually supportive manner. • To ensure that adolescents are able to acquire the information, build the skills , access the health services and live in the supportive environment they need to modify their life style.
  28. 28. THANK YOU

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